Rossi: This Report is the Uncut Version

Today was an interesting day for me. I woke up and looked as usual for the report. Nothing. But I did find an email from Dr. Hanno Essen who I had emailed last night asking if he had seen the report. He responded, saying that it had been turned in on Sunday to Arxiv and had been held up. Naturally I was disappointed to hear that, and wondered what might have been the hold up.

Soon afterwards I find an email from a contact in Sweden with the Report attached! Naturally I was excited, but very surprised. I wondered if it was a leak, and if I now had a hot potato in my hand that I had to sit on! The next thing I know, is that there was a comment on ECW with a link to the report on Sifferkol.se. So the cat was out of the bag, and there was no putting it back in.

My surprise was apparently matched by Andrea Rossi who wrote (after putting an incorrect link to the report on the JONP)

You are right!!! I wrote an incomplete address, it was the emotion, because I was not expecting it. It has been a big surprise, also because I did not expect that publication…I know the length of the report created difficulties to other publishers and the Professors wanted not to cut the report. Probably they have chosen this solution to be fast and complete. They wanted to be independent to the last, so I was totally not expecting this. I have been informed of this publication this morning at 8 a.m. from a bloggist, while I was going to see my 1MW baby.

So this unexpected turn of events has actually led to us being fortunate enough to have an ‘uncut’ version of the report. I don’t have any idea what the holdup was at Arxiv.org, but perhaps they were wanting the report to be shorter, and the testers were not in a mood to cut anything out.

Honestly I haven’t had time yet to study the report in detail yet. Thanks to all who have commented so far — that is helping me a lot.

  • psi2u2

    Frank, thanks again for the great work! We are privileged to be a part of the story, sitting in the front row, hands in the air, eager to offer comments, questions, knowledge…..and to celebrate such milestones as this one.

  • psi2u2

    Frank, thanks again for the great work! We are privileged to be a part of the story, sitting in the front row, hands in the air, eager to offer comments, questions, knowledge…..and to celebrate such milestones as this one.

  • Ged

    Interesting day so far indeed, eh Frank? And not even done yet. Looking forward to Pekka chiming in with an analysis if he has time.

    • Pekka Janhunen

      I wrote some comments in the earlier thread (“not conventional source of energy” thread).

  • Ged

    Interesting day so far indeed, eh Frank? And not even done yet. Looking forward to Pekka chiming in with an analysis if he has time.

    • Pekka Janhunen

      I wrote some comments in the earlier thread (“not conventional source of energy” thread).

  • Gerald

    Frank, thanks for keeping the story alive. You kept it interesting for me.

  • Christopher Calder

    I have been up since 6 AM e-mailing politicians, news organizations, and environmental groups. I urge others to do the same.

    Frank – Don’t forget to email that reporter at the LA Times.

    • jousterusa

      That is what all of us should be doing – calling all the newspapers and tv and radio stations in our local markets and bringing them in! Oil prices took a huge hit today WTI crude off $1.54!

    • mytakeis

      I salute you. I have added a comment to a conflict enticing article in the Stars and Stripes that I tied into the reality of its purpose now that an e-Cat is demonstrable, I commented: “…a broad international consensus had emerged that the Islamic State
      group poses a threat to the world’s security…. their barbaric behavior
      has to be dealt with.” says our President. So now it is no longer
      national security that we police, it’s the world’s security. While;
      “…At the White House, officials conceded that air power alone would be
      insufficient, … until a viable fighting force emerges from the
      splintered and poorly equipped Syrian opposition.” So vital is this
      struggle over the oil seized by Islamic State forces. It is as if the
      world’s security depends on keeping this oil in the right control
      channels and not in the hands of black marketing IS operatives. Well,
      there is a new kid on the block that will keep this oil in the ground
      and make this reason for conflict obsolete: “Google Observation of
      abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes
      in the fuel.” It is “A new scientific report on the E-Cat has been
      released, providing two important findings from a 32-day test run of the
      reactor — together leading to the clear conclusion that the E-Cat is an
      energy source based on some kind of nuclear reaction, without radiation
      outside the reactor.” This is the true beginning of the energy
      revolution, and you heard it here, first in relation to our national
      energy policy which has become obsolete, itself, overnight.

    • psi2u2

      Thank you Chris!

