Songsheng Jiang Report Shows Role of Electromagneticsm in LENR Reactions (Hank Mills)

The following post was submitted by Hank Mills

The test by Songsheng Jiang has revealed something truly significant about the nature of how the E-Cat produces excess heat, in my opinion.

The reactor is setup in a unique manner. A thermocouple is placed on the inside of a rectangular nickel container holding the fuel. This thermocouple was damaged so it can be for most purposes ignored. A second thermocouple was placed on the outside of the nickel container. This whole setup was then placed inside of a cylindrical stainless steel chamber. An additional thermocouple was placed between the outside surface of the stainless steel chamber and a resistor. Next, all of these components were placed in a ceramic housing. (See Jiang’s diagram below)


Between the thermocouple on the outside of the innermost chamber and the outside of the stainless steel chamber there is a significant thermal barrier. Songsheng mentions in an answer in the Q and A recently posted that heat was very slow to transfer from the resistors to the interior reactor chamber. This means that an increase in temperature of the resistors would not result in an instant heat up of the outer surface of the nickel chamber.

On several occasions, when the voltage to the resistors is increased, there is a sudden, almost instantaneous burst of heat generated in the core. The thermocouple sitting on the outside of the nickel chamber soars to a temperature beyond what can be registered – around 1370C. The temperature of the resistors, however, is slow to increase. The temperature of the thermocouple near the resistors lags the thermocouple on the outside of the nickel chamber. (See below)



This cleaner version of this slide provided by S. Jiang to (see here:

The only explanation that makes sense, in my opinion, is that there is a stimulating factor propagating from the resistors to the fuel at a very high speed. This must be the magnetic field produced by the resistors.

A significant portion of the stimulation in the Ni-LiAlH4 E-Cat is magnetic. This would match what Rossi and Cook in their recently published paper “On the Nuclear Mechanisms Underlying the Heat Production by the E-Cat”:

” . . . As important as the solid-state environment and the surrounding electromagnetic field is for inducing nuclear effects, the nuclear reactions themselves appear to occur only in a few specific isotopes and involve only a few specific quantal transitions” (p. 10, emphasis added)

When using DC, the only time the magnetic field can change is when the current increases or decreases. However, with AC, the magnetic field could be far more avaialble to impact the fuel at any power level. This is because due to the nature of AC the field is changing constantly. Only the frequency and harmonics would need to be adjusted to stimulate excess heat producing when using AC. Hence, AC may allow the fuel to be stimulated at the same or lower power level without having to increase the total power. Using DC power may be a wasteful way of providing magnetic stimulation, because the power must be increased. It is possible that with a low power a suitable magnetic field could be produced using AC current.

Hank Mills


  • I am not so convinced it is necessarily EM that cause that phenomenon.
    it is well know that change in pressure, temperature, often trigger LENR bursts.

    what is possible is that the change in temperature cause a change in loading in the fuel, a change in grain surface temperature gradient, triggering LENR…

    the electric pulse is very small so I don’t imagien it can have noticable impact.

    at most maybe the change in magnetic field value, can trigger reaction. it was observed.
    Withe the same idea that it is a slow change in equilibrium, not short pulses

    • SG

      I think Hank’s point, though, is that the temperature propagation from the resistors would be too slow to account for the near instantaneous change to the temperature detected by the inner thermocouple. There must be something else causing the tight coupling. An electromagnetic pulse due to the increase of current seems like a plausible suspect.

      • the phenomenon is intriguing and fast.

        I suspect LENR is so chaotic that even tiny change in parameters like heat, or maybe magnetic field can make the burst develop.

        anyway, some noise, vibration or tiny electric pulses (not simply a cool DC slope as would provide a DC supply) could wake up the dragon.

        • GreenWin

          There is literature on nanoplasmonics indicating several kinds of spectra can induce plasmas. In particular SPPs result from laser pulses on thin film metal lattices. As giovanni notes the trigger current in semiconductors also produces fast transients. Using a switching DC power supply might produce similar transients.

          • I would agree with Parkhomov of Rossi’s situation.
            here it is a stabilized DC, and believe me they can make it very clean if they want.
            this technology can power your best processor with very few noise, and high resilience to current increase in the load.

            Heat, and more quickly magnetic field , can change the chemical and magnetic structure of the zone where the NAE exist.
            note also that heating can but faster than what we imagine because the thermocouple react with some delay.

            and yes, I suspect that the system is very sensible, to heat change, to magnetic field change, and to RF.
            but here I don’t think that a stabilized DC supply produce any noticeable RF when changing of setting.

        • Alain Samoun

          In my opinion,it is an induction current produced inside the fuel container that is responsible for the suddent thermal increase. This can be the reason why the latest MFMP test did not work as expected: The metal container, used by Parkhomov, under the induction current increases the heating of the fuel. The nickel powder is difficult to heat,actually a stainless steel container would be even better than a nickel one.

          • Axil Axil

            If the LENR reaction is based on a heat driven process centered on the nickel micro-particles, heating those micro-particles using induction might be the most energy effecent means of injecting energy into the LENR system. In a system like the alumina dogbone, induction might only heat the sub gram pile of micro-particles. This would minimize the power needed to drive the LENR reaction.

            How much electrical power would it take to heat a .5 gram of nickel powder? not much. If any heat from LENR is produced, the COP would be huge because the input power to drive LENR is so very small.

          • Mats002

            Materials that are ferromagnetic at room tempereature – Ni is one of four – lose their ferromagnetic properties at the curie temperature, which is 627 C for Ni. That is almost the same temp that we saw a divergence in GS run 1 between null and active. Over 627 C induction heating stops ‘biting’ on Ni. Coincidence?

          • Axil Axil

            The magnetic nature of nickel does not limit induction heating. Such heating can go as high in temperature as required.

          • Mats002

            You need a ferromagnetic material, that is why alumina pans need an iron plate inside to be ‘bitten’ by the induction heater.

          • Axil Axil


            induction heater levitation melting aluminum

          • Mats002

            This procedure makes a terrible sound – don’t think it is the most efficient way to melt alumina…

      • Axil Axil

        The production of nanoparticles can occur very radidly when the supercritical boundary passed. It could be the generation of nanoparticles that produces LENR.

    • giovanniontheweb

      in a simple transistor the trigger is very small too

    • Axil Axil

      change in pressure, temperature, often trigger LENR bursts through the production of nanoparticles that nuclate out of a supercritical gas.

  • Jouni

    Does the brightness/colour temperature of the resistor change faster than the temperature?
    Could the plasmons have any effect?
    With DC the transient from the change in current is wery small I think, but perhaps measurable though.

    • if LENR is a magnetic bound effect, simply changing DC thus static magnetic field could wake up some NAE and trigger a general burst…

      • Axil Axil

        In the Golden ball, magnetic powder drives the LENR reaction.

        • yes good argument for triggering by static magnetic field change.

          magnetic field probably align the spin of NAE, or serves to support precession like in MRI, and changing it can make a sleeping NAE turn into an active NAE…

          note that Qwave like Brillouin, hyperwave like Energetics, magnetic pulse like Dennis Letts, RF, may also play with the NAE, to align or destabilize, like in MRI.

          • Axil Axil

            The input EMF is a way to inject energy into the system. This energy is converted to an coherent anapole magnetic beam that produces nuclear active particles that produce changes in the nucleus of the atoms that the beam falls upon. THis beam is very powerful on the atomic level.



      • Axil Axil

        An arc will produce all sorts of EMF at high effecency like was done in the early dys of radio. This EMF will be captured and converted to electron motion on the surface of the microparticles because this particles act as EMF antennas. This mechanism is what feeds the LENR reaction with energy in the nicron sized particles. Heat feeds energy into the nanoparticle sized particles.

  • Axil Axil

    Rossi has set the pattern for replication after the release of the Lagano report. In that demo, Rossi used a constant current to feed the heaters. The type of heater feed was unknown before the Lagano demo. Rossi used this feed to make sure that the Lagano reactor did not blowout.

    It is time to get back to the pulsed current heater feed that has been standard since Rossi introduced his reactor four years ago. Rossi has always used a pulsed current.

    I would like to see experiments performed that test pulsed currents where heaters and not involved. A pulsed current producing an arc can heat the reactor just as will as a heater can. The pulse can be shortend and the voltage can be increased in the experiments.

    These arcs can produce a large magnetic field very close to the nickel powder. The arc can be plased directly in the volume of the powder if the power of the arc is adjusted to protect the powder. How long will the Lagano replication stage last and when will the LENR inovation stage begin?

