Russian Team Creating LENR Fuel Pellets (Bob Greenyer)

The following was posted by Bob Greenyer. I think it shows the Russian ‘can-do’ spirit (a la Parkhomov), and while I don’t think this is probably the safest of practices, I think there’s a lot of merit in the fuel pellet idea.

Starting to document the second experiment / Lab I saw last week.

One team, sponsored by a Russian registered entity “LockTherm LLC”, again with no luxury of a glovebox, is taking a very different approach to their experiments and has developed a very ingenious method of pressing pellets for their reactors. The technique is very valuable to would be replicators and has many advantages, it makes powder mixes less likely to

1. loft (i.e. reduce likely hood of particles in air after pressing, protecting operators)
2. react with moisture through the bulk

It also makes them far easier to pre-package and distribute and easier to handle predictably insert into a reactor without distributing powder in other places inside the tube as we have previously encountered. This may make it more possible for the MFMP to send out kits.

Lastly, it is affordable and accessible because it is about as ‘garage’ as you can do things – it is based on a car jack!

  • Andreas Moraitis

    Is there any information about their reactors? It would be interesting to know which COP they get and if they noticed a difference in the performance of the loose and the compressed powder.

  • Dave Lawton

    I do like the way they do it without all the health and safety crap.This how we use to
    work in the Physics labs in the UK until someone brought in the Health & Safety.I`m still

    • Alan DeAngelis

      Yeah Dave, even if you had died, you would have
      lived a little before you died. I would tell a kid to go to the hardware story
      and get some goggles but yeah, we’ve become such wimps here in the US too. I loved
      the movie October Sky. The pyromaniac kids went on to become rocket scientists.

      • Alan DeAngelis

        …hardware store..

        • Alain Samoun

          Also a good hardware story…

          • SteveW

            I envision a reactor tube or shell comprised of a single layer so as to promote optimum heat transfer along the length of said reactor shell and to also provide for enhanced thermal transfer of heat from the reactant fuel to the reactor shell and to the medium surrounding said reactor shell. The purpose of such arrangement to maintain reactant fuel at it’s designed operating temperature to promote LENR reactions by quickly removing produced or excess heat from reactant fuel.

            The reactor shell of said arrangement may contain a resistor coil as is found in similar LENR reactor tubes surrounding the reactor. However, the resistor coil in my reactor would have the resistor coil integral within a single reactor shell. One embodiment of the reactor shell being comprised of a material that also serves as an electrical insulator. In this arrangement, the material of the reactor shell would also function to insulate the wire of the resistor coil thereby eliminating the need for any insulation on the resistor coil. The resistor coil integral with the shell of the single layer reactor shell promoting even and effective heat transfer.

            The resistor coil may be so designed of an appropriate material to provide both heat and electromagnetic stimulation. Alternately the resistor coil may be designed of an appropriate material so as to provide only an electromagnetic field with a minimal amount of heat. This latter embodiment of the resistor coil being appropriate for LENR reactor types which rely on the medium surrounding the reactor to maintain the LENR reactant fuel at its operating temperature. I disclosed this type of reactor on E-Cat World on February 15.

            Though many materials may be suitable for the reactor shell of this type of reactor, I will now disclose the potential of using glass as a material choice for the reactor shell. Glass can be easily formed or extruded into a tubular form appropriate in shape for the presently disclosed reactor shell design. Glass can be formulated to have varying melting points and be selected based on the operating temperature of the reactor. Glass is an excellent electrical insulator with good thermal conduction characteristics. Glass is an excellent material for sealing a pressure vessel and can simply be locally heated in order to seal between itself and other materials. Additives can be added to the glass such as lead to shield radiation. Extensive methods of manufacturing technology especially in the light bulb industry already exists which would transfer well to the manufacture of the reactor shell of the presently disclosed reactor.