  • I have been up since 6 AM e-mailing politicians, news organizations, and environmental groups. I urge others to do the same.

    Frank – Don’t forget to email that reporter at the LA Times.

    • friendlyprogrammer

      It’s sad that a revolutionary fuel that has the potential to lengthen billions of lives and improve quality of life to so many gets ignored by so many, while if Kim Kardashian is followed by Paparrazzi who care what she eats for lunch.

      It is odd

      • Broncobet

        I do not find that odd at all, I do not follow stories of Ms Kardashian but we do have good evidence that she has a nice rack and that is important,it’s what delineates us as mammal. I did notice the report and am happy that I was closest to predicting day as I said Oct 5th which is closest. I did say I liked how the report looks because it has the appearance of a real report with graphs,pictures,text, and scientific formulas. I don’t want to give the impression that I believed any of it,I just said the appearance is similar to an actual report. We were told it was independent,but Rossi was there at all the important times,to start it and at the end to open it to put whatever he wanted in it. I will never read more than a sentence or two of the report as why would I?There is no evidence whatever that there is anything besides the very clumsy, transparent bilking of credulous suckers, who will now,I predict,(I’m very good at that) hand over more money ,to the delight of IH and AR.The tour of the demo plant will always be as close as the horizon and many of you good ,intelligent people ,that I have grown to like, will continue to fight a very brave, but unwinnable battle. On the plus side,lets look at some of Frank’s advitisers..The Keystone Pipeline.This is an issue we should all be involved in. It’s a crime that this project has been help up so long by some very ignorant people,. Climate change is real and pipelines transport energy safer and with less energy used,to say nothing of how we are hurting ourselves and our very good friends the Canadians. Build the Keystone!! Yes, I would like to thank Frank also as I really enjoy this site and the different views expressed. I also appreciate his other sponsor the NEI (nuclear group) as I support clean,reliable ,nuclear power, it really is like magic,and can be improved with molten salt reactors like Transatomic Power Reactor.

        • psi2u2

          Broncobet,

          You will communicate better if you write in paragraphs. Its hard to follow your big slab of uncoordinated words and ideas.

    • Guru

      He, he, I doing the same in our country. Response: Lunatic, Insane, Madman, and classic IT IS IMPOSSIBLE !

    • jousterusa

      That is what all of us should be doing – calling all the newspapers and tv and radio stations in our local markets and bringing them in! Oil prices took a huge hit today WTI crude off $1.54!

    • HS61AF91

      I salute you. I have added a comment to a conflict enticing article in the Stars and Stripes that I tied into the reality of its purpose now that an e-Cat is demonstrable, I commented: “…a broad international consensus had emerged that the Islamic State
      group poses a threat to the world’s security…. their barbaric behavior
      has to be dealt with.” says our President. So now it is no longer
      national security that we police, it’s the world’s security. While;
      “…At the White House, officials conceded that air power alone would be
      insufficient, … until a viable fighting force emerges from the
      splintered and poorly equipped Syrian opposition.” So vital is this
      struggle over the oil seized by Islamic State forces. It is as if the
      world’s security depends on keeping this oil in the right control
      channels and not in the hands of black marketing IS operatives. Well,
      there is a new kid on the block that will keep this oil in the ground
      and make this reason for conflict obsolete: “Google Observation of
      abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes
      in the fuel.” It is “A new scientific report on the E-Cat has been
      released, providing two important findings from a 32-day test run of the
      reactor — together leading to the clear conclusion that the E-Cat is an
      energy source based on some kind of nuclear reaction, without radiation
      outside the reactor.” This is the true beginning of the energy
      revolution, and you heard it here, first in relation to our national
      energy policy which has become obsolete, itself, overnight.

    • psi2u2

      Thank you Chris!

  • jrainearwills

    I have two questions, “Now what?” and “Why isn’t this as big of a deal to the media as it is to us(the people watching and waiting)?”

  • verne

    If someone with writing skills would prepare a summary I would be happy to send it to my local paper for inclusion on their opinion page. I would just have to wait until there was an article on green energy. Usually happens twice a week.

    • MorganMck

      The New Fire is here. A Shining Day for Humanity

      By Adrian Ashfield

      The latest report of an independent test of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat HT run in Switzerland has been released.

      Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotropic changes in the fuel.

