Songsheng Jiang Report Shows Role of Electromagneticsm in LENR Reactions (Hank Mills)

The following post was submitted by Hank Mills

The test by Songsheng Jiang has revealed something truly significant about the nature of how the E-Cat produces excess heat, in my opinion.

The reactor is setup in a unique manner. A thermocouple is placed on the inside of a rectangular nickel container holding the fuel. This thermocouple was damaged so it can be for most purposes ignored. A second thermocouple was placed on the outside of the nickel container. This whole setup was then placed inside of a cylindrical stainless steel chamber. An additional thermocouple was placed between the outside surface of the stainless steel chamber and a resistor. Next, all of these components were placed in a ceramic housing. (See Jiang’s diagram below)

songsheng1

Between the thermocouple on the outside of the innermost chamber and the outside of the stainless steel chamber there is a significant thermal barrier. Songsheng mentions in an answer in the Q and A recently posted that heat was very slow to transfer from the resistors to the interior reactor chamber. This means that an increase in temperature of the resistors would not result in an instant heat up of the outer surface of the nickel chamber.

On several occasions, when the voltage to the resistors is increased, there is a sudden, almost instantaneous burst of heat generated in the core. The thermocouple sitting on the outside of the nickel chamber soars to a temperature beyond what can be registered – around 1370C. The temperature of the resistors, however, is slow to increase. The temperature of the thermocouple near the resistors lags the thermocouple on the outside of the nickel chamber. (See below)

 

songsheng3

songsheng4
This cleaner version of this slide provided by S. Jiang to LENR-CANR.org (see here: http://lenr-canr.org/Collections/Jiang%20DATA%202015-May-04%20to%20May-07.pdf)

The only explanation that makes sense, in my opinion, is that there is a stimulating factor propagating from the resistors to the fuel at a very high speed. This must be the magnetic field produced by the resistors.

A significant portion of the stimulation in the Ni-LiAlH4 E-Cat is magnetic. This would match what Rossi and Cook in their recently published paper “On the Nuclear Mechanisms Underlying the Heat Production by the E-Cat”:

” . . . As important as the solid-state environment and the surrounding electromagnetic field is for inducing nuclear effects, the nuclear reactions themselves appear to occur only in a few specific isotopes and involve only a few specific quantal transitions” (p. 10, emphasis added)

When using DC, the only time the magnetic field can change is when the current increases or decreases. However, with AC, the magnetic field could be far more avaialble to impact the fuel at any power level. This is because due to the nature of AC the field is changing constantly. Only the frequency and harmonics would need to be adjusted to stimulate excess heat producing when using AC. Hence, AC may allow the fuel to be stimulated at the same or lower power level without having to increase the total power. Using DC power may be a wasteful way of providing magnetic stimulation, because the power must be increased. It is possible that with a low power a suitable magnetic field could be produced using AC current.

Hank Mills

 

  • I am not so convinced it is necessarily EM that cause that phenomenon.
    it is well know that change in pressure, temperature, often trigger LENR bursts.

    what is possible is that the change in temperature cause a change in loading in the fuel, a change in grain surface temperature gradient, triggering LENR…

    the electric pulse is very small so I don’t imagien it can have noticable impact.

    at most maybe the change in magnetic field value, can trigger reaction. it was observed.
    Withe the same idea that it is a slow change in equilibrium, not short pulses

    • SG

      I think Hank’s point, though, is that the temperature propagation from the resistors would be too slow to account for the near instantaneous change to the temperature detected by the inner thermocouple. There must be something else causing the tight coupling. An electromagnetic pulse due to the increase of current seems like a plausible suspect.

      • the phenomenon is intriguing and fast.

        I suspect LENR is so chaotic that even tiny change in parameters like heat, or maybe magnetic field can make the burst develop.

        anyway, some noise, vibration or tiny electric pulses (not simply a cool DC slope as would provide a DC supply) could wake up the dragon.

        • GreenWin

          There is literature on nanoplasmonics indicating several kinds of spectra can induce plasmas. In particular SPPs result from laser pulses on thin film metal lattices. As giovanni notes the trigger current in semiconductors also produces fast transients. Using a switching DC power supply might produce similar transients.

          • I would agree with Parkhomov of Rossi’s situation.
            here it is a stabilized DC, and believe me they can make it very clean if they want.
            this technology can power your best processor with very few noise, and high resilience to current increase in the load.

            Heat, and more quickly magnetic field , can change the chemical and magnetic structure of the zone where the NAE exist.
            note also that heating can but faster than what we imagine because the thermocouple react with some delay.

            and yes, I suspect that the system is very sensible, to heat change, to magnetic field change, and to RF.
            but here I don’t think that a stabilized DC supply produce any noticeable RF when changing of setting.

        • Alain Samoun

          In my opinion,it is an induction current produced inside the fuel container that is responsible for the suddent thermal increase. This can be the reason why the latest MFMP test did not work as expected: The metal container, used by Parkhomov, under the induction current increases the heating of the fuel. The nickel powder is difficult to heat,actually a stainless steel container would be even better than a nickel one.

          • Axil Axil

            If the LENR reaction is based on a heat driven process centered on the nickel micro-particles, heating those micro-particles using induction might be the most energy effecent means of injecting energy into the LENR system. In a system like the alumina dogbone, induction might only heat the sub gram pile of micro-particles. This would minimize the power needed to drive the LENR reaction.

            How much electrical power would it take to heat a .5 gram of nickel powder? not much. If any heat from LENR is produced, the COP would be huge because the input power to drive LENR is so very small.

          • Mats002

            Materials that are ferromagnetic at room tempereature – Ni is one of four – lose their ferromagnetic properties at the curie temperature, which is 627 C for Ni. That is almost the same temp that we saw a divergence in GS run 1 between null and active. Over 627 C induction heating stops ‘biting’ on Ni. Coincidence?

          • Axil Axil

            The magnetic nature of nickel does not limit induction heating. Such heating can go as high in temperature as required.

          • Mats002

            You need a ferromagnetic material, that is why alumina pans need an iron plate inside to be ‘bitten’ by the induction heater.

          • Axil Axil

            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6Zrnv4OtbU

            induction heater levitation melting aluminum

          • Mats002

            This procedure makes a terrible sound – don’t think it is the most efficient way to melt alumina…

      • Axil Axil

        The production of nanoparticles can occur very radidly when the supercritical boundary passed. It could be the generation of nanoparticles that produces LENR.

    • giovanniontheweb

      in a simple transistor the trigger is very small too

    • Axil Axil

      change in pressure, temperature, often trigger LENR bursts through the production of nanoparticles that nuclate out of a supercritical gas.