            In the manufacture of the present reactor shells using glass, one method of manufacture is now disclosed. A wire for the resistor coil is wound around a glass tube. This glass tube may be surface heated with a torch in order to make the surface of the glass “tacky” so that the wire forms a bond with the glass and helps hold the shape of the wire coil around the glass tube. This surface heat treatment by torch may at the same time heat the wire itself to enhance this bond. In a high-speed production manufacturing arrangement the glass rod may be directly extruded before being introduced to the wire-coiling operation. The wire wound to the glass tube alternates between coil and straight sections which will later become leads. In the next manufacturing step, the glass with wire is fed though a die which extrudes an additional layer of glass onto the original inner glass tube. The outside diameter of this die will become the outside diameter of the reactor shell. Because the inner glass tube and wire coil were surface heated, the second layer of glass creates a strong bond to the inner layer of glass and wire. The outer extrusion of glass is so applied so that no air bubbles are left between the two layers of glass. The wire is now centrally located between the inner and outer glass tubes which now are bonded together. The glass is cut centrally between the areas where the wire runs straight. The glass tube is scored around its circumference on both ends at a distance from each end which will dictate the lead length. These glass ends are broken and removed exposing the wire leads from each end.

            This glass reactor shell which may or may not contain coils are then loaded with their reactant LENR fuel such as Nickel and Lithium Aluminum Hydride but is not the subject of this disclosure. Thermocouples may also be inserted into the reactor shells with their leads extending to the ends. An alternative to the thermocouple, is to use the resistance of the wire coil to calculate the temperature of the reactant fuel. If a resistor coil is used, the leads extending out the ends of the reactor tube are connected to caps made of an appropriate electrically conducting metal and bonded to the glass reactor shell by heating the glass and metal cap- sealing the reactor tube. This metal cap may be formed so as to provide a means for connecting the reactor to a socket. If a resistor wire is not incorporated into the reactor shell, the ends of the reactor shell may simply be heated and crimped- sealing the reactor shell.

            A cage around the reactor tube may also be utilized. This cage consists of retention rings pushed
            onto the reactor tube. Each one of theseretention rings contains rigid yet slightly flexible fingers similar to that of a retention washer providing a tight fit over the reactor tube even during varying operational temperatures since the fingers of the retention ring are somewhat flexible. These retention rings provide a snug direct contact with the reactor tube thereby providing an excellent thermal pathway for heat which may be advantageous depending on the operational medium these reactors are placed in. These retention rings thus serving as a heat sink or cooling fins such as those found on a radiator. In addition, these retention rings serve to strengthen the reactor tube by providing an inward force against the outward force of the internal gas pressures that develop inside the reactor tube which may be substantial during operation. These retention rings are preferably placed an even distance apart along the reactor tube. These retention rings may be connected in a somewhat chain-like manner providing a means for evenly distributing them along the reactor tube which also aids in distributing heat. A single retention ring may be adapted to accommodate multiple reactor tubes preferably in a pattern for even distribution. This arrangement providing a means of bundling multiple reactor tubes together in a single package.

            During the loading of the reactor shell, similarities with light bulb manufacture exist and processes developed for that industry may be employed here. In light bulb manufacturing, air is removed from the bulb and replaced with Argon. In the reactor disclosed here, the gas inside the reactor during operation is a result of the Hydrogen gas produced by the chemical breakdown of Lithium Aluminum Hydride and atmospheric gases present in the reactor tube during sealing. However, these atmospheric gases may not be ideal and reactor operation may be improved if some other gas is used instead and perhaps at a different pressure. This can be accomplished with the technology developed for the light bulb manufacturing industry. In order to prevent the powered fuel from being sucked out of the reactor tube during these manufacturing processes, it may be necessary to employ micron filters at the ends of the reactor tubes to prevent this.

            Everyone always talks about Rossi’s new reactor design using fuel that is “pre-loaded”. But in reality it’s not really pre-loaded at all. The reactant fuel mix contains Lithium Aluminum Hydride which will begin the first of several a chemical reactions releasing Hydrogen at around 150 Celsius , but saying it is “pre-loaded” is really misleading, especially since “loading” of the Nickel Lattice is so
            important for these LENR reactions to occur.

            In the new Rossi e-cat, the hot-cat or e-cat H2 as it is referred, the loading of the Nickel Lattice in the powdered fuel must still be loaded just as the Nickel Lattice fuel in the original e-cat must also be loaded. In both cases, high pressure gas loading is employed to accomplish this. This requires considerable pressure for a period of time. In the e-cat H2, this is accomplished by the high operating temperature thus producing a high pressure within the reactor tube. It is my suspicion this high operating temperature is only really needed in order to produce a high enough pressures to load the Nickel Lattice. A high gas pressure is then needed to maintain this Hydrogen loading of the Nickel. The problem here is it is virtually impossible with current containment schemes to keep the Hydrogen from eventually permeating the reactor tube and escaping at these pressures and temperatures. Perhaps in the future some kind of graphene could be used but for now it’s just beyond our current technology.

            I suspect the e-cat H2 is a one shot deal- it can only be powered up once. I haven’t seen any tests where the e-cat H2 was re-activated. I suspect, in order to load the Nickel Lattice with Hydrogen, An over-abundance of Hydrogen must be available in the reactor tube gas. I also suspect that once operational temperature and pressure is reached, the Hydrogen in the gas surrounding the Nickel lattice permeates the reactor tube and is depleted. However, I also believe that once the Nickel lattice is loaded with Hydrogen and the reactor tube is at a proper pressure (like at least 10X normal atmospheric), Hydrogen is no longer needed in the pressurizing gas in the reactor tube, even a gas without Hydrogen will maintain the loading.

            Under this logic, too much Hydrogen in the reactor tube gas will actually work against you because it will be depleted and the pressure will drop to the point where the Nickel lattice will lose its loading. So another gas of sufficient quantity needs to be present in the reactor tube gas that will not permeate the reactor vessel but will provide high enough pressure to keep the Nickel lattice loaded.

            It’s my opinion that the extreme high temperatures of the e-cat H2 are only needed to maintain a high enough pressure to keep the Nickel lattice loaded. I think once loaded, a much lower temperature can be utilized to produce LENR reactions. The fact that the original e-cat operates at
            a much lower temperature seems to support this hypothesis. However, when a reactor tube is loaded and sealed under normal atmospheric pressure, it’s not possible to reach the pressures necessary. As the Lithium Aluminum Hydride reacts with heat to form Hydrogen, the necessary pressure may be reached but only for a short time since the Hydrogen will permeate the reactor vessel and drop the pressure back under that necessary.

            Maybe a solution is to load and seal the reactor tube under increased pressure which may be difficult to do. A better solution may be to add a chemical to the fuel mix which will release a gas not permeable to the reactor tube.

            Under this logic, I think it is therefore possible to adjust the operating temperature of the reactant fuel by adjusting the reactor tube operational gas pressure. I would like the operational temperature of the reactor to be much lower in order to design much more practical reactor designs such as the one I disclosed on February 15. The high operating temperature of the e-cat H2 is not needed for efficient electrical generation and just causes engineering problems.

            Disclosure Submitted March 8, 2015

            Steven T. Waldo

            All Rights Reserved.

          • Bob Greenyer

            New Facebook post with video and discussion of an experiment conducted at LockTherm LLC.


          • Obvious

            Umm, you can’t increase the pressure of the H with another gas.

          • SteveW

            And you are absolutely sure that another gas cannot maintain pressure on a loaded Nickel lattice and prevent it from unloading?

          • Obvious

            Boyle’s law and maybe Henry’s law…. I am sure, although that doesn’t guarantee that I am right. I can’t think of any valid exception rule.

          • Ted-X

            My own disclosure:
            Make the reactor in the shape of a toroid (or an oval, even a square but a closed shape) and use the principle of a transformer, where the nickel powder (or pellets…) will be a short circuited “second coil, while the originally heating coils will just serve to induce current in the “short circuited nickel”. This will give much better response time in the case of heating. Essentially, replace convection heating with induction heating, where the nickel short-circuited will carry high current. The setup will resemble the principle of the welding transformer. Instead of eddy currents as in tubular reactors, we would have an induced current of high amperage. To test this concept, one could use a reactor (toroidal), made of glass.
            Public Disclosure submitted by Ted-X, March 10, 2015.

          • Mr. Moho

            Cool idea!
            Do you think Rossi made something like that in his early reactors?


  • Gerard McEk

    It would be nice to know that it also works, but perfect initiative!g

  • Private Citizen

    Begs the question of what kind of reactors LockTherm LLC has and how successfully the reactors work.

    Let’s have some info on that, if available.

  • Kim

    Now we have pellet fuel… This is quaint, It will develop from here…

    Place a pellet into center of 2 inch pipe of alumna with the proper wall thickness
    and volume for pressure. Seal it.
    Now Place a 2 inch iron pipe over the alumna,
    and use electromagnetic heat induction to bring to 900c or what is needed for reaction (slowly).

    This is somewhat like what Thomas Edison and the light bulb! and somewhat like an energy


    • You know the electromagnetic heat induction idea may actually have merit, but I think it would require allot of testing and a very thoughtful design to optimize it to perform multiple functions to start and maintain the reaction. Rossi has not used it, but has he even tried it?

      BTW Has anyone asked Rossi if he has a home heating E-Cat working right now for continuous long term testing? Many of the Industrial Heat staff have homes, no doubt. They could just take their work home with them, sort of speak.

      • Kim

        I envision a screw in reactor bulb to the induction base that contains the
        microchips and logic necessary to control fuel pellets and their individual idiosyncrasy.

        I would think that Industrial Heat would probably frown on taking small
        heaters home for testing.


  • Zack Iszard

    Giant pellet press! I’ve used pellet presses in lab before, and they aren’t that complex. The only thing fancier about the one i used was a metal enclosure, a plexiglass window, and a pressure gauge. It doesn’t need to be complex! This pellet pressing would drastically reduce the chemical hazards of LAH.

    • Obvious

      That press is nearly identical to what I use for pressing bearings on and off of shafts. The only difference is that mine has longer legs so it stands on the ground, and has a longer jack. These are cheaply available at many tool stores.

    • Alan DeAngelis

      Yes, a three-piece IR die set (for smaller pellets).

  • friendlyprogrammer

    Great idea..? Sounds good. I think pellets will need to contain the hydrogen if we appreciate the Rossi preloading aspects to avoid average consumers dealing with transportation and handling of hydrogen..

    Also removes the danger of Nickel exposure if that is much of a risk to start with.

  • Axil Axil

    The Russian nickel powder does not work because the Russian powder is not covered with tubercles. If a pellet contained tubercles, the pellet manufacturing process would probably destroy the tubercles. The pellet idea is a bad idea.

    • Freethinker

      But what about Jim Patterson’s beads, e.g. , which by the process they were made also must have been quite smooth, and likely without tubercles. Even if you press pellets, they are bound to have some surface structures and inhomogeneities. Perhaps it is not ideal, but it may still work.

      • Axil Axil

        From your reference:

        “The cell has a non-conductive housing. The cathode is composed of thousands of sub-millimeter microspheres (co-polymer beads), with a flash coat of copper and multiple layers of electrolytically deposited thin film (650 Angstrom) nickel and palladium. The beads are submerged in water with a lithium sulfate[2] (Li2SO4) electrolyte solution.”

        To feed heat energy into the SPPs on the surface of the particle, the Kretschmann
        geometry is used. This is EITHER a rough surface (i.e. tubercles) or a smoth surface method such as a thin film (electrolytically deposited thin film (650 Angstrom) nickel and palladium.).

        The pellet manufacture could well destroy the delicate thickness of thin film on the Patterson microsphers.

        In nano engineering, we must be careful not to destroy nanostructures.

      • Axil Axil

        It may still work.

    • Alain Samoun

      Yes I was wondering about that too. Do we know the ingredients and exact composition of these pellets and, mainly, if they produce LENR?

      • bachcole

        Yeah, seems like manufacturing pellets is a little far ahead of first figuring out if pellets or anything else will work.

        • Agaricus

          Exactly. It seems a very odd thing to do, unless someone has some information that is not in the public arena.

          I think it might be a good idea to ‘go back to basics’ at this point, and just try to build a simple test bed reactor (c/w field coil) that would allow as many possible ‘fuel’ mixes and EM field frequencies as possible to be tested, before settling on one completely unproven mixture in an untested physical format. The chances of this being a viable system seem remote.

