The Four Horsemen of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat Apocalypse (Hank Mills)

(A much longer, full and complete version of this article can be found here on the PESN website. After you have read the full version, please share your thoughts and comments.)

In Greek, apocalypse means revelation. The new E-Cat Report gives us a tremendous amount of information about how the technology works, including the four horsemen — or elements — that seem to me to be most important in the reactor. These elements are lithium (Li), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), and hydrogen (H). I feel that much of the secrecy about how the device functions is now gone.

We should thank Andrea Rossi for his tremendous over the years years. He has overcome many types of adversity –from cynics, trolls, skeptics, fake competitors, etc – and continued to develop the technology despite opposition. In addition, we should thank the courageous authors of the report who risked their reputatiosn to advance scientific knowledge. They took a risk investigating a subject that holds an enduring stigma in the scientific and academic communities.

In this test, the COP was much higher than what was required to prove production of massive amounts of excess heat. Over a one-month perioid, the one gram of fuel in the reactor (about the same weight as a small paperclip) produced more energy than that is contained in a barrel of gasoline. It should be noted that in this experiment an amount of fuel that probably cost one cent — at most — produced more energy than over a hundred dollars worth of gasoline. This took place without any release of radiation, any nuclear waste being produced, and without any pollution being put into the environment. This test proves the technology is a paradigm shifting advance that can transform our planet.

In addition to excess heat — and just as important — there were isotopic ratio changes found in the elements of the fuel. Both nickel and lithium experienced huge isotopic shifts that are only possible if nuclear reactions were taking place. These shifts would normally produce huge amounts of power and massive releases of radiation, but the E-Cat only produced heat and no radiation. The E-Cat provides all of the benefits of traditional nuclear power with none of the drawbacks.

We now know much more about the catalysts of the E-Cat and how they work. The four main elements involved are Lithium, Iron, Nickel, and Hydrogen. Lithium undergoes isotopic shifts, producing energy in the process, and may also releases hydrogen into the system. Iron may help serve to break apart the molecular hydrogen provided by the lithium into atomic hydrogen and may also serve to grow small scale structures on the nickel powder. Nickel may serve as the site where many of the nuclear reactions actually take place. The hydrogen may very well be involved in many of the reactions with nickel and lithium.

There are several other interesting things to note. The scanning electron microscope images shown in the report might suggest Rossi is using carbonyl nickel. This type of nickel, already available from suppliers, already posesses tubercles on the surface. Rossi has stated in the past that these features are critical to producing useful amounts of power. It is possible these tubercles help the nickel bind appropriately with other elements such as the lithium and iron. Large particles of iron were found in the fuel of the E-Cat, and the nickel may bind to them. Another possibility is that in addition to large particles of iron being present, nano-iron powder may be placed in the reactor.

With all this new information form the report, combined with the other information we know about the hot cat, it may be possible to replicate the E-Cat reaction. Such replications could help further validate Rossi’s technology, protect the reputations of the scientists who signed onto the report, and help accelerate the development of the technology.

Please read the full version of this article on PESN and comment.

  • LilyLover

    FeLiNi H ! No wonder he named it E-Cat!

    • Ged

      Haha, I hadn’t noticed that before, great catch.

    • Sandy

      Steven Jones gave us “muon catalyzed fusion”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon-catalyzed_fusion

      Now Andrea Rossi has given us “meow fusion”.

      • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

        You should patent that 🙂

    • Ophelia Rump

      Indeed, I hope this is not going to become surreal.

      La dolce vita!

      • Billy Jackson

        just think we have the e-dog to look forward to next with bad lyrics and over exaggerated symbolism to influence our youth! 🙂

        • Ophelia Rump

          The Apple E-Pig

          I have noticed about 5 new products released in last few months with Ecat in the name or as the name. I wonder if that is some kind of blocking action.
          Or if they just look for rising search stats and jump on those.

          • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

            So you used to work for the dark arts? Interesting…

          • Ophelia Rump

            I am more like Forest Gump in a lot of ways. I have seen a lot of history,
            mostly playing walk on roles. Many people work for them and never know.