  • I am not so convinced it is necessarily EM that cause that phenomenon.
    it is well know that change in pressure, temperature, often trigger LENR bursts.

    what is possible is that the change in temperature cause a change in loading in the fuel, a change in grain surface temperature gradient, triggering LENR…

    the electric pulse is very small so I don’t imagien it can have noticable impact.

    at most maybe the change in magnetic field value, can trigger reaction. it was observed.
    Withe the same idea that it is a slow change in equilibrium, not short pulses

    • SG

      I think Hank’s point, though, is that the temperature propagation from the resistors would be too slow to account for the near instantaneous change to the temperature detected by the inner thermocouple. There must be something else causing the tight coupling. An electromagnetic pulse due to the increase of current seems like a plausible suspect.

      • the phenomenon is intriguing and fast.

        I suspect LENR is so chaotic that even tiny change in parameters like heat, or maybe magnetic field can make the burst develop.

        anyway, some noise, vibration or tiny electric pulses (not simply a cool DC slope as would provide a DC supply) could wake up the dragon.

        • GreenWin

          There is literature on nanoplasmonics indicating several kinds of spectra can induce plasmas. In particular SPPs result from laser pulses on thin film metal lattices. As giovanni notes the trigger current in semiconductors also produces fast transients. Using a switching DC power supply might produce similar transients.

          • bachcole

            It is so nice seeing http://www.e-catworld.com in the sender’s address when I look in my inbox. I know that when I open the email that I am not going to get my feelings hurt by someone who thinks that it is OK to hurt someone if they disagree. (:->) Today, the skeptopaths are trashing me on two different health sites. (:-<)

          • Just doing their jobs, I imagine – you shouldn’t take it personally. You can’t sell expensive synthetic drugs to people who have found cheap, effective natural alternatives, and the big pharma propaganda war on natural medicine has been in full swing for decades.

          • georgehants

            Morning Peter, all good I hope. nearly time for a glass of red.

          • Hi George – enjoy your leisurely lunch! I’m cleaning out gutters this afternoon, so perhaps I should refrain from any similar tipple for the moment. All well thanks – I hope likewise with yourself.

          • I would agree with Parkhomov of Rossi’s situation.
            here it is a stabilized DC, and believe me they can make it very clean if they want.
            this technology can power your best processor with very few noise, and high resilience to current increase in the load.

            Heat, and more quickly magnetic field , can change the chemical and magnetic structure of the zone where the NAE exist.
            note also that heating can but faster than what we imagine because the thermocouple react with some delay.

            and yes, I suspect that the system is very sensible, to heat change, to magnetic field change, and to RF.
            but here I don’t think that a stabilized DC supply produce any noticeable RF when changing of setting.

          • James Andrew Rovnak

            A step in DC has all kids of frequency content in it & could possible awaken a dead LENR Lady I think just maybe Alan? Jim No sure what Parkhomov’s statement you are referring too? Have trouble finding my way around this talking field? I do like the ideas though!

      • Axil Axil

        The production of nanoparticles can occur very radidly when the supercritical boundary passed. It could be the generation of nanoparticles that produces LENR.

        • LAH_test

          Could you please tell us why you feel that nanoparticles enhances LENR ?

          Is it because of their huge reactive surface area ?

        • James Andrew Rovnak

          Axil some discussion’s with MFMP about control of LENR for you input!
          Mike with your help I think I can write the dynamics equations to predict how to control the replication with some input on decay times of products from lugano. I’ll try & mention this to Bob Greenyer & get Alan involved because we will need some test data form slight modifications ot power source freq content, I think. Bob I’ll also send this to Sanjeev whose plot of power source voltage prompted this idea & my work with control & nuclear kinetics of power stations. Do you have any nuclear engineers with controls background I could discuss these issues with? Think a small analytic team would be very beneficial to support Alan’s testing wiith what you have shown me so far with Alan’s test and data reduction efforts. Sill think TRIAC signal has impact on exciting LENR Lady & we may be able to prove that with some targeted simple test by Alan – not sure how to get in touch with Alan – guess I’ll let Bob handle that. Think Chinese exited their system with frequencies injected by turning DC voltage on & off & were lucky? I think Bob had trouble using VARIAC source in his demo at Padua at ICCF19, just a thought. be glad to talk to anyone interested in these ideas, mean while i’ll further sketch out details of control picture as I am beginning to see it. I you have somebody else to pick up the ball in that area I’d be more than happy to share my crude thoughts about this. I have a lot of experience in many types of reactor control but i am a little rusty & old!

    • giovanniontheweb

      in a simple transistor the trigger is very small too

    • Axil Axil

      change in pressure, temperature, often trigger LENR bursts through the production of nanoparticles that nuclate out of a supercritical gas.

      see

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yBRdBrnIlTQ

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GEr3NxsPTOA

  • Hank Mills

    There are many variables that stimulate the hot cat. Pressure and temperature are two of them. I think in this case, the slow input of heat from the resistor is not able to explain the sudden spike of temperature in the reactor. The resistor is simply heating up too slowly and the barriers between the resistor and core are too significant. This tells me that we need to be modulating our input, AC or DC, to have square waves of sudden increases of current.

    • Roland

      In the first public demo with the single cell low temp E-cat there was a separate low power (75 watts if memory serves) device specifically designed to apply EM stimulation to the reactor core.

      In the Lugano test the heater element was run continuously rather than intermittently (as the apparent control mechanism preventing thermal runaway) in the previous iterations.

      Currently the low temp megawatt plant is operating for longer and longer periods without heater input.

      I think collectively these observations point towards the control mechanism currently employed by Rossi as being electro-magnetic in nature, and that as the other parameters of the reaction are better understood by him that the EM function is increasingly effective at fine level moderation of the reaction.

      Obviously EM is a single aspect of a complex of necessary conditions, but I won’t be the least bit surprised if EM modulation eventually comprises the complete control system in advanced designs.

      • Omega Z

        The original E-cat had 2 so-called heaters. As you say, 1 of those was more then just a heater. The Hot-cat uses resister coils that stimulate the reactor & produces heat. Duel purpose.

        I believe the primary purpose of the resister coils is the stimulation of the Rossi effect once the reactor exceeds a certain temperature. The heat is no longer necessary, but a side effect of the EM field or RF frequencies generated to re-stimulate the fuel.

        • I would be very interested to learn whether MFMP have any plans to experiment with EM stimulation, either using heavily modulated heating current, or (preferably, IMHO) a separate induction coil to be controlled independently of heating requirements, i.e., as in Rossi’s early LT prototypes.