      Running for 32 days the reactor produced between 3.2 and 3.6 times the input power, and a total energy of 1.5 MWh from 1 gram of fuel, and was simply switched off on schedule. It was operated at 1260C and 1400C with no effort to optimize the input power. The report provides indisputable proof that LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reaction) or Cold Fusion is real.

      The discovery of this cheap, safe, non polluting source of energy will literally change the world, over time replacing carbon as our source of heat and power. At first this will be used for industrial heating and after UL certification, for home heating, as the E-Cat produces heat not electricity. Work is already under way for coupling the E-Cat to make electricity.

      It is difficult to forecast just how quickly this technology will be put to use because it is in such an early stage of development, but logically it won’t be long before E-Cats are used to convert some existing power stations. In the long term power generation will be widely distributed. Next will come adaptations to power things like large ships and trains, followed by trucks and a decade later cars. Even airplanes will be possible in the future. Implementation will be slow enough to allow co-existence with oil for many years. Eventually there will be versions to provide home electrical power generation. With power this cheap it will likely be possible to desalinate sea water cheaply enough for farming.

      The immediate losers should be uneconomical renewable energy projects, the $billions being spent on research to reduce AGW (anthropogenic global warming) and the IPCC, who have exaggerated the dangers of CO2. The future for coal and oil is bleak, although the use of oil for plastics and other chemical products will remain quite large.

      LENR was announced to the world by the electrochemists Pons & Fleischmann at a press conference in 1989, although some evidence of the process had been reported many years before. It was nicknamed cold fusion by the press although it appears to be a different process to nuclear fusion that requires millions of degrees and emits dangerous radiation. Their process involved electrolysis using Palladium as the cathode with heavy water in a calorimeter used for measuring process heat. Passing current through the cell loaded the Palladium with Deuterium and after several weeks, when the cathode had been loaded sufficiently, the cell started producing excess heat for a couple of days. This small burst of anomalous heat repeated several times in some but not all experiments.

      Following the announcement several groups of nuclear physicists, notably at MIT, attempted to replicate the experiment. They didn’t know the requirements for the process to work and were too arrogant to ask for help. The source and treatment of the Palladium was critical, as was the loading level with Deuterium. Inevitably they failed to replicate the effect and announced that it didn’t work. It has since been replicated many times.

      As a result of MIT and other announcements cold fusion was deemed pathological science. The United States Department of Energy, not known for their imagination, organized a panel that concluded there was insufficient evidence to believe the process could produce useful heat and declined to fund research on it. The number of scientists working on cold fusion dropped from about 600 to perhaps a 100. A few scattered groups continued doggedly with very limited funds (with the notable exception of Japan) and being unable to publish their findings in major journals, before funding picked up again in the 2000s.

      Navy Researchers at the U.S. Space and Naval Warfare Systems (SPAWAR) continued work and published a positive report in 2002 “Thermal and nuclear aspects of the Pd/D2O system,” with a plea for funding, that with other publications, resulted in a reluctant DOE being ordered to organize another review in 2004. This time the group was split evenly but still did not recommend research funds. Worse, some members like Prof. John Huizenga were responsible for getting the US Patent Office to give patents on cold fusion negative treatment, making it essentially impossible to get one. Not only has this slowed development but the patent situation is now in total chaos. The lawyers may get as much as the inventors and developers. The result of DOE’s negative conclusion can be seen in the press and group-think media such as Wikipedia.

      Most researchers continued to work with Palladium and Deuterium, with little progress in the amount of heat that was produced. The game changed when the Italian inventor Andrea Rossi PhD started working with Nickel powder and Hydrogen. After many hundreds of Edisonian experiments he had progressed enough to seek advice in 2007 from retired Professor Emeritus Sergio Forcardi, from Bologna University. In 2011 he had advanced enough to give several public demonstrations, of which the unpublished one by Dr.Levi in Feb 2011, just using water to measure the heat output for 18 hours was most persuasive. Dr. Levi wrote the E-Cat produced 15 – 20 kW (heat) peaking at 130 kW for a short period.