            I was the highest level troubleshooter for a distributed AAA high availablity server system. There is no high security organization which I have not pulled the chestnuts thereof from the fire on multiple occasions.
            You start to notice when a couple of hundred mom and pop sounding businesses have too much security and all share the same address.

          • Fortyniner

            Thank you. An interesting glimpse into an obscure corner of the control system.

  • LilyLover

    FeLiNi H ! No wonder he named it E-Cat!

    • Ged

      Haha, I hadn’t noticed that before, great catch.

    • Sandy

      Steven Jones gave us “muon catalyzed fusion”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon-catalyzed_fusion

      Now Andrea Rossi has given us “meow fusion”.

      • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

        You should patent that 🙂

    • Ophelia Rump

      Indeed, I hope this is not going to become surreal.

      La dolce vita!

      • Billy Jackson

        just think we have the e-dog to look forward to next with bad lyrics and over exaggerated symbolism to influence our youth! 🙂

        • Ophelia Rump

          The Apple E-Pig

          I have noticed about 5 new products released in last few months with Ecat in the name or as the name. I wonder if that is some kind of blocking action.
          Or if they just look for rising search stats and jump on those.

          A company I used to work for has one of those products and I know they are heavily involved in the dark arts.

          • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

            So you used to work for the dark arts? Interesting…

          • Ophelia Rump

            I am more like Forest Gump in a lot of ways. I have seen a lot of history,
            mostly playing walk on roles. Many people work for them and never know.

            I was the highest level troubleshooter for a distributed AAA high availablity server system. There is no high security organization which I have not pulled the chestnuts thereof from the fire on multiple occasions.
            You start to notice when a couple of hundred mom and pop sounding businesses have too much security and all share the same address.

            I accidentally interviewed for one of their darker ventures and I mentioned the address thing to them. You could see the visible panic in the interviewers eyes that I both spotted them and their cover problem. For some reason I never saw that address again.

            I once saved the TV broadcast for the opening of the Olympics.
            They broke the security for the broadcast communications and locked themselves out. You have never heard such panic in someone’s voice.

          • Thank you. An interesting glimpse into an obscure corner of the control system.

  • Hank Mills

    That is really interesting! Seriously, that could be purposeful. Any questions or thoughts about the full article on PESN?

    • BroKeeper

      It is a wonderful translation of historical and current analytics of the E-Cat for us comparable novices. Thank you Hank!!!

    • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

      I like it. It was well written, informative with some details I haven’t seen elsewhere. It’s also clear that the you have deep knowledge of the subject.

      I personally wouldn’t have gone for the apocalypse thing, but I can understand the link in the story. The problem is when you search in google it may not be a good idea to link the report, LENR or CF with the apocalypse. I know that’s not your intention, but it would have been better to avoid the link in the first place.

      That said, I really enjoyed your article and writing style. I shall keep an eye on future publications. Very much appreciated.

      • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

        Just re-read it. Very good explanation on the tubercles. That was something that was new for me. Axil Axil from vortex-l also pointing me that direction a little while ago for an explanation as to why the reactor can run that high a temperature. As I said, well written.

        • Hank Mills

          The tubercles are critical to the function of the E-Cat. If the device is to be replicated, we will need to figure out how to reproduce them, exactly. I wish the SEM images were of higher magnification so we could better see the surface features. I’m glad you liked my article.

  • Hank Mills

    That is really interesting! Seriously, that could be purposeful. Any questions or thoughts about the full article on PESN?

    • Sandy

      An exponentially growing chorus of voices all agree that LENR should henceforth be known as “meow fusion”. Just listen to this! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DXUAyRRkI6k

    • Brokeeper

      It is a wonderful translation of historical and current analytics of the E-Cat for us comparable novices. Thank you Hank!!!

    • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

      I like it. It was well written, informative with some details I haven’t seen elsewhere. It’s also clear that the you have deep knowledge of the subject.