          I have been advocating this for some time, and am convinced that attempts to produce cold fusion without addressing this factor will continue to produce weak results at best.

          • Roland

            Exactly.

            By deduction the inclusion of some type of EM stimulation by Rossi in the early designs arose either through theoretical insight into the fundamental nature of LENR, or an anomaly occurred in the course of experimentation with the then existing apparatus.

            If the EM mechanism arose out of a theoretical understanding of LENR we await the occurrance of a flash of illumination somewhere in this circle of inquiring minds.

            If, on the other hand, the EM mechanism has its roots in an anomalous event we might begin by exploring what goes wrong with induction heaters when they ‘malfunction’.

            Alternatively the trigger may be associated with a naturally occurring phenomena such as the arrival of a high energy particle /wave. I am particularly intrigued by this possibility when thinking about the three unexplained melt-downs at the SPAWAR lab.

          • Axil Axil

            LENR based overunity energy production is a result of the establishment of a positive feedback loop where nucler energy feeds power into the EMF based LENR reaction activation mechanism. This feedback mechanism is quantum mechnically based on entranglement beteen the nuclear reaction and the EMF based causation mechanism.

            See this post

            http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/04/26/a-theory-to-address-the-mysteries-of-lenr-axil-axil/

          • Roland

            Hi Axil,

            The first time I read that post I stumbled when I arrived at your explication of the role of the vacuum in moderating the conservation of energy at the quantum level.

            I confess to having an enduring fascination with David Bohm’s calculation of the bound energy of the vacuum and the ideas expressed in ‘Wholeness and the Implicate Order’ largely because of the philosophical ramifications, including a ‘5th’ dimension that provides a possible mechanism for quantum entanglement and its instantaneous transfer of information and energy outside our 4 dimensional matrix (quantum teleportation?)

            I’ll have to read your post, and the attendant commentary, a few times till it sinks in.

          • My impression is that Rossi is an ‘Edisonian’ inventor who made at least two serendipitous discoveries, and developed a theoretical paradigm slowly, based primarily on observation. His theories may by now have become useful predictive tools, but I very much doubt this was the case at the time of the early LT prototypes.

            The first of these lucky breaks may have arisen from the attempted use of induction heating in order to get rid of vulnerable resistances embedded with the fuel. This may well have resulted in a significant increase in output, and an EM coil would then have become a primary component of all subsequent LT designs. The use of induction heating would incidentally have produced significant eddy currents in the nickel particles which may have given rise to ‘micro’ electrical arcing that may have helped ionise ambient hydrogen, increasing absorption rates.

            The second probably arose when, knowing that an H2 tank was unlikely to be certified for use in non-industrial applications, Rossi added various hydrides to his fuel as an alternative hydrogen souce. He may also have reasoned that the monoatomic hydrogen released by thermal hydride decomposition might increase rate of absorption by the nickel dust. Either way, the LENR-promoting role of lithium must have quickly become obvious.

      • Axil Axil

        Dafkalion used an arc to feed EMF energy into their system. This mechnism has been adopted by the AIRBUS system as explained in their patent.

  • Jouni

    Does the brightness/colour temperature of the resistor change faster than the temperature?
    Could the plasmons have any effect?
    With DC the transient from the change in current is wery small I think, but perhaps measurable though.

    • if LENR is a magnetic bound effect, simply changing DC thus static magnetic field could wake up some NAE and trigger a general burst…

      • Axil Axil

        In the Golden ball, magnetic powder drives the LENR reaction.

        http://www.infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/NIWeekCravens.pdf

        • yes good argument for triggering by static magnetic field change.

          magnetic field probably align the spin of NAE, or serves to support precession like in MRI, and changing it can make a sleeping NAE turn into an active NAE…

          note that Qwave like Brillouin, hyperwave like Energetics, magnetic pulse like Dennis Letts, RF, may also play with the NAE, to align or destabilize, like in MRI.

          • Axil Axil

            The input EMF is a way to inject energy into the system. This energy is converted to an coherent anapole magnetic beam that produces nuclear active particles that produce changes in the nucleus of the atoms that the beam falls upon. THis beam is very powerful on the atomic level.

            See

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwinger_limit

      • Axil Axil

        An arc will produce all sorts of EMF at high effecency like was done in the early dys of radio. This EMF will be captured and converted to electron motion on the surface of the microparticles because this particles act as EMF antennas. This mechanism is what feeds the LENR reaction with energy in the nicron sized particles. Heat feeds energy into the nanoparticle sized particles.

  • Jouni Tuomela

    Does the brightness/colour temperature of the resistor change faster than the temperature?
    Could the plasmons have any effect?
    With DC the transient from the change in current is wery small I think, but perhaps measurable though.

    • if LENR is a magnetic bound effect, simply changing DC thus static magnetic field could wake up some NAE and trigger a general burst…

      • Axil Axil

        In the Golden ball, magnetic powder drives the LENR reaction.

        http://www.infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/NIWeekCravens.pdf

        • yes good argument for triggering by static magnetic field change.

          magnetic field probably align the spin of NAE, or serves to support precession like in MRI, and changing it can make a sleeping NAE turn into an active NAE…

          note that Qwave like Brillouin, hyperwave like Energetics, magnetic pulse like Dennis Letts, RF, may also play with the NAE, to align or destabilize, like in MRI.

          • James Andrew Rovnak

            Alan just some thoughts along lines of Axil Axil discussions

            Mike with your help I think I can write the dynamics equations to predict how to control the replication with some input on decay times of products from lugano. I’ll try & mention this to Bob Greenyer & get Alan involved because we will need some test data form slight modifications ot power source freq content, I think. Bob I’ll also send this to Sanjeev whose plot of power source voltage prompted this idea & my work with control & nuclear kinetics of power stations. Do you have any nuclear engineers with controls background I could discuss these issues with? Think a small analytic team would be very beneficial to support Alan’s testing wiith what you have shown me so far with Alan’s test and data reduction efforts. Sill think TRIAC signal has impact on exciting LENR Lady & we may be able to prove that with some targeted simple test by Alan – not sure how to get in touch with Alan – guess I’ll let Bob handle that. Think Chinese exited their system with frequencies injected by turning DC voltage on & off & were lucky? I think Bob had trouble using VARIAC source in his demo at Padua at ICCF19, just a thought. be glad to talk to anyone interested in these ideas, mean while i’ll further sketch out details of control picture as I am beginning to see it. I you have somebody else to pick up the ball in that area I’d be more than happy to share my crude thoughts about this. I have a lot of experience in many types of reactor control but i am a little rusty & old!