          • georgehants

            Morning Peter, would it help if Mr. Rossi et al gave up their desire to become mega rich and released all their knowledge freely to the World?
            Capitalism is I think, again being shown as a terrible system for the World.
            It will be found that the whole censoring conspiracy to hide Cold Fusion can be traced back to the protection of the rich and powerful. (I think)
            Will we sheep ever stand-up and start to change things, I wonder.

          • Agaricus

            Morning George. As you say, capitalism doesn’t seem to be the ideal incubator for critical technologies such as cold fusion. When seen in retrospect it’s possible that the main value of Rossi/IH’s efforts will be seen as providing a demonstration that CF exists and can be harnessed.

            Hundreds of experimenters trying thousands of approaches will be essential to finding optimal systems, and elucidating mechanisms, and obviously that’s only going to happen when one or more viable reactor designs are in the public domain.

            The sheeplike tendencies of the bulk of the population don’t help. How people can fail to question virtually every aspect of the fake world we are forced to live in is beyond me. That’s how the likes of Blair and Diamond not only survive, but prosper.

      • Axil Axil

        If the Russian nickel particles are non functional as I suspect, the LENR reaction is being carried solely by the Lithium Aluminum Hydride. That means that the Pellets will work to the same level as the raw powder method that the Russians have been using.

      • Sanjeev

        So does this conclusively show excess energy ?
        What’s the COP like?

        • Bob Greenyer

          It shows a temperature rise that holds for a period of time depending on the transition metal involved (apparently) and if it is D2 or H2 used.

          I had no time or facility to determine if it is producing anomalous heat. We hope to continue dialogue with them.

  • oceans

    Making pellets and cold fusion devices will be financed and funded just like this 3D tech watch Video

  • Ophelia Rump

    Better that they should seal the powder into standardized cores and distribute the cores.

    • Kim



  • GreenWin

    Once pellets are made this way, they could be subjected to additional treatment to disrupt surface integrity. This could be done by various kinds of etching, physical stress, thermal extremes etc to produce tubercles, stress cracking, gaps, pits and edges, that may enhance the LENR reaction.

    • Owen Geiger

      Seems easier to ‘grow’ or construction ‘nuggets’ of the desired structure.

    • Axil Axil

      If these tubercles, stress cracking, gaps, pits and edges are destroyed by the heating process, then their fabrication is useless. Such topology must stay unaffected by any thermal processes.
      For example, once a nickel particle melts, it is ineffective as a pile of slag..

  • builditnow

    Cold Fusion awareness in the US military.

    Maj. Gen. Tim Ray, director of Global Power in the service’s acquisition realm, seems comfortable to mention Cold Fusion in his discussion of future air dominance.

    “This isn’t a slush fund,” Ray said. “It’s not just. ‘hey I’m going to
    go solve cold fusion, give me a couple of years and I’ll get back to
    you.’ It’s ‘how do I get that power supply correct of that kind of pod
    to do directed energy,’ or ‘how do I get this signature from this range
    to that range?’ ”

    The impression I get is that Cold Fusion is now an informal topic in the military.

    Planning Begins for USAF Next-Gen Air Dominance

    • GreenWin

      LENR-based APUs will be a likely first public application for military. There are others that will not be mentioned or made public.

    • Alan DeAngelis

      More than likely, the real scientists are in the military
      and they let the clowns in academia go their merry way to provide a decoy.

      • Agaricus

        Academic researchers have developed very sensitive antennae for detecting which way the funding breeze is blowing at any given time. When this changes it will carry the acrid smell of burning rubber far and wide.

      • Alan DeAngelis

        “If they can get you asking the wrong questions, they don’t have to worry about answers.”

        Gravity’s Rainbow

        • Agaricus

          “Fascinating” – as Spock would have said. Very strange that Hutchison’s experiments are so studiously ignored by the research community (at least the publicly accessible community).

          • Omega Z

            Some of his projects are fascinating.
            Some say he is trying to break the laws of physics.
            IMO, He is just trying to understand the real laws of physics.
            Something we would expect mainstream science to do. Alas our expectations are going unmet.