      I personally wouldn’t have gone for the apocalypse thing, but I can understand the link in the story. The problem is when you search in google it may not be a good idea to link the report, LENR or CF with the apocalypse. I know that’s not your intention, but it would have been better to avoid the link in the first place.

      That said, I really enjoyed your article and writing style. I shall keep an eye on future publications. Very much appreciated.

      • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

        Just re-read it. Very good explanation on the tubercles. That was something that was new for me. Axil Axil from vortex-l also pointing me that direction a little while ago for an explanation as to why the reactor can run that high a temperature. As I said, well written.

        • Hank Mills

          The tubercles are critical to the function of the E-Cat. If the device is to be replicated, we will need to figure out how to reproduce them, exactly. I wish the SEM images were of higher magnification so we could better see the surface features. I’m glad you liked my article.

  • Ophelia Rump

    I am sorry but the symbolism is an atrocity.
    Literally and figuratively.

    • Sandy

      Well if you have your life savings invested in the shares of oil companies you might justifiably believe that the E-Cat fuel formula is an “Apocalypse”.

      • Ophelia Rump

        That was exceptionally fine cover fire!

      • Richard Hill

        Rossi has many times said himself that they are a long way away from replacing oil.

    • Billy Jackson

      I have to agree. the negative connotation this brings to mind is not the symbolism we need associated with something we want people to accept and understand. Great article well written, just cant say i like the starting headline due to negative implications it implies.

      I have done my best to educate myself in the LENR/Ecat world..so i can read things like that and not phase me. yet i know that their will be those who read nothing more than the headline and will immediately associate this with something bad without ever reading another word of the article.

      (don’t take that as criticism its just a view point that’s possible)

      • Ophelia Rump

        Yeah, brilliant but perhaps a little too edgy.

        I really don’t think we are important enough to do any damage.
        No one can use that as negative ammunition though, it would look to insane if they did.

        I think we will live through it. It made a good read and something to have a few laughs over. A very creative thread.

      • Hank Mills

        The introduction of cold fusion will eventually bring countless benefits to the world. If used appropriately, it could transform our planet in a positive way. But during the transition there will be disruptions to the current scientific paradigm, the global economy, global politics, various industries, certain expensive energy projects (hot fusion), etc. But in the end, this revelation will be worth all the strain of the transition. This is what happens in the Bible: the book of Revelations details a horrible period of tribulation that results in a new heaven and Earth. With the title I tried to portray that even though the knowledge of how to produce dirt cheap energy will produce some problems, the result will be worth it.

        • Billy Jackson

          I dont disagree with the article at all. nor even with the symbolism as implied on a personal level. Ive just met to many pigheaded stubborn individuals who will read the headline and go no further.

          As always your writing is professional and thoughtful, so please continue by all means. I meant no disrespect just an alternate viewpoint

  • Ophelia Rump

    That was exceptionally fine cover fire!

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Pardon me; I posted this in the wrong place. It fits better here.

    I think I can explain the drift of the nickel isotopes to Ni(62) and Li(7) to Li(6)

    Li(7) + Ni(58) > Ni(59) + Li(6) 1.74 MeV

    Li(7) + Ni(59) > Ni(60) + Li(6) 4.13 MeV

    Li(7) + Ni(60) > Ni(61) + Li(6) 0.569 MeV

    Li(7) + Ni(61)) > Ni(62) + Li(6) 3.34 MeV

    and Li(7) + Ni(62) > N(63) + Li(6) -0.413 MeV

    It’s endothermic so it stops at Ni(62). So Ni(62) builds up and Li(7) goes to Li(6)

    • Alan DeAngelis

      PS
      Li(7) + Ni(58) > Fe(56) + B(9) 2.87 MeV

      Li(7) + Ni(60) > Fe(56) + B(11) 2.37 MeV

      Li(7) + Ni(61) > Fe(57) + B(11) 2.20 MeV

      Li(7) + Ni(62) > Fe(58) + B(11) 1,65 MeV

      Li(7) + Ni(64) > Fe(60) + B(11) 0.553 MeV

      • Pekka Janhunen

        Also Li(7)+Ni(58)>Co(57)+Be(8) 9.08 MeV
        and Co(57) is radioactive. This reaction would be a single proton transfer from nickel to a nearby lithium. The resulting Be(8) would then very soon break into two He(4). Strong Coulomb repulsion of nickel would help charged particle emission.