      Various other public demonstrations have been made, notably the 1 MW plant using more than 100 E-Cats joined together and the first two 100 hour tests by Elforsk of the high temperature version called the E-Cat HT. The first experiment ended with the E-Cat running out of control and melting the steel and ceramic tubes, indicating a temperature of over 1500C. For the second test the operating temperature was reduced to avoid risk of run-away, which also reduced the Coefficient of Performance (COP) from a nominal 6 to only 3. That is to say three times as much output power as input power. The total output was still far, far larger than any chemical source could possibly provide.

      The original E-Cat consisted of a metal cylinder varying in capacity from a tiny 50 cc to several hundred cc that contained micron sized nickel powder and catalysts, surrounded by a cooling water jacket. A small amount of hydrogen is inserted into the cylinder and after it had been heated to about 180C a reaction started producing heat. There are a dozen theories of how it works but none has yet been widely accepted. It appears to be a form of nuclear reaction that takes place with the hydrogen trapped in the nickel. The E-Cat only contains a gram of nickel powder and a whiff of hydrogen, which Andrea Rossi says will produce more than 5 kW of heat continuously for at least six months before needing to be recharged.

      This later version of the E-Cat, run in the independent test, is a ceramic tube 20 cms long and 2cm in diameter, with 4cm diameter end caps. The change to a ceramic tube allowed use at 1400C and for the test no effort was made to optimizes the input power, nor determine the maximum usable temperature, nor how long the reactor would run on 1 gram of fuel. It is still early days in the development.

      Revolutionary discoveries are often not immediately accepted, with examples from Galileo through the Wright Bros. up to the present day. Rossi himself forecast that the E-Cat would never be accepted though any trial but only through commercial sales of working units. It is reported that a 1MW plant is in commercial operation but when it can be visited has not been disclosed. After contacting Andrea Rossi in 2011 I met with Congressman Pat Meehan to request that he consider helping Rossi set up operations and production in Pennsylvania. The request was rejected as pseudo science. Rossi has since reached an agreement with Industrial Heat LLC , related to the Cherokee Group, to further develop, manufacture and sell E-Cats. They have opened a research center in China too. One of the obvious reasons for China’s spectacular growth is that all their leaders have had a technical education while few in the US have.

      You can read the whole story of Rossi and the E-Cat in Mats Lewan’s excellent book “The Impossible Invention” obtainable from http://www.Animpossibleinvention.com

      (image removed as ning thinks it is too big)

      Photo courtesy of Mats Lewan
      Andrea Rossi standing in front of three early E-Cats. The one
      nearest him is insulated. The small bulge in the middle is the
      E-Cat itself, surrounded by a heater.

  • Billy Jackson

    because most of the people that are here are self motivated and interested in finding out further information. You get outside of this small sphere and people have no clue except that your going on about that conspiracy thing again with cold fusion .. 🙂

  • jousterusa

    Hip Hip Hooray! Welcome to a brand new world. America! God in Heaven has saved us!

    • Andre Blum

      I, atheist and European, am happy too, Joe. Welcome to a brand new world.

  • jousterusa

    Hip Hip Hooray! Welcome to a brand new world. America! God in Heaven has saved us!

    • Andre Blum

      I, atheist and European, am happy too, Joe. Welcome to a brand new world.

  • jousterusa

    Isn’t it amazing how small these new E-Cats are – especially considering they can generate 2,460 degrees C, a million and half watts of power! A thousand of these things would fill one of the old containers and power New York City!

    • psi2u2

      Indeed.

    • Um, no. 1.5 megawatt hours of energy, the amount you’d get running your 5 kilowatt Honda generator for 300 hours or 12 1/2 days. Nothing to sneeze at for a reactor of that size and with that input (assuming it’s true and accurate about which I do not opine here). In terms of power, 1.5 megawatt hours in 32 days is about 2.1 kilowatts. I’m not sure where you got 2,460 degrees C, I see no such number.

  • jousterusa

    Isn’t it amazing how small these new E-Cats are – especially considering they can generate 2,460 degrees C, a million and half watts of power! A thousand of these things would fill one of the old containers and power New York City!

    • psi2u2

      Indeed.

    • Um, no. 1.5 megawatt hours of energy, the amount you’d get running your 5 kilowatt Honda generator for 300 hours or 12 1/2 days. Nothing to sneeze at for a reactor of that size and with that input (assuming it’s true and accurate about which I do not opine here). In terms of power, 1.5 megawatt hours in 32 days is about 2.1 kilowatts. I’m not sure where you got 2,460 degrees C, I see no such number.

