# Determining the Fuel Composition for an E-Cat Reactor (Steven Karels)

The following post was submitted by Steven Karels

Based on the Lugano Report, an estimate of the fuel composition may be attempted.

Known facts:

1. Fuel sample had a mass of 1 gram
2. Page 29: “From the analysis methods of the fuel we find that there are significant quantities of Li, Al, Fe and ICP-AES analysis we find there is about 0.011 grams of 7Li in the 1 gram fuel.”
3. Page 29: “… the information from ICP-AES that there is about 0.55 gram NI in the fuel.”
4. Page 28: “From all combined analysis methods of the fuel we find that there are significant quantities of Li, Al, Fe and H in addition to the Ni.”
5. Page 28: “… from the ICP-AES analysis which shows the mass ratio between Li and Al is compatible with a LiAlH4 molecule.”
6. Page 28: “…natural composition, i.e. 6Li 7% and 7Li 93%”
7. Page 28: “We remark in particular that hydrogen but no deuterium was seen by SIMS.”

Analysis

The average mass of the lithium atoms are 0.07*6 + 0.93*7 = 6.93 amu.
Aluminum atoms have a mass of 27 amu while hydrogen atoms have an average mass of 1.
So the molecular weight of the LiAlH4 must be 6.93 + 27 + 4 = 37.93 amu.
There for the amount of LiAlH4 must be 0.011 grams * 37.93 / 6.93 = 0.06 grams and the amount of aluminum must be 0.043 grams. The amount of hydrogen in the LiAlH4 must be 0.006 grams.
The iron mass must therefore be 1.0 grams (total) – 0.55 grams (Ni) – 0.043 grams (Al) – 0.011 grams (Li) – 0.006 grams (H) = 0.39 grams of iron.

Element % by Weight
Nickel 55.0
Iron 39.0
Aluminum 4.3
Lithium 1.1
Hydrogen (no Deuterium) 0.6
Total 100.0
LiAlH4 6.0

It is also likely that the LiAlH4 was prepared using hydrogen depleted of deuterium.

• Great. Why not express a milligram recipe per gram of fuel.

Nickel powder =
LiAlH4 =
Iron dust =
If you have grain size estimates, add that.

• Great. Why not express a milligram recipe per gram of fuel.

Nickel powder =
LiAlH4 =
Iron dust =
If you have grain size estimates, add that.

• Steven N. Karels

Christopher,
Nickel powder = 550 milligrams
LiAlH4 = 60 milligrams
Iron powder = 390 milligrams
particle size is reported to be a few microns

• clovis ray

Thanks, Steve,sounds like base metals, Dr. Rossi said he tried many different things, before he struck gold, but there is a lot of stuff known now, with very bright folks letting their little light shine, maybe they will light the whole wide world. :>)

• Sanjeev

Page 53:
Besides the analyzed elements it has been found that the fuel also contains rather high concentrations of C, Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn and these are not found in the ash.

• Mr. Moho

Unfortunately there’s little way to know whether those elements are dopants or contaminants.

• Sanjeev

Yes it looks like an incomplete analysis. Everything was not accounted for.
AR was surprised by the results of ash analysis, this also indicates some more testing is needed for containers, ash and the fuel.

• Sanjeev

Page 53:
Besides the analyzed elements it has been found that the fuel also contains rather high concentrations of C, Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn and these are not found in the ash.

• Alan DeAngelis

I mentioned this before but I think it fits better here.

Perhaps the reactions could be run with lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) made from lithium-7 instead of natural lithium (Li-7AlH4). This way it would show that lithium-6 is created in the reaction and not lithium-6 that was originally in the fuel.

Lithium-7 aluminum hydride could be made from anhydrous lithium-7 chloride that could be made from commercially available lithium-7 carbonate.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_chloride

Commercially available sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH4) would react with anhydrous lithium-7 chloride (Li-7 Cl) to make lithium-7aluminum hydride and sodium chloride.

NaAlH4 + Li-7 Cl > Li-7AlH4 + NaCl

(The NaCl can be precipitated with ether and filter away from the ether soluble Li-7AlH4.)

• Alan DeAngelis

I mentioned this before but I think it fits better here.

Perhaps the reactions could be run with lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) made from lithium-7 instead of natural lithium (Li-7AlH4). This way it would show that lithium-6 is created in the reaction and not lithium-6 that was originally in the fuel.

Lithium-7 aluminum hydride could be made from anhydrous lithium-7 chloride that could be made from commercially available lithium-7 carbonate.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_chloride

Commercially available sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH4) would react with anhydrous lithium-7 chloride (Li-7 Cl) to make lithium-7aluminum hydride and sodium chloride.

NaAlH4 + Li-7 Cl > Li-7AlH4 + NaCl

(The NaCl can be precipitated with ether and filter away from the ether soluble Li-7AlH4.)

• Mr. Moho

I wonder if the confirmed high iron content in the fuel could give some credibility to the natural/cosmic origin hypothesis of LENR and maybe also hint to how they would actually work in practice on a smaller scale in these reactors.

• Curbina

The mixture of nickel and iron makes me instantly think of meteorites. Anyway, the remaining elements absent in the ash (C, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn) are said to be in “rather high concentrations”, so without knowing how much high the rest of the analysis, even if seems very logic and accurate, might be still missing a big clue. I congratulate Steve for his very interesting analysis anyway.