        Transfer of alpha particle from Ni(58) to Li(7) would produce B(11) and Mn(54), which is again radioactive. The Ni(58) seems problematic, always something radioactive tends to pop out…

        • Alan DeAngelis

          I just did some follow up calculations on some old BS I come up with (nickel hydride absorbing its protons). I don’t think it will lead to anything but I’m going blind after doing them so I’ll just park them here for safe keeping.
          Old stuff:

          2H(1) + Ni(62) > Zn(64)* Step1

          Zn(64)* > Ni(60) + He(4) Step 2

          ________________________
          Over all
          2 H(1) + Ni(62) > Ni(60) + He(4) 9.87 MeV

          2H(1) + Ni(64) > Zn(66)* Step1

          Cu(66)* > Ni(62) + He(4) Step 2

          _______________________
          Over all
          2 H(1) + Ni(64) > Ni(62) + He(4) 11.8 MeV

          And other isotopes:

          2 H(1) + Ni(N) > Ni(N-2) + He(4)

          New stuff:

          2 H(1) + Ni(61) > Ni(59) + He(4) 9.08 MeV

          2 H(1) + Ni(60) > Ni(58) + He(4) 7.90 MeV

          2 H(1) + Ni(58) > Ni(56) + He(4) 5.82 MeV

    • Hank Mills

      It would be really great if graphic diagrams or animations could be made of these proposed reactions. They are all fascinating.

      • Alan DeAngelis

        Thanks for the article Hank.
        Yeah, there must be someone here that could do a prettier job of that than could.

    • Alan DeAngelis

      PS
      Look at this: Robin van Spaandonk figured this out on Wednesday.

      https://www.mail-archive.com/vortex-l@eskimo.com/msg98050.html

    • Alan DeAngelis

      PPS

      Andreas Moraitis (glad to see that somebody’s brain is online) points out that there isn’t enough lithium to do this.
      Oh well.
      http://www.e-catworld.com/2014/10/10/e-cat-test-news-page-at-peswiki/

      • Gerard McEk

        Great Alan, did you calc’s to confirm the energy supplied during the test?
        Maybe there is another source of Li in the Ecat?

      • Andreas Moraitis

        It was Pekka, not me.

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Pardon me; I posted this in the wrong place. It fits better here.

    I think I can explain the drift of the nickel isotopes to Ni(62) and Li(7) to Li(6)

    Li(7) + Ni(58) > Ni(59) + Li(6) 1.74 MeV

    Li(7) + Ni(59) > Ni(60) + Li(6) 4.13 MeV

    Li(7) + Ni(60) > Ni(61) + Li(6) 0.569 MeV

    Li(7) + Ni(61)) > Ni(62) + Li(6) 3.34 MeV

    and Li(7) + Ni(62) > N(63) + Li(6) -0.413 MeV

    It’s endothermic so it stops at Ni(62). So Ni(62) builds up and Li(7) goes to Li(6)

    • Alan DeAngelis

      PS
      Li(7) + Ni(58) > Fe(56) + B(9) 2.87 MeV

      Li(7) + Ni(60) > Fe(56) + B(11) 2.37 MeV

      Li(7) + Ni(61) > Fe(57) + B(11) 2.20 MeV

      Li(7) + Ni(62) > Fe(58) + B(11) 1,65 MeV

      Li(7) + Ni(64) > Fe(60) + B(11) 0.553 MeV

      • Pekka Janhunen

        Also Li(7)+Ni(58)>Co(57)+Be(8) 9.08 MeV
        and Co(57) is radioactive. This reaction would be a single proton transfer from nickel to a nearby lithium. The resulting Be(8) would then very soon break into two He(4). Strong Coulomb repulsion of nickel would help charged particle emission.