          • Axil Axil

            An arc will produce all sorts of EMF at high effecency like was done in the early days of radio. This EMF will be captured and converted to electron motion on the surface of the microparticles because this particles act as EMF antennas. This mechanism is what feeds the LENR reaction with energy in the micron sized particles. Heat feeds energy into the nanoparticle sized particles.

          • James Andrew Rovnak

            Axil I agree, but you don’t even need an arc,.Radio antennas just oscillate electrons, Same with a DC step thru switches like in TRIACs operation. Many places to get surface plasmon resonances (SPR) on surfaces of Ni moving.. Larsen demonstrates these beautifully in his slide presentation available to all. He even goes a far to show how coal can be transmuted to other isotope releasing nuclear energy instead of chemical burning once you present it with ULM neutron source as Rossi has in his transmutations & nuclear engineers must deal with after shutting down a Nuclear Reactor at the end of its fuel cycle also called heat after death (HAD) acronym Alan Goldwater & crew looks for. When Rossi is in (ssm) LENR mode he is operating on a decay heat type process all nuclear engineers are taught to understand & deal with in removing its built up heat on shutdown. Thank you for your incite Axil! Your long time friend & admirer Jim

          • Axil Axil

            The input EMF is a way to inject energy into the system. This energy is converted to an coherent anapole magnetic beam that produces nuclear active particles that produce changes in the nucleus of the atoms that the beam falls upon. THis beam is very powerful on the atomic level.

            See

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwinger_limit

  • Alain Samoun

    In my opinion,it is an induction current produced inside the fuel container that is responsible for the suddent thermal increase. This can be the reason why the latest MFMP test did not work as expected: The metal container, used by Parkhomov, under the induction current increases the heating of the fuel. The nickel powder is difficult to heat,actually a stainless steel container would be even better than a nickel one.

    • Axil Axil

      If the LENR reaction is based on a heat driven process centered on the nickel micro-particles, heating those micro-particles using induction might be the most energy effecent means of injecting energy into the LENR system. In a system like the alumina dogbone, induction might only heat the sub gram pile of micro-particles. This would minimize the power needed to drive the LENR reaction.

      How much electrical power would it take to heat a .5 gram of nickel powder? not much. If any heat from LENR is produced, the COP would be huge because the input power to drive LENR is so very small.

      • Mats002

        Materials that are ferromagnetic at room tempereature – Ni is one of four – lose their ferromagnetic properties at the curie temperature, which is 627 C for Ni. That is almost the same temp that we saw a divergence in GS run 1 between null and active. Over 627 C induction heating stops ‘biting’ on pure Ni. Coincidence?

        • Axil Axil

          The magnetic nature of nickel does not limit induction heating. Such heating can go as high in temperature as required.

          • Mats002

            You need a ferromagnetic material, that is why alumina pans need an iron plate inside to be ‘bitten’ by the induction heater.

          • Axil Axil

            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6Zrnv4OtbU

            induction heater levitation melting aluminum

          • Mats002

            This procedure makes a terrible sound – don’t think it is the most efficient way to melt alumina… And there are ways of introducing nanoporous anodic alumina substrates filled with ferromagnetic nanowires, but that is not pure Al. If our Ni was filled with ferromagnetic nanowires it would become ferrromagnetic. And this is what possibly happens with alloying Al-Li from LiAlH4. The pure Ni on the null side is not ferromagnetic at 627+ C.

  • wonderboy

    Alright my savvy internet comrades, will the Songsheng report help replication efforts like MFMP?

    Has Rossie commented on the Songsheng report??

  • MasterBlaster7

    If you guys are interested in LENR and magnetism…check this out

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/01/24/report-from-cold-fusion-101-at-mit-barry-simon/

    then if you want the data and graphs….Find Youtube user…”ColdFusionNow”…There are four 2015 MIT lectures on LENR….each are about 3 1/2 hours long….But the swartz stuff is usually about the last hour….and the magnetic nanor swartz stuff is (if I remeber right) on the last or second to last day at the last hour of the videos.

    That is the best material on Magnetism and LENR.

    • Axil Axil

      The following post addressed this video that master blaster editied out.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QxBJjWzlKl0

      In addition to loading deuterium, the other thing that platting palladium does is that this method produces nanoparticles. It might well be that these nanoparticles make this plating method LENR active.

      Producing nanoparticles is what is going on inside the Dogbone. The thermal picture shows that the reaction is centered on the nanoparticles.

      • MasterBlaster7

        Oh yah….I edited that out because that wasn’t the 2015 MIT video I was trying to get from “ColdFusionNow”. It kept embedding itself and that isn’t what I was trying to point to.

  • Axil Axil

    Rossi has set the pattern for replication after the release of the Lagano report. In that demo, Rossi used a constant current to feed the heaters. The type of heater feed was unknown before the Lagano demo. Rossi used this feed to make sure that the Lagano reactor did not blowout.

    It is time to get back to the pulsed current heater feed that has been standard since Rossi introduced his reactor four years ago. Rossi has always used a pulsed current.

    I would like to see experiments performed that test pulsed currents where heaters and not involved. A pulsed current producing an arc can heat the reactor just as will as a heater can. The pulse can be shortend and the voltage can be increased in the experiments.

    These arcs can produce a large magnetic field very close to the nickel powder. The arc can be plased directly in the volume of the powder if the power of the arc is adjusted to protect the powder. How long will the Lagano replication stage last and when will the LENR inovation stage begin?

    • Omega Z

      Axil Axil
      The way Rossi uses the resister coils would fully envelop the Nickel in a magnetic field from all sides. Using an AC magnetic field, He can also vary the frequency from extremely Low to extremely High Frequency.

      I would note that in the past, people questioned why Rossi had to reapply heat to the reactor. I suspect he wasn’t. He was actually stimulating the Rossi effect with magnetic or RF frequencies. Any heat generated in this process is merely a consequence. Not a necessity. In fact, Heat is only required when starting up the reactor.

      That calls into question those who suggest using reflectors to feedback heat to the reactor. 1) it is not necessary and 2) that would defeat the technologies value if the heat generated is needed for feedback to work. I would suggest to MFMP & anyone else thinking along these lines to not waste their time in such attempts.

      Keep the effect stimulated, it will provide it’s own heat. If the effect is not stimulated, All the heat feedback in the world will not help.

    • James Andrew Rovnak

      No, Axil there is a PCE 830 power analyzer screen picture of current pulses & their power spectrum in the Lugano report clearly showing the EM content & nature of TRIAC based power signal heating the Hot E-Cat!

  • Axil Axil

    Rossi has set the pattern for replication after the release of the Lagano report. In that demo, Rossi used a constant current to feed the heaters. The type of heater feed was unknown before the Lagano demo. Rossi used this feed to make sure that the Lagano reactor did not blowout.

    It is time to get back to the pulsed current heater feed that has been standard since Rossi introduced his reactor four years ago. Rossi has always used a pulsed current.

    I would like to see experiments performed that test pulsed currents where heaters and not involved. A pulsed current producing an arc can heat the reactor just as will as a heater can. The pulse can be shortend and the voltage can be increased in the experiments.

    These arcs can produce a large magnetic field very close to the nickel powder. The arc can be placed directly in the volume of the powder if the power of the arc is adjusted to protect the powder. How long will the Lagano replication stage last and when will the LENR inovation stage begin?

    • Omega Z

      Axil Axil
      The way Rossi uses the resister coils would fully envelop the Nickel in a magnetic field from all sides. Using an AC magnetic field, He can also vary the frequency from extremely Low to extremely High Frequency.

      I would note that in the past, people questioned why Rossi had to reapply heat to the reactor. I suspect he wasn’t. He was actually stimulating the Rossi effect with magnetic or RF frequencies. Any heat generated in this process is merely a consequence. Not a necessity. In fact, Heat is only required when starting up the reactor.

      That calls into question those who suggest using reflectors to feedback heat to the reactor. 1) it is not necessary and 2) that would defeat the technologies value if the heat generated is needed for feedback to work. I would suggest to MFMP & anyone else thinking along these lines to not waste their time in such attempts.

      Keep the effect stimulated, it will provide it’s own heat. If the effect is not stimulated, All the heat feedback in the world will not help.

    • James Andrew Rovnak

      No, Axil there is a PCE 830 power analyzer screen picture of current pulses & their power spectrum in the Lugano report clearly showing the EM content & nature of TRIAC based power signal heating the Hot E-Cat!

  • Magnon

    A pulsed magnetic field can lead to triboelectric static charging of Ni particles, when Ni particles are moving in a magnetic field and rubbing against other material. When Ni particles are charged, they have a high voltage potential V /m, that can accelerate protons to high speed into Ni particles. 8 micrometer size of the particle seems to be ideal for a triboelectric charging. Triboelectric static charge builds up very fast and can last over a long period of time ( self sustaining mode time ) ?

    • James Andrew Rovnak

      Interesting Magnon for sure!

  • Gerard McEk

    That is also what I already reported in Hank’s previous post. This again pleas for the LENR controller I have proposed a few weeks ago. I hope to persuate a supplier to have this made by a group of students, otherwise I may have to go to NI and get one with their support.

    • James Andrew Rovnak

      Good idea Gerard I mentioned it again today to Goodyer ! Jim , PCE 830 power analyzer is nice but there is a need for more as you & Axil rightly see! Jim again IMHO

  • Gerard McEk

    That is also what I already reported in Hank’s previous post. This again pleas for the LENR controller I have proposed a few weeks ago. I hope to persuate a supplier to have this made by a group of students, otherwise I may have to go to NI and get one with their support.

    • James Andrew Rovnak

      Good idea Gerard I mentioned it again today to Goodyer ! Jim , PCE 830 power analyzer is nice but there is a need for more as you & Axil rightly see! Jim again IMHO

  • Observer

    How important are resonant phonons in the nickel lattice?

    Are we dealing with 10 micron diameter bells with an electro-magnetic clapper?

    • Axil Axil

      We are dealing with micron sized dipole antennas.

      • Observer

        And what are the charge carriers, electrons or interstitial protons? Both?
        —……….+++
        -.-.-……+.+.+
        -..-..-..+..+..+
        -…-..+-..+…+
        -….-+…-+….+
        -….+-…+-….+
        -…+..-.+..-…+

        center of mass “rings”

        • Axil Axil

          As I understand surface plasmon polariton theory, the charge carrier is the electron with vibrates in a dipole motion, The dipole is fixed on a “Hole”.

          I posted this reference below that I beleive has a good explanation of this point

          http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1405/1405.1657.pdf

        • James Andrew Rovnak

          Both, ULM neutron created in hydrogen ion electron collision in proximity of metals having large cross section for isotope creation starting & maintaining New Fire of that I am sure! Note these are sub thermal kinetic neutrons being thermalized but form isotopes before that equilibrium can occur!

  • Observer

    How important are resonant phonons in the nickel lattice?

    Are we dealing with 10 micron diameter bells with an electro-magnetic clapper?

    • Axil Axil

      We are dealing with micron sized dipole antennas.

      • Observer

        And what are the charge carriers, electrons or interstitial protons? Both?
        —……….+++
        -.-.-……+.+.+
        -..-..-..+..+..+
        -…-..+-..+…+
        -….-+…-+….+
        -….+-…+-….+
        -…+..-.+..-…+

        center of mass “rings”

        • Axil Axil

          As I understand surface plasmon polariton theory, the charge carrier is the electron with vibrates in a dipole motion, The dipole is fixed on a “Hole”.

          When the dipole motion become coherent, my guess is that the elecrons vibrate in a group as per your first line of diagram.

          I posted this reference below that I beleive has a good explanation of this point

          http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1405/1405.1657.pdf

        • James Andrew Rovnak

          Both, ULM neutron created in hydrogen ion electron collision in proximity of metals having large cross section for isotope creation starting & maintaining New Fire of that I am sure! Note these are sub thermal kinetic neutrons being thermalized but form isotopes before that equilibrium can occur!

  • Zephir

    I’m in increasing suspicion, that the cold fusion is actually scalar wave technology, where dark matter particles residing at the surface of atom nuclei participate. These particles are so-called anapoles and they don’t manifest with electromagnetic charge, but with magnetic field only.

    • Axil Axil

      This is very close to the truth. How did you come to this revelation?

      • Mats002

        With all due respect Axil, how can you know the truth about this phenomenon?

        • Axil Axil

          I am confident that the theory is good because all the dots are connected including the lack of radiation when the reaction is hot and the production of gamma when the reaction is cold. Also, the lack of radioactive ash. The isotopic production of Ni62 in a nickel microparticle as seen in the Lagano data without any change in microparticles physical structure.

          Any theory that can explain all these things must be close to the truth.

          • Mats002

            Close is relative, I see your point.

        • Zephir

          Check the Frank Znidarsic theory of cold fusion – he attributes the cold fusion to the mutual interaction of longitudinal and transverse waves at the interface of atom orbitals and atom nuclei. These waves are in resonance just at the frequency in few MHz range which seems to catalyze the cold fusion most.

          http://coldfusionnow.org/frank-znidarsic-lenr-antigravity-and-a-new-age-of-wonder/

          • Stephen

            I like his theory a lot too. I saw he replied to a post here some weeks ago. I hope he still follows this site and makes a post some time. I wanted to ask him if he has extended his theory to the nucleus and if this can lead to possible routs across the coulmb barrier. His book is also worth reading.