  • adriano

    Hi people, can someone help me to understand? Because in the early news Rossi said that the professors wich were involved in tests were professors from different continets (America, Asia, Europe). But In the previous article they said that who is redacting the report are:

    Giuseppe Levi (Università di Bologna)
    Evelyn Foschi (Bologna)
    Bo Höistad (UppsalaUniversity)
    Roland Pettersson (UppsalaUniversity)
    Lars Tegnér (UppsalaUniversity)
    Hanno Essén (Royal Institute of Technology di Stoccolma

    The same people who conducted the first test.
    So i don’t understand: this test is conducted by the same professors of the previous test or not? And i also don’t understand: have someone of this professors or some institution made an official announcement or not? Thanks and sorry for the grammar

    • Ged

      Not everyone who participated in some way on a paper gets their name on it, depending on how much they contribute individually. Those with the primary naming were the leads who intellectually authored and verified all of the work. Different fields have slightly different philosophies on this. At any rate, in all fields, make sure to check the acknowledgements for the rest of the folks who had a hand in making the paper a reality. If you count all those people (such as the entire Industrial Heat that participated in making the reactor for testing), and there are a lot of new people, then you get the different continents and such.

      I.e.:

      “Acknowledgments

      By this work the authors would like to deeply and at heart honor the late Sven Kullander, who initiated this independent test experiment. He was a great source of inspiration and knowledge throughout the course of this work. The authors gratefully acknowledge Andrea Rossi and Industrial Heat LLC for providing us with the E-cat reactor to perform an independent test measurement. The authors would like to thank Prof. Ennio Bonetti (University of Bologna) and Prof. Alessandro Passi (University of Bologna [ret.]) for critical reading of the manuscript. All authors of the appendices are gratefully acknowledged for their valuable contribution to this work. This paper was partially sponsored by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and Elforsk AB. We would also like to thank Officine Ghidoni SA for putting their laboratory at our disposal and allowing use of their AC power. Lastly, our thanks to Industrial Heat LLC (USA) for providing financial support for the measurements performed for radiation protection purposes.”

      So it’s really a game of splitting hairs; but we should be used to that by now.

      • adriano

        Thanks for the reply. I’m one of those who were waiting so much for this report so im just trying to be sure that there is nothing to complain about it. So, is it true that Andrea Rossi never get involved in the very same room at the very same time the test were performed?

        • Pipmon

          To my mind, Rossi’s involvement in this testing (as stated directly in the report) is very troubling.

          “The dummy reactor was switched on at 12:20 PM of 24 February 2014 by Andrea Rossi who gradually brought it to the power level requested by us. Rossi later intervened to switch off the dummy, and in the following subsequent operations on the E-Cat: charge insertion, reactor start-up, reactor shut-down and powder charge extraction.”

          Especially since, (astoundingly), he was the one tasked with removing the ashes from the E-Cat at the end of the trial. Presumably taking out unspent fuel and ashes and separating 10 mg of ashes from the original “about 1 g” (???). Now I haven’t measured it, but I’d guess that 10 mg of ash is about what you’d get from ‘flicking’ off a slightly larger amount than usual of ash while smoking a cigarette! And this task you would confide to the one person who is supposed to be kept at arm*s length from the proceedings?

          Not to impugn anybody’s honesty in all this, but their judgement?

          Again and as always the only result that will be noticed are verifiable, truly independent third party replications of these results. And rightly so.

          ” He had bought a large map representing the sea,
          Without the least vestige of land:
          And the crew were much pleased when they found it to be
          A map they could all understand.”
          (apologies to L. Carroll 😉 )

          • Omega Z

            I don’t know what this has to do with anything.

            He did it in their presence. Personally, I wouldn’t care if he put in something equivalent to a D-cell battery. With a net output of 1,500Kwh, regardless what he used it would be worth billions.
            And the analysis of the ash has no impact on this.
            As far as I’m concerned he can use pixie dust as long as it works & there’s plenty to go around for everyone.

            People don’t care what’s in Coke’s secret formula. They like it & buy it. Move on.