        Transfer of alpha particle from Ni(58) to Li(7) would produce B(11) and Mn(54), which is again radioactive. The Ni(58) seems problematic, always something radioactive tends to pop out…

        • Alan DeAngelis

          I just did some follow up calculations on some old BS I come up with (nickel hydride absorbing its protons). I don’t think it will lead to anything but I’m going blind after doing them so I’ll just park them here for safe keeping.
          Old stuff:

          2H(1) + Ni(62) > Zn(64)* Step1

          Zn(64)* > Ni(60) + He(4) Step 2

          ________________________
          Over all
          2 H(1) + Ni(62) > Ni(60) + He(4) 9.87 MeV

          2H(1) + Ni(64) > Zn(66)* Step1

          Cu(66)* > Ni(62) + He(4) Step 2

          _______________________
          Over all
          2 H(1) + Ni(64) > Ni(62) + He(4) 11.8 MeV

          And other isotopes:

          2 H(1) + Ni(N) > Ni(N-2) + He(4)

          New stuff:

          2 H(1) + Ni(61) > Ni(59) + He(4) 9.08 MeV

          2 H(1) + Ni(60) > Ni(58) + He(4) 7.90 MeV

          2 H(1) + Ni(58) > Ni(56) + He(4) 5.82 MeV

    • Hank Mills

      It would be really great if graphic diagrams or animations could be made of these proposed reactions. They are all fascinating.

      • Alan DeAngelis

        Thanks for the article Hank.
        Yeah, there must be someone here that could do a prettier job of that than could.

    • Alan DeAngelis

      PS
      Look at this: Robin van Spaandonk figured this out on Wednesday.

      https://www.mail-archive.com/vortex-l@eskimo.com/msg98050.html

    • Alan DeAngelis

      PPS

      Andreas Moraitis (glad to see that somebody’s brain is online) points out that there isn’t enough lithium to do this.
      Oh well.
      http://www.e-catworld.com/2014/10/10/e-cat-test-news-page-at-peswiki/

      • Gerard McEk

        Great Alan, did you calc’s to confirm the energy supplied during the test?
        Maybe there is another source of Li in the Ecat?

      • Andreas Moraitis

        It was Pekka, not me.

  • prep

    REPLICATION, REPLICATION, REPLICATION…

    • artefact

      Hopefully this time there is more momentum behind such an endevour.
      It would be the ultimate if the knowledge how to replicate the reaction gets public.
      (not taken into account the possible danger for inexperienced hobbyists)

      • TVulgaris

        The danger isn’t due to inexperience, SRI lost one person and nearly Mike McKubre, and SRI is the epitome of exprienced research. One can never rule out pure accident and the overlooking of critical detail, but we have become so averse to disaster, it is likely a few deaths will completely stop US development. Fortunately, we are rapidly reducing ourselves to a third-world significance and the rest of the world can progress without the active interference.

  • Steve H

    Many thanks Hank. A beautiful piece of work.

  • Steve H

    Many thanks Hank. A beautiful piece of work.

  • Billy Jackson

    I dont disagree with the article at all. nor even with the symbolism as implied on a personal level. Ive just met to many pigheaded stubborn individuals who will read the headline and go no further.

    As always your writing is professional and thoughtful, so please continue by all means. I meant no disrespect just an alternate viewpoint

  • Gerard McEk

    Thanks Hank, an excellent article and a good addition to the report. A pity that Sterling made an addition,which I believe is less sure and less confirmed.

  • Gerard McEk

    Thanks Hank, an excellent article and a good addition to the report. A pity that Sterling made an addition,which I believe is less sure and less confirmed.

  • artefact

    Hopefully this time there is more momentum behind such an endevour.
    It would be the ultimate if the knowledge how to replicate the reaction gets public.
    (not taken into account the possible danger for inexperienced hobbyists)