Does Plasma Power the E-Cat? (Hank Mills)

The following post has been submitted by Hank Mills

Replicators still do not fully understand how the high temperature E-Cat produces excess heat. Although some individuals such as Alexander Parkhomov and Songsheng Jiang have produced working reactors, many other people have failed in their replication attempts. This is because we have yet to figure out the critical parameters in building a working device. In my opinion, the evidence is pointing towards the ignition of hydrogen-lithium plasma as being important.

A plasma could be defined as a gas that has been ionized. This means electrons have been added or removed from the atoms that compose the plasma. I think the evidence is pointing towards a plasma being created in the high temperature E-Cat. If a plasma is needed for the proton-lithium reactions to take place, then our goal needs to be to figure out the conditions to create such a plasma.

One company, Unified Gravity LLC, has conducted hundreds of experiments that resulted in proton-lithium fusion. Details of their work have been revealed in this patent application: http://unifiedgravity.com/resources/WO2014189799-PAMPH-330-2.pdf. In one of their most successful setups, a disc of solid lithium covered in lithium hydride is placed in a large spherical reactor. Electrodes are connected to the lithium disc or its support. In one test, three hundred volts and a few tens of milliamps (totaling approximately four watts) was applied to the lithium disc.

The power was applied via an alternating DC square wave with a ten percent duty cycle. According to their patent application (that is filled with data from hundreds of experiments), the negative pulses create plasma by causing arcing between the lithium hydride particles. This both releases lithium vapor and ignites the plasma. The positive pulses induce nuclear fusion between the ionized hydrogen and lithium.

Unified Gravity has proven that fusion takes place, because an alpha particle detector behind a tiny hole of a couple millimeters in diameter registered hundreds of thousands of impacts per second. These alpha particles had an energy of several million electron volts matching what would be the result of proton-lithium fusion. If the power to run the vacuum pump (the atmospheric pressure in the reactor is usually far less than one bar) is not included, the COP of the system can be in the thousands.

Unified Gravity has discovered that protons do not need huge amounts of energy to undergo fusion reactions with lithium atoms. Mainstream physics requires proton energies of at least three hundred thousand electron volts for any nuclear reactions to take place. For a large number of reactions, millions of electron volts are required. Unified Gravity has discovered there is a window between two hundred electron volts and a few thousand electron volts in which fusion can be induced. These low levels of proton energy can be easily induced via the voltage applied to the lithium disc. Interestingly, if they go above or below this range, the number of nuclear reactions falls dramatically. According to their theory of gravity, at this energy range the gravity of the proton can interact with the lithium to overcome the coulomb barrier.

So what does this have to do with the E-Cat?

First, we know that the high temperature E-Cat is capable of vaporizing lithium. This can start, if the pressure is low enough, at around 750C. This seems to be the temperature range in which excess heat starts to be produced in some experiments by replicators.

Secondly, there is strong evidence that Andrea Rossi utilizes square waves with lots of harmonics. The evidence comes from the Lugano report, and the diagram of the wave form that was in Rossi’s lab See here: http://www.ecat-thenewfire.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Wave.jpg). Square waves are important when it comes to ionizing gas because the electric field of a coil is dependent on the rate of change of the magnetic field. In a square wave, the current rise is instant, and this creates a strong electric field that may ionize the hydrogen and lithium gas. It may do so directly or via arcing between nickel particles.

Thirdly, gas ionizes more easily at low pressure. In the most successful replication experiments (Parkhomov and Songsheng) the pressure was lower than in some other less successful experiments. If a plasma is needed to produce excess heat, a lower pressure of less than one bar would allow the plasma to be formed at a lower temperature and with less powerful stimulation.

Of course a huge difference between Unified Gravity’s technology and the E-Cat is that the E-Cat utilizes nickel. Most likely, in the E-Cat both hydrogen-nickel and hydrogen-lithium reactions take place. However, the hydrogen-lithium reactions may be very similar to the ones in the Unified Gravity reactor. The difference would be that instead of one lithium disc in the Unified Gravity reactor, the E-Cat utilizes millions of lithium covered nickel particles. Also, current is not directly applied to the fuel of the E-Cat. However, the electric field from the solenoid resistor probably produces eddy currents in the nickel.

I think that it is of critical importance that we determine if the hot cat utilizes plasma. If so, we can start optimizing setups to make sure plasma is formed.

I would ask that every successful replicator – Parkhomov, the Lugano team, Songsheng, and the Moscow team – give their thoughts about this topic.

Hank Mills

  • Omega Z

    I’m not generally on board with the Plasma theory, However, If the E-cat is generating direct current as implied by Rossi, Maybe i need to rethunk it. Or am I missing something here.

  • Omega Z

    I’m not generally on board with the Plasma theory, However, If the E-cat is generating direct current as implied by Rossi, Maybe i need to rethunk it. Or am I missing something here.

  • Jan Nie

    E-Cat and Hot-Cat are plasma business.
    Ask Mr. Keshe about plasma capabilities.

  • Gerard McEk

    This is a very interesting article Hank, thanks for it. What it tells me also is that fusion may take place under very narrow and moderate conditions. The more reason to build a good LENR controller adjustable in a wide range of frequencies and currents, something I have been proposing also.
    The alpha particles can indeed be the cause of the the DC current flow AR is investigating now. These particles will cause a positive charge of the reactor tube and a negative charge of the fuel and if this charge difference is high enough that it will cause a discharge between the two. At the same time you may be able to exploit this charge as AR now seems to investigate.

    • Rob Woudenberg

      Gerard, the alpha particles in Lipinski’s patent application are the result of the proton plasma reacting with the Lithium vapour. The basic question is however where does the proton plasma comes from in Rossi’s Lugano reactor inside which causes the alpha particles to form

  • guga

    It is hard to believe that the normal E-Cat and the Hot-Cat work based on fundamentally different principles. And there is no plasma in the normal E-Cat. But still Rossi reaches high COPs.

  • guga

    It is hard to believe that the normal E-Cat and the Hot-Cat work based on fundamentally different principles. And there is no plasma in the normal E-Cat. But still Rossi reaches high COPs.

  • