The following post was submitted by Hank Mills.
Over the last twenty years, since 1989 when Pons and Fleischman introduced the technology to the world, researchers have dreamed of developing a robust and economically viable version of the technology. This dream has been realized with the Rossi Effect, and the experiments of Alexander Parkhomov seem to demonstrate these aspects of the technology in a simple manner. If his results can be successfully replicated, a black swan event may be the result.
So far, it seems that every single aspect of the nickel-lithium aluminum hydride reaction is positive.
The elements used in the Rossi Effect are cheap. Nine tenths of a gram of nickel and a tenth of a gram of lithium aluminum hydride costs almost nothing. In reality, the materials used to build the test setup (reactor core, heating elements, power supply, measurement devices) will cost ten thousand times more than the fuel, even though everything needed for a replication can probably be obtained for several hundred dollars.
When this technology hits the mainstream, there will be virtually no fuel cost. The power output from the gram of fuel used in a basic test setup is enormous. If Parkhomov’s data can be confirmed, a gram of fuel can produce at least a thousand watts of constant excess heat. The Lugano report indicates that this heat can continue to be produced for at least a month, if not much longer. The low temperature reactors used in the one megawatt plant (which might use more than one gram of fuel each) have been apparently been running for months, and may run a year without re-fueling.
In addition producing large amounts of excess power (it seems to be fairly easy to produce a COP of 2 to 3) the Rossi Effect enables systems to self-sustain. Test data from various E-Cat devices demonstrate this, and one of Parkhomov’s devices maintained a constant temperature for about eight minutes after the resistor blew. Andrea Rossi says reactors in his low temperature plant can self-sustain for very long periods of time, and we have been told individual “hot cats” can self-sustain for at least two hours.
Once the world recognizes this technology is as real as solar panels, there will be thousands of scientists and engineers working on these systems. I think that in a short period of time, devices will be made that are initially activated with external heat and then self-sustain for days at a time. This means practically infinite COP.
These benefits already make the E-Cat look awesome. But there are more that are seem to be coming to light.
Yesterday, I asked Andrea Rossi on the JONP whether fuel from one reactor can be taken and used in another reactor. He replied, “Yes, but we have to work on the charge before using it in another reactor.” This is a big deal. Right now, there is a dangerous chemical researchers have to use to build these systems – lithium aluminum hydride. This substance is not radioactive, but one breath of it can kill. Also, if exposed to water or humidity, it can cause fires or explosions. Parkhomov seems to have safely used this chemical many times in his experiments without taking almost any safety precautions, but one mistake or accident could result in a tragedy.
Work by various researchers show that several interesting things happen when nickel and lithium aluminum hydride are heated. At fairly low temperatures, hydrogen is released from the LaAlH4. This results in an increase in pressure. However, at a higher temperature, the lithium and aluminum start to melt and coat the individual nickel particles. The lithium in this LiAl alloy still contains hydrogen atoms. At a higher temperature, more hydrogen is released. Interestingly, at some point the hydrogen seems to start to be absorbed by the nickel and other gases (such as oxygen and nitrogen) are gettered (absorbed) by the aluminum which seems to cause a drop in pressure.
When the reactor cools, the fuel seems to consist of nickel particles with hydrogen locked inside, coated with lithium-aluminum alloy. No more LiAlH4 seems to exist, so the threat of toxicity or volatility from that chemical may be gone.
Recently we learned that during an experiment, Alexander Parkhomov had a failure of a resistor wire which caused the reactor to cool down to room temperature. When the heater was repaired and the reactor was heated up again, it started working as before. This suggests that raw chemicals may not be needed to build a device.
We know the fuel of the Lugano device was brought to the testers by Andrea Rossi contained in an envelope. This does not sound safe or even possible if it contained lithium aluminum hydride. However, if it was only nickel particles coated with a lithium-aluminum ally (with the hydrogen locked in), it may have been safe to transport in an envelope.
Currently, there are several replication projects – most in the early stages – going on around the world. Most of them will use a combination of nickel powder, lithium aluminum hydride, and perhaps iron to try and replicate. There is talk about the possibility of kits being offered for qualified, trained scientists to use in order to replicate.
It would be much safer if such kits contained only processed fuel in the form of lithium aluminum alloy covered nickel particles. This fuel would be much less dangerous – although it should still be handled with great care – and could potentially be exposed to atmosphere or humidity without the risk of explosion or fire. Fuel preparation could be done in one or more central locations, and distributed to experimenters.
For all the above reasons, the Rossi Effect seems to be a revolutionary energy technology that will rapidly surpass all others. Tomorrow, when Parkhomov releases more test data, we will learn even more. Maybe we will even learn more about catnip – what makes all E-Cat’s purr. If he has been able to produce self-sustaining heat after death, then his data could very well be almost indisputable.
Of course, even if his device operated without input for hours, third parties need to replicate. We need dozens of groups to replicate this basic effect to convince the world the Rossi Effect is real. But due to the simplicity and benefits of this technology, that should be pretty straightforward to obtain.
Hopefully, when that happens the patent office will grant his patents, Andrea Rossi will be recognized officially for this paradigm shattering discovery, and Industrial Heat proceed to put multiple products on the market, and an incredibly black swan, that no one expects, will be flying for all to see.