A Theory to Work With (Anon)

An associate of mine, who resides here in the U.S., and I have for some time been discussing the E-Cat and related LENR topics. He recently shared some ideas concerning the newly published bound neutron tunneling paper.

What’s really nice with Carl-Oscar Gullström’s recently published paper is to see a graduate student taking on the problem and actually pumping out a theory and paper!

In the spring of 2011 I thought that the Gamow Factor — where George Gamow proposed that tunneling can produce fusion at certain levels particle energy — could account for tunneling taking place in the E-Cat reaction, but I thought it might have been proton tunneling . . . neutron tunneling didn’t occur to me because I lacked the energy calculations which I believe are what led Gullström to his conclusions.

The theory presented accounts for the Lithium…most probably the ‘secret-sauce’ catalyst.

Those seeking to replicate Rossi now should be taking this theory into account. It provides a method to experimentally determine whether the theory is accurate because outcomes and values are now predictable according to the theory.

Experiments to disprove or validate this theory now may be undertaken, and I hope that they are.

  • Daniel Maris

    I’m sure Bob Greenyer will take note!

  • NCY

    There are some major problems with his theory, mainly that it discounts hydrogen as being part of the reaction (something we know is nessessary for all lenr reactions), also it assumes nickel as the fuel, something that, if true, would have resulted in a drop off of energy produced in the Lugano test as the fuel ran out. Other than that, it’s a good idea, and perhaps a good starting point for a more fleshed out ( and accurate) theory.

    • Hank Mills

      The Ni62 could be a fuel. It might undergo a reaction with hydrogen. This could mean that after the other isotopes of nickel are converted to Ni62, the Ni62 could continue producing energy.

      • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

        In that case the reactor would have plenty of fuel left and I like that idea. So first all possible ni isotopes are converted to ni62 using Li in the process? I thought the Ni62 isotope was seen as stable end product. Do you have any idea how the Ni62 isotope could produce energy? Is this were the neutron tunneling comes into effect or does something now happen with hydrogen? If tunneling, what would be the resulting isotope? Ni60 -> Ni58? At this point we are back at the Li supported conversion to Ni62 so Li determines when the reactor runs out of steam? Clearly I have no idea what I’m talking about…

        • Omega Z

          “Clearly I have no idea what I’m talking about.”
          Thanks a lot ZZZ.
          Do you realize how much time I’ve spent reading your posts.

          AND NOW, You say you don’t know what your talking about. Shishh.
          You should have said something long ago.

          Oh well, I also have a confession-
          “Clearly, I also have no idea what I’m talking about.”
          Take that… 🙂 uha uha,

          • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

            I have spent so much time reading Storms books, McKubre on youtube, Mats books, TIP reports, MFMP projects, basic chemistry research (yes, that which I should have learned in school anyway), reading all posts on e-catworld, trying to understand Axil Axil or to fathom neutron tunneling and bose condensates, but all to no avail. Still don’t get any of it. So it’s good to hear from another soul who’s equally lost in all this chemo-nuclear violence. We both know nothing so I think we may have just taken the first step on the path to wisdom. (See how I made us look good anyway? 🙂

      • LCD

        Ni62 seems to be a valley or energy minima for whatever system of reactions are occurring. Having the highest binding energy per nucleon has to be a big hint about what’s going on IMHO.

        I don’t think Li to Ni is a major part of the reaction (without many intermediate steps), more likely Li7 is going to 2He4 in some form or fashion whether it be proton or neutron capture or some other thing. That would make sense as to why the Li7 is depleted more than the Li6.

        The next logical step would be to test for He production but who knows when that will happen.

        These end-products to point to the Widom-Larsen theory being somewhat relevant. With that theory there is a natural reason for why you need hydrogen (to form neutron or neutron-like particles) and it explains isotope shifts to some extent as opposed to elemental shifts.

        What is not explained is lack of unstable intermediate isotopes although I suppose you can make the case that in a neutron rich environment this naturally leads to stable isotopes. But it would have to be more than that because we just don’t see any type of radiation in the ash after it’s been take out of the reactor.

        It’s also interesting to note that Ni has some natural resonance points where Neutron absorption jumps up at higher temps being comparable to Boron.

  • DickeFix

    I just wish that the authors of the report soon will release the raw data or at least respond to the inconcistencies that Giancarlo and Andrea.S. have pointed out. If data was recorded continously it should be easy within a day or two find the reasons for these discrepansies. I have to admit that the total silence from the research group and Rossis very agressive reply to Giancarlo (a.k.a. Raman) has killed the initial hope I had after the report.

    The simplest theory that solves all three mysteries (nonproportionality of the Joule heating, the reversed phase traces, the apparent excess heating, the almost pure Ni-62 in the ash, the lack of gamma radiation) is that one of the clamps on both power meters were reversed during the active e-cat test and that the reactor was loaded with Ni-62 from the start.

    Otherwise we need not only a new theory how cold fusion can occur without gamma radiation and with purely enriched Ni-62 as end product; we need also a theory to explain the mysteries on the electrical side.

    • Hank Mills

      If the clamps were reversed, how did they measure the power consumption of the control box and get perfect unity for the dummy run? That tells me the test results are valid.