    • Omega Z

      Axil Axil
      The way Rossi uses the resister coils would fully envelop the Nickel in a magnetic field from all sides. Using an AC magnetic field, He can also vary the frequency from extremely Low to extremely High Frequency.

      I would note that in the past, people questioned why Rossi had to reapply heat to the reactor. I suspect he wasn’t. He was actually stimulating the Rossi effect with magnetic or RF frequencies. Any heat generated in this process is merely a consequence. Not a necessity. In fact, Heat is only required when starting up the reactor.

      That calls into question those who suggest using reflectors to feedback heat to the reactor. 1) it is not necessary and 2) that would defeat the technologies value if the heat generated is needed for feedback to work. I would suggest to MFMP & anyone else thinking along these lines to not waste their time in such attempts.

      Keep the effect stimulated, it will provide it’s own heat. If the effect is not stimulated, All the heat feedback in the world will not help.

    • James Andrew Rovnak

      No, Axil there is a PCE 830 power analyzer screen picture of current pulses & their power spectrum in the Lugano report clearly showing the EM content & nature of TRIAC based power signal heating the Hot E-Cat!

  • Gerard McEk

    That is also what I already reported in Hank’s previous post. This again pleas for the LENR controller I have proposed a few weeks ago. I hope to persuate a supplier to have this made by a group of students, otherwise I may have to go to NI and get one with their support.

    • James Andrew Rovnak

      Good idea Gerard I mentioned it again today to Goodyer ! Jim , PCE 830 power analyzer is nice but there is a need for more as you & Axil rightly see! Jim again IMHO

  • Observer

    How important are resonant phonons in the nickel lattice?

    Are we dealing with 10 micron diameter bells with an electro-magnetic clapper?

    • Axil Axil

      We are dealing with micron sized dipole antennas.

      • Observer

        And what are the charge carriers, electrons or interstitial protons? Both?

        center of mass “rings”

        • Axil Axil

          As I understand surface plasmon polariton theory, the charge carrier is the electron with vibrates in a dipole motion, The dipole is fixed on a “Hole”.

          I posted this reference below that I beleive has a good explanation of this point

        • James Andrew Rovnak

          Both, ULM neutron created in hydrogen ion electron collision in proximity of metals having large cross section for isotope creation starting & maintaining New Fire of that I am sure! Note these are sub thermal kinetic neutrons being thermalized but form isotopes before that equilibrium can occur!

  • Axil Axil

    Nanoparticles act as vortex power amplifiers. The power is produced by the microparticles and the vortexes on the surface of the microparticles are amplified by the nano particle aggreations on the surfaces of the micropaticles.

    See this post

  • Ophelia Rump

    It would be interesting to spin a strong permanent magnet near one of the devices and see if that could be used instead of fluctuating current to the resistors. The energy costs would become insignificant.

  • Obvious

    Suppose that T3 is not damaged, and the reaction is so selectively exothermic that it cools the core to zero, then recovers.
    That way the reaction needs added heat or equivalent to sustain, or it will overcool, and halts the reaction.
    If the metals inside melt, the particles are destroyed, and the reaction halts.
    The happy medium heat inside keeps it alive. The interior metals need to absorb energy at one energy level and emit it at another that is not absorbed in order to work this way. The T3 thermocouple gets a hit of the heat and cold and so acts erratically, finally achieving balance as the reaction stabilizes.

  • Stephen

    Its very interesting this EM discussion as it has come up several times in the recent posts. Andrea Rossi often talks about lessons learnt from the lugano test and because the isotope analysis is so striking we focus on this but i don’t think he mentioned the isotopes specifically. I wonder if it could also be something like the EM/RF.

    As well as sign wave chopping from the input current, there maybe some interesting RF signatures from the processes occurring in the device for example:

    Note in the dog-bone and E-cat type devices the EM is applied in the heater coil and this would also produce an alternating magnetic field down the length of the device. I was wondering if in the case the gas inside has some ionised elements or if the gas itself had become a plasma then it would rotate around the magnetic field effectively around its circumference. In the case of electrons if this rotation occurred it may cause some kind of Bremstrahlung type radiation and I suppose for ions to. The rotation effect should be alternating back and forward in direction due to the alternating current if the plasma or ionised elements have enough energy perhaps this also has an acceleration/deceleration effect (at 50 Hz?) that can give rise to a EM signature at radio wavelengths? Im not sure what effect EM Sine wave chopping would have on this though.

    Perhaps Langmuir waves which occur in plasmas due to density oscillations in an electrically neutral plasma also play part. Im also wondering if we have a rotating ionised gas if it could be
    considered a neutral plasma. If so then maybe we have some kind of combination of Langmuir waves and Bremstrahlung radiation.

    I wonder if we can expect some Alfven wave like (but higher density) behaviour in these devices. Alfven waves are often associated solar flares and propagate along the magnetic axis. They are generated from the density fluctuation ions in the magnetic field and the returning force of that magnetic field. Maybe the alternating current, Sine wave chopping or the size of the device prohibits

    But it also possible more local effects are seen due to magnetic affects from Axil Axil SPP etc.

    I wonder what kind of measurements and devices could help in the analysis if this.

    • Axil Axil

      Andrea Rossi
      June 5th, 2015 at 9:20 PM
      Dan C.:
      The concert model is proper: wherein many instruments can make a harmony that is not just the sum of single sounds: resonances can generate virtual entities whose energy is higher than the sum of the energy of the singles.
      The Mouse has a driving license, of course!
      Next time you bake a cake I send him to make the pick up.
      Speaking seriously: thank you for your insight.
      Warm Regards

      What is the nature of the E cat music? Music as we know it is carried in the air as sound. It involves vibrations in the air. Air carries music to us.

      In the E Cat, Hot Cat and so on, vibration is carries by dipole motion of electrons on the surface of the micro particles. When all the micro particles are in resonance, all the electrons on all the nickel micro particles are vibrating in unison. This is called a Bose Einstein condensate. All the dipoles become one and are in sync.

      These dipoles put out a strong EMF field that can influence other dipoles in other reactors. It may be that many reactors in the cluster become synchronize to form a global Bose Einstein condensate where all the dipoles keep each other in sync. This common background EMF field may allow for reactors to share energy between one another via a common EMF field that surrounds the cluster. In such a condition input power may not be needed to pump the dipoles between and among the reactors in the cluster.

      Maybe Rossi has discovered how to interconnect the reactors in his cluster to share in the dipole vibrations by using an EMF based backbone interconnect so that all the dipoles are joined together in a cluster wide Bose condinsate.?

      “The Mouse has a driving license, of course!”

      The Mouse may be a driver of the dipole vibrations. This could be how the mouse drives the Cat.

      An experiment to try to verify this idea is to have a reactor made up of a stack of multiple alumina tubes. Place fuel in all the tubes, but power only one of the tubes with a heater. Let us call that powered reactor :”the mouse”. This mouse has a reduced fuel load as in the last MFMP test to keep it from blowout. The other tubes are fully loaded with fuel and use the heat from the mouse and the EMF generated by the mouse to produce the reaction in all the fully fueled tubes.

      The EMF field that comes from the Mouse might keep all the other reactors in the stack in check even if they are fully loaded with fuel.

      Rossi might have thought that just a demo of the mouse at Lagano would not show his technology. He might be using a reactor stack to produce self sustain mode.

      Rossi may have said a little too much this time.

      • Stephen

        It would be a great experiment someday 🙂 and I would love to see it behave that way too. I guess initially though even a way to measure the RF in the current experiments would be great to see. Finding and Selecting equipment for the right frequency band might be difficult though.

        I tend to think Andrea Rossi says what he can when asked the right question, but is careful to stay within his agrremement with IH and his customer. I get the feeling he enjoys seeing the work done by replication teams as much as us. In a way we are all resonating in the music of LENR 🙂 I hope he can continue to help nudge us gently to the right insights. Each day I look forward to his occasional helpful replies.

        • Axil Axil

          The question to be answered by experiments is as follows:

          Does only heat drive the reaction, or does a combintion of heat and EMF drive the reaction?

          If EMF drives the reaction then a system like Paolo Savaris has developed (see above) makes for the best “Mouse” because it produces loads of EMF.

          • Stephen

            I fully agree. It does make sense to check out the heat only reactions first though I suppose. Then introduce EMF stimulation in which ever form or other kinds of stimulation later once the heat profile is better characterised.

  • James Andrew Rovnak

    Interesting Magnon for sure!