        • bachcole

          Axil Axil edited his comment. This is good since is displayed either secret knowledge or a great deal of arrogance. I love self-correction.

        • James Andrew Rovnak

          Easily, not very deep if you know about surface plasmon resonances & ULM ultra low momentum neutron source from electron proton (hydrogen ions) collisions to start & maintain the isotope transmutation chain process Rossi used to get his energy.! Jim Mats002

  • khashayarsha

    Vibration within nickle lattice due to AC magnetic field may give rise to +ve and -ve peaks chaotically and randomly and the number of these peaks per second seems to depend on mass(m) and frequency(f) and temperature(T) of the lattice. A pulse has a wide spectrum and contains odd or even harmonics. These peaks of vibrations(energy) /second may be the fundamental factor for excess heat(perhaps producing enough energy for transmutation) and is difficult to stabilise it unless under any condition the required frequency is applied. So for ssm the control system should be able to control frequency versus temperature change which seems to be difficult to maintain due to slow nature of TC used.(perhaps internal pyrometry may help).

  • khashayarsha

    Vibration of atoms within nickle lattice due to AC magnetic field may give rise to +ve and -ve peaks of vibration chaotically and randomly within the lattice. The number of these peaks per second may depend on mass(m), frequency(f) and temperature of the lattice . These peaks also could have enough energy that may cause transmutation. A pulse has a wide spectrum and may contain odd and even harmonics to give rise to a particular no. of peaks of vibration within lattice. Now to have ssm mode frequency should be exact and controlled as temperature changes which is difficult to maintain due to slow response of TC used. I think a control system using pyrometry would be much faster.

  • khashayarsha

    Vibration of atoms within nickle lattice due to AC magnetic field may give rise to +ve and -ve peaks of vibration chaotically and randomly within the lattice. The number of these peaks per second may depend on mass(m), frequency(f) and temperature of the lattice . These peaks also could have enough energy that may cause transmutation. A pulse has a wide spectrum and may contain odd and even harmonics to give rise to a particular no. of peaks of vibration within lattice. Now to have ssm mode frequency should be exact and controlled as temperature changes which is difficult to maintain due to slow response of TC used. I think a control system using pyrometry would be much faster.

  • Thomas Clarke

    Another way in which this data makes sense is as follows:

    Suppose T3 is not damaged, and T2 is damaged, or by mistake has the wrong scaling factor applied (easy to do, anyone who has used X10 scope probes will know).

    Evidence for T3 not being damaged is that it almost exactly follows T1 – the chances of this happening with damage are surely small.

    Evidence for T2 being scaled wrong is that the noise on T2 is much larger than on T3. Though it is unclear to me why T2/T3 have noise and T1 does not.

    If you scale T2 down to follow T1 you can see that it responds with similar speed.

    • Obvious

      Suppose that T3 is not damaged, and the reaction is so selectively exothermic that it cools the core to zero, then recovers.
      That way the reaction needs added heat or equivalent to sustain, or it will overcool, and halts the reaction.
      If the metals inside melt, the particles are destroyed, and the reaction halts.
      The happy medium heat inside keeps it alive. The interior metals need to absorb energy at one energy level and emit it at another that is not absorbed in order to work this way. The T3 thermocouple gets a hit of the heat and cold and so acts erratically, finally achieving balance as the reaction stabilizes.
      ……

  • Axil Axil

    The nickel micro-particles act like dipole antennas that gather EMF from the space around them. Like any antenna, the EMF from the space around the antenna brings in signal from a volume of space that is surprisingly large. In this process of EMF reception, this power is converted to dipole motion of electrons on the surface of the micro-particles.

    • Axil Axil

      See this picture of microparticle dipole EMF reception.

  • Jouni Tuomela

    Please remember the chopped sine wave Rossi could be using:
    http://www.ecat-thenewfire.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Laboratory.jpg

    • Jouni Tuomela

      From the table:

      • Axil Axil

        It looks like Rossi is turning a sin wave into a square wave. We have seen the square wave in use from the Lagano test picture of his input power feed.

        • Obvious

          Note that off period is twice as long as the on period. If SSM fills in the gap, then COP of three is the result.

    • James Andrew Rovnak

      Right on Jouni these EM waves supply the surface plasmon resonances of electrons required to supply the ULM neutrons for isotope chain initiation through interaction with electron – hydrogen ions to fproduce these neutrons to fuel the transmutation seen in Rossi E Cats in general to start & possibly maintain the transmutation process where energy is made. Nuclear engineers are trained to deal with heat after death (HAD) Alan Goldwaters crew looks for in their post test data analysis to ascertain the LENR lady has visited. Jim

  • Axil Axil

    Nanoparticles act as vortex power amplifiers. The power is produced by the microparticles and the vortexes on the surface of the microparticles are amplified by the nano particle aggreations on the surfaces of the micropaticles.

    See this post

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/04/01/plasmonics-with-a-twist-taming-optical-tornadoes-on-the-nanoscale-axil-axil/

  • Ophelia Rump

    It would be interesting to spin a strong permanent magnet near one of the devices and see if that could be used instead of fluctuating current to the resistors. The energy costs would become insignificant.

  • Ophelia Rump

    It would be interesting to spin a strong permanent magnet near one of the devices and see if that could be used instead of fluctuating current to the resistors. The energy costs would become insignificant.

    • Dave Lawton

      You just need to find the sweet spot.

  • Dave Lawton

    I believe I have hinted at this before.
    Harold Aspdens 1994 Cold Fusion patent uses a trains of AC pulsed oscillations using
    Silicon controlled rectifiers.The pulsed magnetic field acting as the the catalyst.

  • Obvious

    Suppose that T3 is not damaged, and the reaction is so selectively exothermic that it cools the core to zero, then recovers.
    That way the reaction needs added heat or equivalent to sustain, or it will overcool, and halts the reaction.
    If the metals inside melt, the particles are destroyed, and the reaction halts.
    The happy medium heat inside keeps it alive. The interior metals need to absorb energy at one energy level and emit it at another that is not absorbed in order to work this way. The T3 thermocouple gets a hit of the heat and cold and so acts erratically, finally achieving balance as the reaction stabilizes.
    ……

  • Stephen

    Its very interesting this EM discussion as it has come up several times in the recent posts. Andrea Rossi often talks about lessons learnt from the lugano test and because the isotope analysis is so striking we focus on this but i don’t think he mentioned the isotopes specifically. I wonder if it could also be something like the EM/RF.