      • yes,
        the problem with “the simplest theory” is that for the deniers, LENr have never been proven and is absolutely and irremediably impossible.

        for them having a drunk electric engineer swap current clamps in the only setup among dozens of possible one, that show a COP=3, not detecting per-phase negative power, or huge incoherent per-phase reactive power, with a conspiration to make the control box seems consuming few % of energy, is much more probable than having a transition metal hydride produce excess heat above chemistry range, as hundreds of scientists have observed.

        You see that clearly ins conspiracy groups, where some people cannot imagine that their own beliefs are wrong, and behave like the victims of somatoparaphrenia who accuse their doctor to have sewed on their shoulder, the doctor 3rd arm just to make them feel uncomfortable (I invent nothing, a sane left hemisphere not helped by a damaged right hemisphere is able to imagine that)…

        • psi2u2

          Nice tirade. 😉

    • Omega Z

      DickeFix
      You’re assuming this test was done for us or the scientific community.
      It was actually done for a selected few Entities. Don’t count on them providing Us “ALL” the data. I doubt that will ever happen. At most, we may see some clarifications of the report at their leisure.

      Elforsk who was a major financial contributor of the test has had access to all the Data & their own analysis of it for months. Their Immediate response after the public release of the paper, they will start their own R&D labs into LENR. This would be in addition to their current energy research labs. Considering their expertise, the data must have been more then reasonably convincing if their willing to start dumping money into it..

    • Obvious

      Fixing the Joule heating problem with the cube root rule for the secondary cables should mildly improve the COP, by reducing the calculated electrical input values for the device. Effectively the cable Joule heating value in W will nearly triple for the dummy run values using the cube root rule (from 7 to 19 W). But even with triple the Joule heating, the comparison of the total heat output estimate to the measured and calculated total electrical input of the dummy run is improved.

    • Axil Axil

      What only Rossi has done is produce nuclear reactions inside a steady state Boson condensate. Inside this condensate, there exists an unexplored wilderland totally unlike the world we now live in. Someday, there will be starships formed from this stiff were our progeny will be protected from the dangers and perils of intergalactic adventure.

      • pelgrim108

        How is this boson condensate produced and maintained within the Hot-Cat? Please with as much laymans terms as possible.

        • Axil Axil

          There is a special form of EMF particle formed on the surface a hot metal. This type of EMF is very clingy and will always vibrate in unison in their countless trillions. The Boson condensate get very strong as more and more polaritons are created. Those special microparticles that Rossi has developed are like EMF field projectors that sets up this EMF based condensate. Its a lot like how a laser works. In fact, a polariton laser has just been built.

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polariton_laser

          Lithium hydride(LiH) nanoparticles come together in a bunch and join in to this Boson condensate. Without these special nickel particles, no condensate would be setup and the LiH would not do anything, But under the influence of the Boson condensate, these LiH clusters produce the nuclear reactions through the creation of intense coherent anapole magnetic fields.

          The power to produce nuclear reactions comes through the coherent coordination among all the uncountable trillions of polaritons all working together as one. A condensate is many things working as one.

          There is a positive feed back loop much like a chain reaction that produces more polaritons from the energy of nuclear reactions that the polaritons catalyze.

          How this all happens is at the cutting edge or just beyond current science that few scientists are even familiar with. Not even Rossi knows what he has done. That is, very complicated, beautiful, and involved stuff.

          • Andreas Moraitis

            If the excess energy comes from nuclear reactions, what happens with the radiation? Would the BEC be able to block or absorb it?

          • Axil Axil

            The way the world works inside a boson condensate is different then in our world. Everything is equally shard, both energy coming into the condensate and energy going out. In science, this is called superradience and superaborbtion,

          • Andreas Moraitis

            Thank you, this would explain a lot. Interestingly, Widom & Larsen have a patent application on a SPP-based gamma absorber:

            http://www.google.com/patents/WO2007030740A2?cl=en

            Apparently, this is just another ‘camouflaged’ LENR patent, like the one of Dennis Cravens.

          • pelgrim108

            Thanks for the explanation, it was very readable and interesting.
            Is there any place in this constellation of activities for Frank Znidarsic his dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters to play out?

          • Ted-X

            Axil-Axil,
            Please comment on this idea:
            The Bose-Einstein condensate can perhaps form at the temperatures of liquid nitrogen, provided that a lot of pressure is used. This would be analogous to the condensation of gases; below their critical point pressure can cause them to condense. The more pressure, the closer to their critical point one can get … from the range of temperatures below their critical pressures. The temperatures near the absolute zero are used (to get BECs), because no pressure is applied.
            If this is correct, Rossi makes his secret source by cryogenic treatment of nickel powder under static or pulsating high pressure. The formation of neutron shells outside the nuclei could be related. Exchange of neutrons between neutron shells of the metastable atoms (some metastable atoms with large neutron shells are stable for years) can bring the neutron exchange between the elements.
            —> This is just a speculation, but there is a lot of hints pointing into this direction.

  • DickeFix

    I just wish that the authors of the report soon will release the raw data or at least respond to the inconcistencies that Giancarlo and Andrea.S. have pointed out. If data was recorded continously it should be easy within a day or two find the reasons for these discrepansies. I have to admit that the total silence from the research group and Rossis very agressive reply to Giancarlo (a.k.a. Raman) has killed the initial hope I had after the report.

    The simplest theory that solves all five mysteries (nonproportionality of the Joule heating, the reversed phase traces, the apparent excess heating, the almost pure Ni-62 in the ash, the lack of gamma radiation) is that one of the clamps on both power meters were reversed during the active e-cat test and that the reactor was loaded with Ni-62 from the start.

    Otherwise we need not only a new theory how cold fusion can occur without gamma radiation and with purely enriched Ni-62 as end product; we need also a theory to explain the mysteries on the electrical side.

    • Hank Mills

      If the clamps were reversed, how did they measure the power consumption of the control box and get perfect unity for the dummy run? That tells me the test results are valid.

      • DickeFix

        The Joule heating values (based on the RMS current measurements) suggest that the clamps were reversed only during the active run, not the dummy run. The critical part is therefore what happened during the loading of fuel into the E-cat. Was it really the same fuel that was loaded as the fuel that was analyzed and were the clamps and the rest of the measurement setup unaltered?

        Since the current was probably completely turned off during fuel loading, I guess electrical data is missing for this period but it would still be easy to detect any changes in clamp direction by studying the relations between voltage, current and power before and after the fuel was loaded. Maybe there are photos of the setup before and after that may reveal any change. If the raw data from the power meter is preserved, it should only take hours to answer these questions. Now we have waited for several weeks.

      • yes,
        the problem with “the simplest theory” is that for the deniers, LENr have never been proven and is absolutely and irremediably impossible.

        for them having a drunk electric engineer swap current clamps in the only setup among dozens of possible one, that show a COP=3, not detecting per-phase negative power, or huge incoherent per-phase reactive power, with a conspiration to make the control box seems consuming few % of energy, is much more probable than having a transition metal hydride produce excess heat above chemistry range, as hundreds of scientists have observed.

        You see that clearly ins conspiracy groups, where some people cannot imagine that their own beliefs are wrong, and behave like the victims of somatoparaphrenia who accuse their doctor to have sewed on their shoulder, the doctor 3rd arm just to make them feel uncomfortable (I invent nothing, a sane left hemisphere not helped by a damaged right hemisphere is able to imagine that)…

        • DickeFix

          I have not said LENR is impossible. I have been excited myself over the seemingly positive E-cat tests done by the third party research group. However, one needs to remember that there was an initial E-cat test carried out by SP Technical Research (the swedish institute that are experts in calibrated measurements) that showed COP=1.

          There are now two possibilities:

          1. The positive COP results in the last two tests were wrong due to measurement mistakes
          2. The positive COP results were real

          The difficulty with first alternative is that it implies incompetence of the research group. I agreee that the measurement of input and output power should have been so controlled that this mistake shouldn´t happen. But maybe they presumed that the setup was not touched during the loading of the fuel. Then all three tests have given COP 1. Still some mysteries remain,
          e.g. the large differential COP of almost 7 when input power was
          increased from 800 to 900W

          The difficulty with the second alternative is that it demands a completely revised theory of nuclear physics AND an explanation for the inconsistencies regarding Joule heating and the current traces. I am open to such theories but have not heard any really realistic. It is very hard to believe Mats Lewans speculation that the resistance decrease is because the Inconel heating coils are made of semiconductors 🙂 The only explanation I can think of also in this case is that the research group did a mistake but that also put into question if they got the input power correct. Do you have any own eplanation of the inconcistencies in the electrical results that doesn´t affect the COP?

          Hence, one can still be openminded by LENR and simultaneously be sceptical to published experimental results.

          • you hypothesis of measurement error is based on assumed incompetence at a stratospheric level, stupidity of Rossi and Cheroke (who send a broken reactor) who conspirate without 99% probability to be caught.

            You need extraordinary evidence, you have none.

            note that from recent photography inspection, it seems the clamp are ok…
            I don’t play this game with photo in a report, because I know engineers cannot do that student mistake without sure seeing it.

            on joule heating, there is much more challenge on electricity to deny watmeter result…
            we miss some data, like waveforms, impedance, temperature and loading (yes you forget it an an hydride LENR reactor) resistance sensibility… but there is no reasont to challenge electricity to please people who refuse the reality of hundreds of experimental resulst, without the least serious paper to do it.

            what happens is somatoparaphrenia delusion… desperate tentative to conciliate beliefs with evidences by inventing conspiracy theories.

            the only explanation is not an incredible incompetence, plus a serie of incredible luck, plus incredible stupidity of cherokee, rossi, …

            it is that it works.

          • Axil Axil

            There is a third possibility. This is that there exists many false assumptions made about the behavior of the Ni-H reactor. This behavior does not conform to expected norms of measurement.

            My theory of Ni-H behavior posulates a generalized state of Boson condensation that exists inside the entire structure of the reactor. This superconductive state would result in a increase in the flow rate of electrons inside the reactor. This behavior was seen in the wire that Celani used in his experiments.

            http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/CelaniFobservatio.pdf
            Dr. G. Miley also saw superconductivity in packets of hydrogen in nanocavities.
            My theory of LENR also would expect the formation of electrons as a byproduct of the LENR reaction in violation of the law of charge conservation. I expect to see pions condensed out of the vacuum which would decay into electrons. These pions are the agents that underpin the LENR reaction.
            As a result of these unconventional behaviors inside a LENR reactor, calibration usually done in these types of E-Cat experiments are impossible due to these false measurment assumptions as well as the unpredictable behavior of electrically connected sensors affixed to the reactor structure and under the influence of superconductive behavior.