• Curbina

The mixture of nickel and iron makes me instantly think of meteorites. Anyway, the remaining elements absent in the ash (C, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn) are said to be in “rather high concentrations”, so without knowing how much high the rest of the analysis, even if seems very logic and accurate, might be still missing a big clue. I congratulate Steve for his very interesting analysis anyway.

• So, is it possible that the fuel also contained a certain amount of carbon powder, which was used to attract the oxygen content inside the reactor and was turned into CO2, which escaped the reactor upon opening?

• Ted-X

Under the reactor conditions, if any oxygen is present, surface carbonylation of nickel would be unavoidable. Nickel carbonyls have an electronic structure with electrons “passing” through the nucleus due to hybridized electronic structures.

• So, is it possible that the fuel also contained a certain amount of carbon powder, which was used to attract the oxygen content inside the reactor and was turned into CO2, which escaped the reactor upon opening?

• Ted-X

Under the reactor conditions, if any oxygen is present, surface carbonylation of nickel would be unavoidable. Nickel carbonyls have an electronic structure with electrons “passing” through the nucleus due to hybridized electronic structures.

• gdaigle

How very curious about the generous amount of iron. It has even a higher Fe content than the Ni-Fe composition of mu-metal, known for its high permeability.

• gdaigle

How very curious about the generous amount of iron. It has even a higher Fe content than the Ni-Fe composition of mu-metal, known for its high permeability.

• Alain Samoun

Pressure and Volume of Hydrogen in the reactor.

If there is 0.6 g of H2 coming probably from decomposition of the LiAlH4 at high temperature. This represents about 7 liters of hydrogen at room temperature, :
2g of H2= 22.4 liters at room temperature

0.6g of H2~7liters of H2
T= 300K -> 7 liters of H2
and since the pressure depends of the temperature P= KT
T= 1400C-> 1700K-> expand hydrogen to ruffly 35 liters.

Inside volume of reactor is about 120cm3 So 35 liters of H2 will produce a pressure of 35,000/120~300 Atmospheres, too high for the reactor. Conclusion H2 must be trapped inside the Nickel or/and go throughout the reactor’s walls.or there is not that much H2?

• Steven N. Karels

Alain,
Good analysis except for two items:
1. The hydrogen mass was 0.006 grams (0.6% of 1 gram of fuel)
2. My estimate of the internal volume of the eCat is 20 cm3
So using your numbers, the internal pressure would be about 18 atmospheres without nickel adsorption of hydrogen.
As there was about 0.01 moles of nickel involved in the fuel (0.55 grams / 58+ grams per mole), the amount of atomic hydrogen adsorbed will be between 0 and 0.012 moles. Nickel at this pressure does not adsorb hydrogen well so we would expect to see the average adsorption to be low although there will be local areas within the nickel that have high hydrogen concentrations.

• Alain Samoun

Pressure and Volume of Hydrogen in the reactor.

If there is 0.6 g of H2 coming probably from decomposition of the LiAlH4 at high temperature. This represents about 7 liters of hydrogen at room temperature, :
2g of H2= 22.4 liters at room temperature

0.6g of H2~7liters of H2
T= 300K -> 7 liters of H2
and since the pressure depends of the temperature P= KT
T= 1400C-> 1700K-> expand hydrogen to ruffly 35 liters.

Inside volume of reactor is about 120cm3 So 35 liters of H2 will produce a pressure of 35,000/120~300 Atmospheres, too high for the reactor. Conclusion H2 must be trapped inside the Nickel or/and go throughout the reactor’s walls.or there is not that much H2?

• Steven N. Karels

Alain,
Nice analysis. However, the amount of hydrogen was 0.006 grams (0.6% of 1 gram of fuel). So the 300 atmospheres now becomes 3 atmospheres using your numbers. I estimate the internal volume of the eCat was closer to 20cm3 so that would raise the pressure by a factor of six to ~18 atmospheres. Some of the hydrogen obviously diffuses into the nickel. 0.55 grams of nickel is around 0.01 moles so the maximum amount of atomic hydrogen (for NI:H of one) stored within the nickel would be about 0.010 grams of hydrogen. Nickel does not get 100% loaded at these pressures so most of the hydrogen would remain as a gas.

• Alain Samoun

Right I used 100 g of substance instead of 1g – small mistake 😉

• Steven N. Karels

Alain,

No problem. I used your thoughts and posted an analysis on JONP.

Steve

• Steven N. Karels

Alain,
Good analysis except for two items:
1. The hydrogen mass was 0.006 grams (0.6% of 1 gram of fuel)
2. My estimate of the internal volume of the eCat is 20 cm3
So using your numbers, the internal pressure would be about 18 atmospheres without nickel adsorption of hydrogen.
As there was about 0.01 moles of nickel involved in the fuel (0.55 grams / 58+ grams per mole), the amount of atomic hydrogen adsorbed will be between 0 and 0.012 moles. Nickel at this pressure does not adsorb hydrogen well so we would expect to see the average adsorption to be low although there will be local areas within the nickel that have high hydrogen concentrations.

• Alain Samoun

Right I used 100 g of substance instead of 1g – small mistake 😉

• Steven N. Karels

Alain,

No problem. I used your thoughts and posted an analysis on JONP.

Steve