The Basics of Cold Fusion — Response to Axil Axil (Andrea Calaon)

The following comment was posted by Andrea Calaon in this thread.

Dear Axil Axil,
You are funny! I like your (quite correct) pushing towards inevitable consequences of the assumptions . . .teleportation . . . magic appearance of protons behind an impregnable metallic wall of atoms . . . If we think about the transmutation of heavy nuclei like Cs, protected as they are by a series of electron shells, … things get possibly even worse . . .

But reality is actually much simpler and less phantasmagoric. If you believe me only for the length of this text, I will tell you what Cold Fusion is and what actually happened inside the Hot Cat!< /p>
The main obstacle for understanding what cold fusion is, has been the fact that so far this civilization has not understood the nature of the nuclear force …

Let us start from the beginning.

Cold Fusion is essentially due to the formation of a neutral pseudo-particle in what is called the Nuclear Active Environment. This particle is made of an hydroge n nucleus and an electron kept together by the same mechanism that keeps together nucleons inside nuclei. In fact the nuclear force is actually electromagnetic (as unbelievable and absurd as it may sound) and can manifest also between electrons and protons. Fortunately one of the necessary conditions for the formation of the neutral particles (I will collectively call them Hyd), is almost never occurring: the electron has to rotate around a naked hydrogen nucleus with its spin aligned and at a VERY low frequency: less than 2 kHz (1836 Hz)! In less “hidden variables terms”, the angular momentum must have a component at very low frequencies . . . No Born-Oppenheimer . . . the guaranteed coherence time of the oscillation must be very long (about 1/2000 of a second) . . .

In a Hyd the proton is bound along the Zitterbewegung trajectory of the electron. Actually it is the electron that moves more because it is much lighter, but anyway …

Rossi stimulates the NAE by switches applied to a normal AC current from the net, obtaining frequencies components that are not higher than a few [kHz]. The same seems to be doing A. Parkhomov.

The Hyds can travel quite freely in matter and are what deeply penetrates the micrometer sized grains. They can grab other nuclei by the same nuclear force mechanism, and have these nuclei react “inside the electron” where quite special nuclear reactions take place. The necessary condition for the attraction with the Hyd is that the nucleus must have a magnetic moment, not necessarily of first order. For example Ni62 does not have magnetic moments and its cross section with the Hyd is therefore zero. Ni61 instead has a magnetic moment and therefore a high “cross section”. In fact Ni61 disappears quickly from the powder (there is no trace of it in the ash …).
The binding energies of the Hyd are: 1.745 [MeV] in the case of p-e and 1.445 [MeV] in the case of d-e. Iwamura measured the photons directly.

The first of the two binding energies prevents the formation of deuterium in the Hot Cat through the reaction:
p+ep(Hyd) > d + neutrino + (max) 1.442[MeV] ­- 1.745[MeV].

This reaction is endothermic and needs 303 [keV] to proceed.

Without deuterium all other reactions of Hyd with protons can not take place. As a consequence during the Lugano test there was almost no production of He4, tritium and He3. However as the reacting nuclei deplete all around the NAEs (during the 32 days of continuous electromagnetic stimulation) the Hyd start to see and react more with other hydrogen nuclei and other Hyd that did not react. When the gamma coming from the formation of a Hyd strikes another Hyd that has captured a second proton, it causes the reaction above to generate deuterium. The efficiency of the reactor then starts to grow, as it was already happening in the last 4 days of the test, because deuterium is the door to the reactions which produce He4, and which are the most energetic of all possible.

Rossi stopped the experiment cautiously before the agreed 35 days because when deuterium appears, apart from the growth in volumetric power density, some tritium (and He4) is actually produced. The decay of tritium is easily detectable and … In practice tritium does not accumulate (there is a precise reason for this), but Andrea wanted anyway to show a “perfectly” clean device, with no tritium and no beta decay. The energy emitted during the 32 days came from the formation of Hyd (ep) and the isotopic shifts of Li and Ni.

In most other Cold Fusion devices instead the majority of the power comes from the generation of Hyd and of He4.
With the help of the electron Cold Fusion can generate tritium without neutrons. This is what explains the so called branching ratio problem.

The main function of Li is its capability to increase the density of NAE and not a special nuclear property.
You correctly noticed that the final ash grains are homogeneous. However in the first part of the Lugano test the grains were actually isotopically layered, as you suggest. As I already mentioned the COP did grow during the last 4 days of the test because the grains were approaching complete isotopic depletion, and the la yering disappeared.
You mentioned neutrons. All Cold Fusion reactions leading to free neutrons are endothermic, apart from this one, which actually requires tritium and deuterium to be present:
t+ed -> He5 + e + 14.387[MeV]
He5 -> He4 + n + 0.735[MeV]

Neutrons can appear only in presence of tritium plus gamma (normally coming from the formation of the Hyd), or when tritium is abundant in presence of ed.

You say: “These protons change themselves into neutron after they enter the Ni58 nucleus”. Actually you are right. It is however the electron that changes the protons to a neutron. But this change does not take place with a proton and an electron generating a free neutron. It happens instead only when the actual “nuclear” reaction between Ni, proton and electron takes place (in this case it is a ternuclear reaction). For example:
Ni60+ep->Ni61 + neutrino + 5.3 [MeV]

The preference for stable nuclei comes from the fact that “inside the electron” the nuclei meet at almost no excess kinetic energy and only stable and less massive nuclei can be assembled. In a way the electron is like a workshop where nuclei are disassembled and assembled at no kinetic energy excess.

Fractionation comes from the acceleration of the electron in the formation o f the Hyd and form the acceleration of the Hyds when coupling to other nuclei. Moreover the final approach between nuclei “inside the electron” before fusion causes the emission of photons as well. This happens because the nuclear force mechanism between oppositely charged particles (e and p/d/t) is much more long range than its version between equally charged protons, and no Coulomb barrier must be overcome. In Cold Fusion the coulomb barrier between nuclei is NEVER overcome kinetically, but only through the nuclear force mechanism. In other words the electron, in very special conditions, can act as a range extender of the nuclear force.

So teleportation is NOT supported by the experimental evidence in the Lugano Report because there are neutral particles flying aroun d. And they are not neutrons.

Now you know the basics of Cold Fusion! I hope you liked the journey.

Andrea Calaon

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