          • DickeFix

            I don’t rule out that LENR works but a belief in LENR is no longer enough to explain all questions regarding the E-Cat:

            http://www.e-catworld.com/2014/10/31/requirements-of-h-ni-lenr-devices-and-their-implications-on-the-lugano-test/#comment-1669512149

            It is true that matter in a crystal lattice behaves differently than in atoms and that coherent effects may occur and give rise to unexpected effects due to the wave nature of matter. The electron behaviour in a semiconductor is such an example. Coherent effects in matter like Bose-Einstein condensation are however rapidly destroyed by interaction with phonons (heat) in the crystal unless the temperature is close to 0 K.

            However, your theory seems to violate both conservation of charge and matter. With such fancy and exotictheories you may explain almost anything but you must also explain why those effects havn´t been observed in any experiment earlier where both matter and charge is preserved (except during very short times according to Heisenberg uncertainty). Superconductivity has never been observed above 140K, i.e. far, far below room temperature. To need several miracles to explain one is not a fruitful way forward…

          • total superconduction at high temperature is not really observed,

            for resources on HTSC in Palladium Hydride you can read

            http://coldfusionnow.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/SC-LENR.pdf

            http://www.researchgate.net/publication/235450977_Nonuniversal_temperature_dependencies_of_the_low-frequency_ac_magnetic_susceptibility_in_high-T__c_superconductors

            http://www.researchgate.net/publication/255655260_Magnetic_and_transport_properties_of_PdH_intriguing_superconductive_observations

            (NB: indication of Tc at 260k )

            this is still cold, but if you consider that HTSC and LENr are linke dto collective effects, some effect on conduction can be imagined.

            It seems that recently some found effect linked to superconduction that is at higher temperature but is not SC… I cannot find the article (few weeks/month ago)…

            note that LENR is linked also with protons conductors.

            the idea to rule out HTSC similar effect at 1400C is in fact a circular argument similar to rejecting LENR because it cannot exist…

            anyway the conservation of miracle says that this effect if confirmed is a facet of LENR.

          • Axil Axil

            Axil post 0001

            My primary postulate regarding LENR causation theory is that LENR is based on electrodynamics. Another important concept is that all types of LENR phenomena in their various guises are based on the same ultimate
            cause.

            I came to this belief when I first studied the work of Ken Shoulders who showed that transmutation will invariably occur in metals impacted with electric sparks. The EMF based transmutation process is also seen in the
            proton 21 experiments numbering in the thousands where a high energy
            arc transmutes a tiny copper ball into a verity of other elements. The
            same type of transmutation pattern is seen is experiments involving
            exploding metal foils in liquid under the action of a high energy
            spark. The list of such experiments goes on and on.

            All instances in LENR experimentation involve electric currents or some other like manifestation of EMF.

            In the Ni/H reactor, the EMF comes from plasmons. Plasmons are sheets of electrons, that are confined to the surface of transition metals. These electrons come from atomic dipole surface vibrations caused by heat, Sharp tiny sub-wavelength sharp points and steep linear ridges amplify and localize these electron currents in a process called Anderson localization. Such interference of electron flow been observed by localization of a Bose–Einstein condensate in a 1D disordered optical potential (Billy et al., 2008; Roati et al., 2008).

            But the waveforms of electrons and light can be strongly coupled together when their energy are equal. Electrons and photons bind together into a common waveform called a polariton. In a polariton, electrons screen the photons so that photons are also captured at the surface of metal.

            By the way, nickel is a perfect reflector of infrared photons. So
            infrared light is captured between a sheet of electrons and a perfect
            reflector. This lack of dispersion will produce a EMF particle that
            is a combination of infrared light and electrons. This particles is
            called a surface plasmon polariton (SPP). The waveform of an SPP is
            part light and part electron.

            This particle is unusual in that it has very little mass. Because it is a boson, it can pack together in extreme densities. The Rules of BEC formation say that the maximum temperature that a BEC can exist at is a function of the mass of the boson and the density of its population.

            The proof of this statement about the possibility that a BEC can form at high temperatures is witnessed in the recent development of the polariton
            laser that runs at room temperature ( thread reference listed above).

            If you need documentation of these assertions listed above, I will be happy to provide them. Please specify the particulars.

          • DickeFix

            Hi Axil Axil. Yes I agree with what you write above about plasmonics and polaritons. Classically polaritons can be viewed as a surface bound electromagnetic modes which is possible if you have a material with negative real permittivity like in metals and plasmas. If you get lasing utilizing such a mode you have a polariton laser. Ordinary semiconductor lasing in semiconductors can be viewed as a BEC of photons and it is not so easy to distinguish ordinary lasing from polariton lasing.

            Anyway, the polariton is, as you describe, an electron-photon interaction where only outer electrons are involved. It is possible that the thermally generated IR radiation in E-Cat is partly bound to polaritons at the surface of the Ni powder but I would expect the polaritons to have very short lifetime due to the high temperature and rough structure of the Ni powder. Anyway, I fail to see how these polaritons could explain cold fusion or superconductivity at high temperatures. How can they affect the nucleus?? Or do you mean they would affect the conductivity of the inconel cables and explain the Joule heating discrepancy?

            You say that Ni-H would make a BEC at very high temperatures. If you mean BEC of Ni and/or H atoms it sounds completely impossible to me due to the heat and phonon interaction.