    As well as sign wave chopping from the input current, there maybe some interesting RF signatures from the processes occurring in the device for example:

    Note in the dog-bone and E-cat type devices the EM is applied in the heater coil and this would also produce an alternating magnetic field down the length of the device. I was wondering if in the case the gas inside has some ionised elements or if the gas itself had become a plasma then it would rotate around the magnetic field effectively around its circumference. In the case of electrons if this rotation occurred it may cause some kind of Bremstrahlung type radiation and I suppose for ions to. The rotation effect should be alternating back and forward in direction due to the alternating current if the plasma or ionised elements have enough energy perhaps this also has an acceleration/deceleration effect (at 50 Hz?) that can give rise to a EM signature at radio wavelengths? Im not sure what effect EM Sine wave chopping would have on this though.

    Perhaps Langmuir waves which occur in plasmas due to density oscillations in an electrically neutral plasma also play part. Im also wondering if we have a rotating ionised gas if it could be
    considered a neutral plasma. If so then maybe we have some kind of combination of Langmuir waves and Bremstrahlung radiation.

    I wonder if we can expect some Alfven wave like (but higher density) behaviour in these devices. Alfven waves are often associated solar flares and propagate along the magnetic axis. They are generated from the density fluctuation ions in the magnetic field and the returning force of that magnetic field. Maybe the alternating current, Sine wave chopping or the size of the device prohibits
    this.

    But it also possible more local effects are seen due to magnetic affects from Axil Axil SPP etc.

    I wonder what kind of measurements and devices could help in the analysis if this.

    • Axil Axil

      Andrea Rossi
      June 5th, 2015 at 9:20 PM
      Dan C.:
      The concert model is proper: wherein many instruments can make a harmony that is not just the sum of single sounds: resonances can generate virtual entities whose energy is higher than the sum of the energy of the singles.
      The Mouse has a driving license, of course!
      Next time you bake a cake I send him to make the pick up.
      Speaking seriously: thank you for your insight.
      Warm Regards
      A.R.

      What is the nature of the E cat music? Music as we know it is carried in the air as sound. It involves vibrations in the air. Air carries music to us.

      In the E Cat, Hot Cat and so on, vibration is carries by dipole motion of electrons on the surface of the micro particles. When all the micro particles are in resonance, all the electrons on all the nickel micro particles are vibrating in unison. This is called a Bose Einstein condensate. All the dipoles become one and are in sync.

      These dipoles put out a strong EMF field that can influence other dipoles in other reactors. It may be that many reactors in the cluster become synchronize to form a global Bose Einstein condensate where all the dipoles keep each other in sync. This common background EMF field may allow for reactors to share energy between one another via a common EMF field that surrounds the cluster. In such a condition input power may not be needed to pump the dipoles between and among the reactors in the cluster.

      Maybe Rossi has discovered how to interconnect the reactors in his cluster to share in the dipole vibrations by using an EMF based backbone interconnect so that all the dipoles are joined together in a cluster wide Bose condinsate.?

      “The Mouse has a driving license, of course!”

      The Mouse may be a driver of the dipole vibrations. This could be how the mouse drives the Cat.

      An experiment to try to verify this idea is to have a reactor made up of a stack of multiple alumina tubes. Place fuel in all the tubes, but power only one of the tubes with a heater. Let us call that powered reactor :”the mouse”. This mouse has a reduced fuel load as in the last MFMP test to keep it from blowout. The other tubes are fully loaded with fuel and use the heat from the mouse and the EMF generated by the mouse to produce the reaction in all the fully fueled tubes.

      The EMF field that comes from the Mouse might keep all the other reactors in the stack in check even if they are fully loaded with fuel.

      Rossi might have thought that just a demo of the mouse at Lagano would not show his technology. He might be using a reactor stack to produce self sustain mode.

      Rossi may have said a little too much this time.

      • Stephen

        It would be a great experiment someday 🙂 and I would love to see it behave that way too. I guess initially though even a way to measure the RF in the current experiments would be great to see. Finding and Selecting equipment for the right frequency band might be difficult though.

        I tend to think Andrea Rossi says what he can when asked the right question, but is careful to stay within his agrremement with IH and his customer. I get the feeling he enjoys seeing the work done by replication teams as much as us. In a way we are all resonating in the music of LENR 🙂 I hope he can continue to help nudge us gently to the right insights. Each day I look forward to his occasional helpful replies.

        • Axil Axil

          The question to be answered by experiments is as follows:

          Does only heat drive the reaction, or does a combintion of heat and EMF drive the reaction?

          If EMF drives the reaction then a system like Paolo Savaris has developed (see above) makes for the best “Mouse” because it produces loads of EMF.

          • Stephen

            I fully agree. It does make sense to check out the heat only reactions first though I suppose. Then introduce EMF stimulation in which ever form or other kinds of stimulation later once the heat profile is better characterised.

  • Stephen

    Its very interesting this EM discussion as it has come up several times in the recent posts. Andrea Rossi often talks about lessons learnt from the lugano test and because the isotope analysis is so striking we focus on this but i don’t think he mentioned the isotopes specifically. I wonder if it could also be something like the EM/RF. Perhaps he is able to use the EM/RF to stimulate other devices some how through some kind of resonance there by propagating the SSM?

    As well as sine wave chopping from the input current, there maybe some interesting RF signatures from the processes occurring in the device it self for example:

    In the dog-bone and E-cat type devices the EM is applied in the heater coil and this would also produce an alternating magnetic field down the length of the device. I was wondering if in the case the gas inside has some ionised elements or if the gas itself had become a plasma then it would rotate around the magnetic field effectively around its circumference. In the case of electrons if this rotation occurred it may cause some kind of Bremstrahlung type radiation and I suppose for ions to. The rotation effect should be alternating back and forward in direction due to the alternating current if the plasma or ionised elements have enough energy perhaps this also has an acceleration/deceleration effect (at 50 Hz?) that can give rise to a EM signature at radio wavelengths? Im not sure what effect EM Sine wave chopping would have on this though. But I do wonder if the chopping and AC can lead to density fluctuations in an ionised gas that could result in more interactions and collisions.

    Perhaps Langmuir waves which occur in plasmas due to density oscillations in an electrically neutral plasma also play part. Im also wondering if we have a rotating ionised gas if it could be
    considered a neutral plasma. If so then maybe we have some kind of combination of Langmuir waves and Bremstrahlung radiation.