    • psi2u2

      Very interesting report. This deserves an independent posting I would think.

  • Bob Greenyer

    Posted some images of some of LockTherm LLCs novel reactor designs.

    • ecatworld

      Bob, do you know if these reactors work — meaning show an LENR reaction taking place?

      • Bob Greenyer

        I will upload some videos and connected discussion, hopefully today.

  • Bob Greenyer

    Some images of induction heated, Parkhomov inspired experimental runs by LockTherm LLC

    • The keyquestion is: did they see something “anomalous” during these tests?
      Some kind of reaction going on?

      Whould be nice if you can find out this information.

      • Gerrit

        Why are they improving a system when they haven’t demonstrated irrefutable evidence of anomalous heat ?

        Is LockTherm another Rossi, keeping things secret until the end of time, or are they more open science oriented ?

        • Omega Z

          I agree. I was hoping for a valid replication but it is becoming just another group involved in LENR research. We will probably have to wait for the pilot plant to finish it’s year long test.

          • Gerrit

            I hope we’ll finally have indisputable results in a year or so, but I fear this topic will just linger on, never go away, never reach an end, nor a beginning.

      • Sanjeev

        The FB post says – “LockTherm LLC representatives did not say if they had seen excess heat in these tests”. So I guess they are still trying to take the first step.

        Also, LockTherm has no web presence (searched only in English, perhaps they have a Russian site with a Russian name?)

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Fortunately we now have medications to prevent this sort of behavior in children.

  • Bob Greenyer
    • Sandy

      “Notice that the pellet that has been in an experiment has changed colour, expanded and fragmented.”

      I wonder if the nickel in the used pellet developed tubercles as it expanded and fragmented. Does heating the pellet encourage nickel atoms to migrate and to form tubercles?

      • Obvious

        I don’t know about the pellet, but micron scale nickel power will start sintering at around 750 C, and after an hour at 900 C should be pretty much fully sintered. The sintering process begins by neck formation, which connects the individual particles, which causes the formation of the tubercules. The problem is mostly keeping the newly formed sponge-like tubercule network from growing ever larger In “particle” size with increased heat. This process is somewhat self limiting as the particles get too big to heat so easily, as the true melting point approaches. Molten lithium and aluminum filling voids may help control this “particle” growth.
        The pelletizing may shortcut some of this process, but the gas release probably is responsible for the expansion and cracking, although other reasons like nucleation of new molecules around individual grains may involve local increases in volume to accommodate the new configuration. Ni to Ni3Al might be an example.

  • Bob Greenyer

    Bang! LockTherm LLC style…

    []=Project Dog Bone=[]

    The next working day after the test shown in our last video, that of the induction heated core, Sergei Godin and his colleague Andrey Hrischanovich ran a few more tests. They then shut the power off to decommission the experiments.

    The reactor cooled down and then at 153ºC there was a loud bang and you can see a result in this picture!

    More images on FB

    Now there is a reversible reaction under 190ºC

    3 LiAlH4 → Li3AlH6 + 2 Al + 3 H2 (R1)

    and indeed, you can see that there is a pressure drop at that time – but the LiAlH4 should all have been converted into LiAl above 400ºC. Perhaps stresses caused by the solidification of Lithium at 180.5ºC caused the failure.

    Whatever the cause, the fragments of the quarts tube are very pretty.

    LockTherm LLC has taken on board the suggestion of using 5 bar of noble gas injection in their experiments to see if the step in heat output effect shown previously can be achieved just through changing pressure/flash cooling without H2.

    • Andreas Moraitis

      The gold-coloured coating looks interesting, most likely it results from alloying. Lithium alloys can show very different colours, some of them may appear yellow:

      “Li2AgAl yellow-pink
      Li2AgGa yellowish
      Li2AgIn golden yellow
      Li2AuTl green-yellow“

      (Hummel, R. E., „Optische Eigenschaften von Metallen und Legierungen: Mit einer Einführung in die Elektronentheorie der Metalle“, Berlin 2013, p. 178.)

      I found no information about Li-Al or Li-Al-Ni alloys, though. The above cited author mentions also Ni60-Al (yellowish) and Ni-Al (blue).