          • Axil Axil

            If the spin energy of polaritons can be
            focused into a tight beam that negates the inverse square law for EMF
            radiation, heat energy pumped into a rotating polariton system(a
            vortex) can greatly amplify both the power carried by emanating
            magnetic photons(an anapole field) and the non-resonant EMF field
            carried by virtual protons. Recent experimental work referenced below
            done in this area show that a tight magnetic beam can be produced at
            the points and steep ridges of micro particles proportional to the
            density of polaritons concentrated by one dimensional
            superconductivity in action there. Also in like manor, the contact
            areas in clusters of nanoparticles also act to focus magnetic beams
            of extreme strength. These atomic level magnetic fields are the most
            powerful fields produced in the universe. When a EMF field of enough
            power is produced, mesons and pions condense out of the vacuum. These
            subatomic particles disrupt the function of the nucleus. Such EMF
            nuclear disruption is now seen in powerful lasers with 10E20 watts
            /cm2 power density. The Ni/H reactor produces the same effect using
            polariton vortexes that form on the surface of Rossi’s nickel
            particles and in clusters of lithium hydride nanoparticles. There is
            also the condensation of these polariton solitons that provide
            super-radiance as another powerful amplification mechanism. The BEC that I am referring to is a polariton soliton BEC.

            see

            Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles

            http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1204/1204.3564.pdf

            ————————————————

            Proof of high temperature formation

            http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jcp/136/3/10.1063/1.3678015

            Quote:

            Within the optical cavity, the photons acquire an effective mass as determined by the cut-off frequency of the cavity that can be 6–7 orders of magnitude less than mass of an electron. Depending upon the density, this allows for a BEC transition temperature that can approach room temperature. Polaritons are also ultra-light quasiparticles that are known to condense in systems composed of a semiconducting quantum well sandwiched between two reflective mirrors. 2–6 In this case, however, the polaritons act as hard-core Bosons and scattering at high density allows for a rapid thermalization of the gas.

            End Quote

            Note: the temperature of condensation of polaritons is proportional to the density of the polaritons and so is their effective mass. The Ni/H reactor produces a huge density of coherent polaritons far greater than what a single Nano-cavity can produce. The effective mass of the polariton can drop into the milli electron volts.

            Within the Ni/H reactor’s reaction, there is a positive feedback mechanism in place that converts nuclear energy into infrared photons and electrons from more vigorous dipole motion. This energy infusion pushes the density of the polaritons to extreme levels causing the condensate to establish at ever higher temperatures.
            ———————————–
            I now provide these nanoplasmonic experiments done with laser irradiation of gold nanoparticle as scientific evidence of how nanoplasmonic light stimulation of nanoparticles can induce nuclear reactions.

            The use of lasers alone have no nuclear effects.

            Here, this experiment shows how the confinement of electrons on the surface of gold nanoparticles: a nanoplasmonic mechanism can change the half-life of U232 from 69 years to 6 microseconds. It also causes thorium to fission. This is a result of virtual particle concentration discussed above.

            See references:

            http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Farxiv.org%2Fpdf%2F1112.6276&ei=nI6UUeG1Fq-N0QGypIAg&usg=AFQjCNFB59F1wkDv-NzeYg5TpnyZV1kpKQ&sig2=fhdWJ_enNKlLA4HboFBTUA&bvm=bv.46471029,d.dmQ

            Other experiments showing the same mechanism as listed below:

            “Laser-induced synthesis and decay of Tritium under exposure of solid targets in heavy water”

            http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.0830

            Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the presence of Thorium aqua ions

            http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0906/0906.4268.pdf

          • DickeFix

            Axil Axil: Am I correct that your theory is that coherent polaritons in the nickel-hydrogen will create an intense magnetic field that in turn create mesons and pions from vacuum that finally assist nuclear fusion?

            I must say that is a very exotic theory. Each step sounds like a small miracle for me. I glanced through the references you linked to. They claim something extraordinary, that you can affect the radioactive decay with gold particles and strong laser pulses. The references you linked to were made by the same group. However, after some more searching on the web, I found also other authors claim similar things. If this is true, it is a very important discovery. However, I think it is too early to use this controversial theory to explain LENR since we know too little about both effects … if they really exist. Time will tell.

          • Axil Axil

            Chernodub is the originator of the meson condensation process idea in a strong magnetic field.

            http://physik.uni-graz.at/~dk-user/talks/Chernodub_25112013.pdf

            http://homepages.uni-regensburg.de/~eng14891/qcdB_workshop/pdf/QCDB_

            Chernodub supports his position on meson condinsation in a strong magnetic field.

            http://arxiv.org/pdf/1309.4071v1.pdf

            Conclusions.

            In Ref. [1] it was claimed that the charged mesons cannot
            condense in strong magnetic field.

            We point out that the analytical and numerical results
            of Ref. [1] are consistent with the inhomogeneous meson
            condensation predicted in Refs. [5, 6]. In particular,
            a large-volume limit of the two-point correlation function
            calculated in Ref. [1] cannot be used to support the
            absence of the inhomogeneous {meson condensation.

            Moreover,we show that the results of Ref. [1] on

            (i) the behavior of the asymptotic value of the correlation
            function as the function of the system volume,

            (ii)the behavior of the {meson mass as the function of
            the magnetic field are, in fact, consistent with the expected
            crossover transition associated with the inhomogeneous {meson
            condensation in quenched lattice QCD.

            This is similar to the particle pair production mechanism in a strong EMF field when the vacuum becomes non linier.

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwinger_limit

            IMHO, pions being the lightest mesons will condense at lower magnetic field strengths than Chernodub postulates.

          • Axil Axil

            I have a disagreement with the naysayer Tom Clarke, about the way virtual particles behave. I say that they can be projected in a tight beam…Tom says that they must radiate in all directions and follow the inverse square law for spherical distribution. For radioactive isotopes to be rapidly stabilized in LENR as embodied in the Ni/H reactor, the strength of virtual particles must somehow be amplified by a projection in a tight beam.

          • Axil Axil

            http://phys.org/news/2014-11-electromagnetic-fluctuation-plasmas-analogous-so-called.html

            Electromagnetic fluctuation forces across plasmas analogous to so-called weak nuclear interaction forces

            New experiment results tie EMF to processes that effect the dynamics that occur inside the nucleus as a expression of the weak force. This is exciting stuff for the LENR theorist. Mesons control what goes on inside the nucleus. Mesons are just a kind of plasmons that exist between two or more solids at very close distances. One example where this condition applies is the situation that exists in the very small plasmon filled spaces between nanoparticles. This implies that mesons are condensing virtual particles pairs that are equivalent to condensing virtual particle plasmons or sheets of realized positions/electron pairs formed at high energy caused by the Casimir force born in the small distances between nanoparticles.

            I guest at this all along. Its good that it has been discovered.

            See:
            Casimir forces in a Plasma: Possible Connections to Yukawa Potentials
            http://arxiv.org/pdf/1409.1032v1.pdfhttp://arxiv.org/pdf/1409.1032v1.pdf

          • DickeFix

            I am not competent to judge the papers you refer to. As a layman in the field, I don´t trust papers that are not peer reviewed by experts. I have also difficulties to understand your theory how polaritons or mesons at the surface of the powder nanoparticles can give rise to nuclear fusion and how it can occur without radiation.

            Anyway, I think it is too early to speculate about a detailed LENR theory until we have clear experimental evidence that the phenomenon really exists. We need accurate reproducible experiments to test if a theory is correct or wrong. Theories that can not be tested are like metaphysics or religion; you are free to believe what you want since noone can prove you wrong. Hence, only time will tell if your personal theory is the correct one.

        • psi2u2

          Nice tirade. 😉

    • Omega Z

      DickeFix
      You’re assuming this test was done for us or the scientific community.
      It was actually done for a selected few Entities. Don’t count on them providing Us “ALL” the data. I doubt that will ever happen. At most, we may see some clarifications of the report at their leisure.

      Elforsk who was a major financial contributor of the test has had access to all the Data & their own analysis of it for months. Their Immediate response after the public release of the paper, they will start their own R&D labs into LENR. This would be in addition to their current energy research labs. Considering their expertise, the data must have been more then reasonably convincing if their willing to start dumping money into it..

    • Obvious

      Fixing the Joule heating problem with the square root of three rule for the secondary cables should mildly improve the COP, by reducing the calculated electrical input values for the device. Effectively the cable Joule heating value in W will nearly triple for the dummy run values using the square root rule (from 7 to 19 W). But even with triple the Joule heating, the comparison of the total heat output estimate to the measured and calculated total electrical input of the dummy run is improved.

    • Axil Axil

      What only Rossi has done is produce nuclear reactions inside a steady state Boson condensate. Inside this condensate, there exists an unexplored wilderland totally unlike the world we now live in. Someday, there will be starships formed from this stuff were our progeny will be protected from the dangers and perils of intergalactic adventure.

      • pelgrim108

        How is this boson condensate produced and maintained within the Hot-Cat? Please with as much laymans terms as possible.

        • Axil Axil

          There is a special form of EMF particle formed on the surface a hot metal call surface plasmon polaritons(SPP). This type of EMF is very clingy and will always vibrate in unison in their countless trillions. The Boson condensate gets very strong as more and more polaritons are created. Those special microparticles that Rossi has developed are like EMF field projectors that sets up this EMF based condensate. Its a lot like how a laser works. In fact, a polariton laser has just been built.

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polariton_laser

          Lithium hydride(LiH) nanoparticles come together in a bunch and join in to this Boson condensate. Without these special nickel particles, no condensate would be setup and the LiH would not do anything, But under the influence of the Boson condensate, these LiH clusters produce the nuclear reactions through the creation of intense coherent anapole magnetic fields.

          The power to produce nuclear reactions comes through the coherent coordination among all the uncountable trillions of polaritons all working together as one. A condensate is many things working as one.

          There is a positive feed back loop much like a chain reaction that produces more polaritons from the energy of nuclear reactions that the polaritons catalyze. The chain reaction can get out of control and meltdown the Ni/H reactor.

          How this all happens is at the cutting edge or just beyond current science that few scientists are even familiar with. Not even Rossi knows what he has done. That is, very complicated, beautiful, and involved stuff.

          • Andreas Moraitis

            If the excess energy comes from nuclear reactions, what happens with the radiation? Would the BEC be able to block or absorb it?