    I wonder if we can expect some Alfven wave like (but higher density) behaviour in these devices. Alfven waves are often associated solar flares and propagate along the magnetic axis. They are generated from the density fluctuation ions in the magnetic field and the returning force of that magnetic field. But maybe the alternating current, Sine wave chopping or the size of the device prohibits this.

    It also possible more local effects are seen due to magnetic effects from Axil Axil SPP etc it would be amazing if we can see signatures for these type of phenomena.

    I wonder what kind of measurements and devices could help in the analysis if this.

    Could we also measure the RF Produced by processing/filtering the current used to heat or energise the LENR device for higher frequency effects. I suppose the coil it self would act like some kind of antenna. If so could there be coupling/resonance effects of this type of radiation between the coils on different devices? If a single coil is used for different cells as in the current MFMP GS3 could this affect both cells? It would be great if there is an RF expert out there with some ideas.

    • Axil Axil

      Andrea Rossi
      June 5th, 2015 at 9:20 PM
      Dan C.:
      The concert model is proper: wherein many instruments can make a harmony that is not just the sum of single sounds: resonances can generate virtual entities whose energy is higher than the sum of the energy of the singles.
      The Mouse has a driving license, of course!
      Next time you bake a cake I send him to make the pick up.
      Speaking seriously: thank you for your insight.
      Warm Regards
      A.R.

      What is the nature of the E cat music? Music as we know it is carried in the air as sound. It involves vibrations in the air. Air carries music to us.

      In the E Cat, Hot Cat and so on, vibration is carries by dipole motion of electrons on the surface of the micro particles. When all the micro particles are in resonance, all the electrons on all the nickel micro particles are vibrating in unison. This is called a Bose Einstein condensate. All the dipoles become one and are in sync.

      These dipoles put out a strong EMF field that can influence other dipoles in other reactors. It may be that many reactors in the cluster become synchronize to form a global Bose Einstein condensate where all the dipoles keep each other in sync. This common background EMF field may allow for reactors to share energy between one another via a common EMF field that surrounds the cluster. In such a condition input power may not be needed to pump the dipoles between and among the reactors in the cluster.

      Maybe Rossi has discovered how to interconnect the reactors in his cluster to share in the dipole vibrations by using an EMF based backbone interconnect so that all the dipoles are joined together in a cluster wide Bose condinsate.?

      “The Mouse has a driving license, of course!”

      The Mouse may be a driver of the dipole vibrations. This could be how the mouse drives the Cat.

      An experiment to try to verify this idea is to have a reactor made up of a stack of multiple alumina tubes. Place fuel in all the tubes, but power only one of the tubes with a heater. Let us call that powered reactor :”the mouse”. This mouse has a reduced fuel load as in the last MFMP test to keep it from blowout. The other tubes are fully loaded with fuel and use the heat from the mouse and the EMF generated by the mouse to produce the reaction in all the fully fueled tubes.

      The EMF field that comes from the Mouse might keep all the other reactors in the stack in check even if they are fully loaded with fuel.

      Rossi might have thought that just a demo of the mouse at Lagano would not show his technology. He might be using a reactor stack to produce self sustain mode.

      Rossi may have said a little too much this time.

      • Stephen

        It would be a great experiment someday 🙂 and I would love to see it behave that way too. I guess initially though even a way to measure the RF in the current experiments would be great to see. Finding and Selecting equipment for the right frequency band might be difficult though.

        I tend to think Andrea Rossi says what he can when asked the right question, but is careful to stay within his agrremement with IH and his customer. I get the feeling he enjoys seeing the work done by replication teams as much as us. In a way we are all resonating in the music of LENR 🙂 I hope he can continue to help nudge us gently to the right insights. Each day I look forward to his occasional helpful replies.

        • Axil Axil

          The question to be answered by experiments is as follows:

          Does only heat drive the reaction, or does a combintion of heat and EMF drive the reaction?

          If EMF drives the reaction then a system like Paolo Savaris has developed (see above) makes for the best “Mouse” because it produces loads of EMF.

          • Stephen

            I fully agree. It does make sense to check out the heat only reactions first though I suppose. Then introduce EMF stimulation in which ever form or other kinds of stimulation later once the heat profile is better characterised.

  • Paolo Savaris

    Hy

    Two year ago, I have already tested a reactor with
    double feed of Hydrogen (via Hydride and gas).

    The heater of the reactor was realized with a heater
    cartridge in the innermost part of it.

    The active mix (Ni+LiAl-Hydride ) was placed in an
    intermediate part and in the outermost part a water flux was employed for heat
    extraction and energy measurements.

    An “ignition system” was inserted in reaction chamber
    and it was built with a Nickel electrode connected with an AC (50 Hz) 5000 Volt
    source.
    This system created an electric arc toward the active
    powder and the wall of the reactor; for this the K-type TC were disturbed (with
    values out of range or with minus sign).

    It was impossible to collect data with this ignition
    system ON. This even if the thermocouples were inserted inside the tubes of
    brass used for water circulation This even if the thermocouples were inserted
    inside the tubes of brass used for water circulation (ie away from the core of
    the reactor).
    This even if the thermocouples were inserted inside
    the tubes of brass used for water circulation (ie away from the core of the
    reactor)

    Do you have any idea to solve this problem?

    • Axil Axil

      In the configuration that you are working with, RF interference is a big problem. RF will interfere with your sensors.

      You might want to try moving your sensors away from the source of the RF and shield them from the RF and magnetic radiation. One way to do that is to use a heat pipe to move heat to a distant location. A lithium or sodium heat pipe might be required in the heat range that your reactor is putting out. A heat pipe will move heat isothermally from the hot end to the cold end. Yow can shield the cold end with a Faraday cage and if required Mu-metal box: a nickel–iron alloy, composed of approximately 77% nickel, 16% iron, 5% copper and 2% chromium or molybdenum, that is notable for its high magnetic permeability

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mumetal_box_by_Zureks.jpg

      Five-layer mu-metal box. Each layer is about 5 mm thick. It reduces the magnetic field inside by about 1500 times.

      The heat pipe will allow you to take accurate temperature readings far from the source of heat. This extra distance (1 meter?) will allow you to shield your sensors with extensive RF and magnetic shielding.

  • Bob Cook

    I agree with your observation regarding the effect of magnetic fields. They effect the spin energy states of the affected nuclei and the resonant interaction cross sections for interactions. Typical differential spin energy states are relatively small and may be within the range associated with transition of Li 7 and a proton to two alphas,

  • Anon2012_2014

    I’d like to see a calibration run with an inert fuel, same H2 gas, showing that T2 is less than T1 with otherwise the same conditions. He also needs to rule out combustion due to leaks.

  • James Andrew Rovnak

    Interesting Magnon for sure!