          • Pipmon

            It’s important because I have no doubt that the power generated will not be enough to completely overshadow all doubts as to what might those cables be doing, or the “electromagnetic pulsing” or systematic bias in some instruments etc… That argument will be ongoing till more definitive tests are made. The one irrefutable argument would have been evidence of nuclear transmutation. ie the ashes
            If the results claimed for these were totally unassailable then that would be the “smoking gun” of a nuclear reaction. But as it stands, like in a bad police show, the chain of evidence has not been kept demonstrably impossible to have been tampered with.
            Perhaps faith is enough for some, but that is not the scientific method.
            As a small exercise try to measure 10 mg of any substance on any scale you may have available. It is not exactly a large burdensome amount to dissimulate. I’m not accusing anyone, I’m only pointing out that the procedure was deficient in that respect.
            I, like many here, have been rooting for Pons & Fleischmann from the very outset and I will be the first to pop the Champagne and congratulate Rossi should these results to be confirmed. But that does not imply blind acceptance of unverified claims.

    • qubit

      I think that it’s important for this to be answered, also. The biggest argument against the first report was about how most of the authors had ties to Rossi in one way or another. One the more important aspects about this new report was that it was completely “independent”, meaning independent of influence and all ties from Rossi. Here now we see many familiar names. What’s up with that?

  • Julian Becker

    I wrote a mail to Spiegel Online with the link to the report and the results mentioned. They published two articles on Rossi in the past which were kind of neutral, slightly positive. Lets see if I get a reply tomorrow.

  • Julian Becker

    I wrote a mail to Spiegel Online with the link to the report and the results mentioned. They published two articles on Rossi in the past which were kind of neutral, slightly positive. Lets see if I get a reply tomorrow.

  • adriano

    In the early news they were sayng that the professors involved in this test were from different continents (America, Asia, Europe).
    Is this new tests performed by the same people or it is performed by others professors?

  • adriano

    Why are you not allowing me to publish my question?

  • adriano

    Dear moderator, im just trying to get an answer. Rigth now im filming my desktop and i will post the video on you tube if you not allow me to publish my questio

  • adriano

    This new test were conducted by the same professors who had conducted the first test, or new professors is involved?

  • Alan DeAngelis
    • psi2u2

      oops. someone is about to eat crow for breakfast.

  • Ged

    Not everyone who participated in some way on a paper gets their name on it, depending on how much they contribute individually. Those with the primary naming were the leads who intellectually authored and verified all of the work. Different fields have slightly different philosophies on this. At any rate, in all fields, make sure to check the acknowledgements for the rest of the folks who had a hand in making the paper a reality. If you count all those people (such as the entire Industrial Heat that participated in making the reactor for testing), and there are a lot of new people, then you get the different continents and such.

    I.e.:

    “Acknowledgments

    By this work the authors would like to deeply and at heart honor the late Sven Kullander, who initiated this independent test experiment. He was a great source of inspiration and knowledge throughout the course of this work. The authors gratefully acknowledge Andrea Rossi and Industrial Heat LLC for providing us with the E-cat reactor to perform an independent test measurement. The authors would like to thank Prof. Ennio Bonetti (University of Bologna) and Prof. Alessandro Passi (University of Bologna [ret.]) for critical reading of the manuscript. All authors of the appendices are gratefully acknowledged for their valuable contribution to this work. This paper was partially sponsored by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and Elforsk AB. We would also like to thank Officine Ghidoni SA for putting their laboratory at our disposal and allowing use of their AC power. Lastly, our thanks to Industrial Heat LLC (USA) for providing financial support for the measurements performed for radiation protection purposes.”

    So it’s really a game of splitting hairs; but we should be used to that by now.

    • adriano

      Thanks for the reply. I’m one of those who were waiting so much for this report so im just trying to be sure that there is nothing to complain about it. So, is it true that Andrea Rossi never get involved in the very same room at the very same time the test were performed?

  • Wonderboy

    Chill Adriano… I think the moderator does his best when reviewing msgs. It sometimes can take some time, I know my posts have taken hours at times. Remember, he isn’t at our beck and call and he is certainely not our slave (i don’t pay his bills)

    This forum is about respect and being open minded. Let’s all be patient and respectful (trust me this is me at my best on this post)

  • psi2u2

    Broncobet,

    You will communicate better if you write in paragraphs. Its hard to follow your big slab of uncoordinated words and ideas.