          • bachcole

            I get energy from burning wood, but I get no ionizing radiation. Who would have thought?! <> Just because something is nuclear does not necessarily mean that there must be dangerous radiation, despite what certain tea drinkers think. If the original speed of the particles are slow enough (which is why we call it cold fusion), there shouldn’t be any ionizing radiation.

            Although I am a certified ignoramus on this nuclear physics issues, I am going to take a risk and say that I think that I got this one right.

          • Axil Axil

            The way the world works inside a boson condensate is different than in our world. Everything is equally shard among the SPPs, both energy coming into the condensate and energy going out. In science, this is called superradience and superabsorption.

            see

            http://nonlocal.com/hbar/superradiance.html

            Rossi has seen gamma radiation from positrons in a very cold reactor. That is because the SPP condensate in a cold reactor was not being pumped enough to be strong. Like a laser, a condensate of SPPs needs to be vigorously pumped with heat, When Rossi added a secondary heater to his reactor to preheat it, his gamma problems when away.

          • Andreas Moraitis

            Thank you, this would explain a lot. Interestingly, Widom & Larsen have a patent application on a SPP-based gamma absorber:

            http://www.google.com/patents/WO2007030740A2?cl=en

            Apparently, this is just another ‘camouflaged’ LENR patent, like the one of Dennis Cravens.

          • pelgrim108

            Thanks for the explanation, it was very readable and interesting.
            Is there any place in this constellation of activities for Frank Znidarsic his dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters to play out?

          • Ted-X

            Axil-Axil,
            Please comment on this idea:
            The Bose-Einstein condensate can perhaps form at the temperatures of liquid nitrogen, provided that a lot of pressure is used. This would be analogous to the condensation of gases; below their critical point pressure can cause them to condense. The more pressure, the closer to their critical point one can get … from the range of temperatures below their critical pressures. The temperatures near the absolute zero are used (to get BECs), because no pressure is applied.
            If this is correct, Rossi makes his secret source by cryogenic treatment of nickel powder under static or pulsating high pressure. The formation of neutron shells outside the nuclei could be related. Exchange of neutrons between neutron shells of the metastable atoms (some metastable atoms with large neutron shells are stable for years) can bring the neutron exchange between the elements.
            —> This is just a speculation, but there is a lot of hints pointing into this direction.

  • Hank Mills

    The Ni62 could be a fuel. It might undergo a reaction with hydrogen. This could mean that after the other isotopes of nickel are converted to Ni62, the Ni62 could continue producing energy.

    • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

      In that case the reactor would have plenty of fuel left and I like that idea. So first all possible ni isotopes are converted to ni62 using Li in the process? I thought the Ni62 isotope was seen as stable end product. Do you have any idea how the Ni62 isotope could produce energy? Is this were the neutron tunneling comes into effect or does something now happen with hydrogen? If tunneling, what would be the resulting isotope? Ni60 -> Ni58? At this point we are back at the Li supported conversion to Ni62 so Li determines when the reactor runs out of steam? Clearly I have no idea what I’m talking about…

      • Omega Z

        “Clearly I have no idea what I’m talking about.”
        Thanks a lot ZZZ.
        Do you realize how much time I’ve spent reading your posts.

        AND NOW, You say you don’t know what your talking about. Shishh.
        You should have said something long ago.

        Oh well, I also have a confession-
        “Clearly, I also have no idea what I’m talking about.”
        Take that… 🙂 uha uha,

        • Zeddicus Zul Zorander

          I have spent so much time reading Storms books, McKubre on youtube, Mats books, TIP reports, MFMP projects, basic chemistry research (yes, that which I should have learned in school anyway), reading all posts on e-catworld, trying to understand Axil Axil or to fathom neutron tunneling and bose condensates, but all to no avail. Still don’t get any of it. So it’s good to hear from another soul who’s equally lost in all this chemo-nuclear violence. We both know nothing so I think we may have just taken the first step on the path to wisdom. (See how I made us look good anyway? 🙂

    • LCD

      Ni62 seems to be a valley or energy minima for whatever system of reactions are occurring. Having the highest binding energy per nucleon has to be a big hint about what’s going on IMHO.

      I don’t think Li to Ni is a major part of the reaction (without many intermediate steps), more likely Li7 is going to 2He4 in some form or fashion whether it be proton or neutron capture or some other thing. That would make sense as to why the Li7 is depleted more than the Li6.

      The next logical step would be to test for He production but who knows when that will happen.

      These end-products to point to the Widom-Larsen theory being somewhat relevant. With that theory there is a natural reason for why you need hydrogen (to form neutron or neutron-like particles) and it explains isotope shifts to some extent as opposed to elemental shifts.

      What is not explained is lack of unstable intermediate isotopes although I suppose you can make the case that in a neutron rich environment this naturally leads to stable isotopes. But it would have to be more than that because we just don’t see any type of radiation in the ash after it’s been take out of the reactor.

      It’s also interesting to note that Ni has some natural resonance points where Neutron absorption jumps up at higher temps being comparable to Boron.

  • Axil Axil

    There is a third possibility. This is that there exists many false assumptions made about the behavior of the Ni-H reactor. This behavior does not conform to expected norms of measurement.

    My theory of Ni-H behavior posulates a generalized state of Boson condensation that exists inside the entire structure of the reactor. This superconductive state would result in a increase in the flow rate of electrons inside the reactor. This behavior was seen in the wire that Celani used in his experiments.

    http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/CelaniFobservatio.pdf
    Dr. G. Miley also saw superconductivity in packets of hydrogen in nanocavities.
    My theory of LENR also would expect the formation of electrons as a byproduct of the LENR reaction in violation of the law of charge conservation. I expect to see pions condensed out of the vacuum which would decay into electrons. These pions are the agents that underpin the LENR reaction.
    As a result of these unconventional behaviors inside a LENR reactor, calibration usually done in this experiments is impossible as well as the unpredictable behavior of electrically connected sensors connected to the reactor structure.

  • total superconduction at high temperature is not really observed,

    for resources on HTSC in Palladium Hydride you can read

    http://coldfusionnow.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/SC-LENR.pdf

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/235450977_Nonuniversal_temperature_dependencies_of_the_low-frequency_ac_magnetic_susceptibility_in_high-T__c_superconductors

    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/255655260_Magnetic_and_transport_properties_of_PdH_intriguing_superconductive_observations

    (NB: indication of Tc at 260k )

    this is still cold, but if you consider that HTSC and LENr are linke dto collective effects, some effect on conduction can be imagined.

    It seems that recently some found effect linked to superconduction that is at higher temperature but is not SC… I cannot find the article (few weeks/month ago)…

    note that LENR is linked also with protons conductors.

    the idea to rule out HTSC similar effect at 1400C is in fact a circular argument similar to rejecting LENR because it cannot exist…

    anyway the conservation of miracle says that this effect if confirmed is a facet of LENR.

  • Axil Axil

    My primary postulate regarding LENR causation theory is that LENR is based on electrodynamics. Another important concept is that all types of LENR phenomena in their various guises are based on the same ultimate
    cause.

    I came to this belief when I first studied the work of Ken Shoulders who showed that transmutation will invariably occur is metals impacted with electric sparks. The EMF based transmutation process is also seen in the
    proton 21 experiments numbering in the thousands where a high energy
    arc transmutes tiny copper ball into a verity of other elements. The
    same type of transmutation pattern is seen is experiments involving
    exploding metal foils in liquid under the action of a high energy
    spark.

    All instances in LENR experimentation involve electric currents or some other like manifestation of EMF. In the Ni/H reactor, the EMF comes from
    plasmons. Plasmons are sheets of electrons, that are confined to the
    surface of transition metals. These electrons come from atomic dipole
    surface vibrations caused by heat, Sharp tiny sub-wavelength sharp
    points and steep linear ridges amplify and localize these electron
    currents in a process called Anderson localization. Such interference
    of electron flow been observed by localization of a Bose–Einstein
    condensate in a 1D disordered optical potential (Billy et al.,
    2008; Roati et al., 2008).

    But the waveforms of electrons and light can be strongly coupled together when their energy are equal. Electrons and photons bind together into a common waveform called a polariton. In a polariton, electrons screen the photons so that photons are also captured at the surface of metal.

    By the way, nickel is a perfect reflector of infrared photons. So
    infrared light is captured between a sheet of electrons and a perfect
    reflector. This lack of dispersion will produce a EMF particle thath
    is a combination of infrared light and electrons. This particles is
    called a surface plasmon polariton(SPP). The waveform of an SPP is
    part light and part electron.

    This particle is unseal in that it has very little mass. Because it is a boson, it can pack together is extreme densities. The Rules of BEC formation say that the maximum temperature that a BEC can exist at is a fraction of the mass of the boson and the density of its population.

    The proof of this statement about the possibility that a BEC can form at high temperatures is witnessed in the recent development of the polariton
    laser that runs at room temperature.

    If you need documentation of these assertions listed above, I will be happy to provide them. Please specify the particulars.

  • Axil Axil

    Chernodub is the originator of the meson condensation process idea in a strong magnetic field.

    http://physik.uni-graz.at/~dk-user/talks/Chernodub_25112013.pdf

    http://homepages.uni-regensburg.de/~eng14891/qcdB_workshop/pdf/QCDB_

    Chernodub supports his position on meson condinsation in a strong magnetic field.

    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1309.4071v1.pdf

    Conclusions.

    In Ref. [1] it was claimed that the charged mesons cannot
    condense in strong magnetic field.

    We point out that the analytical and numerical results
    of Ref. [1] are consistent with the inhomogeneous meson
    condensation predicted in Refs. [5, 6]. In particular,
    a large-volume limit of the two-point correlation function
    calculated in Ref. [1] cannot be used to support the
    absence of the inhomogeneous {meson condensation.

    Moreover,we show that the results of Ref. [1] on

    (i) the behavior of the asymptotic value of the correlation
    function as the function of the system volume,

    (ii)the behavior of the {meson mass as the function of
    the magnetic field are, in fact, consistent with the expected
    crossover transition associated with the inhomogeneous {meson
    condensation in quenched lattice QCD.

    This is similrt to the particle pair production in a strong EMF field when the vacuum becomes non linier.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwinger_limit

  • Axil Axil

    I have a disagreement with the naysayer Tom Clarke, about the way virtual particles behave. I say that they can be projected in a tight beam…Tom says that they must radiate in all directions and follow the inverse square law for spherical distribution. For radioactive isotopes to be rapidly stabilized in LENR as embodied in the Ni/H reactor, the strength of virtual particles must somehow be amplified by a projection in a tight beam.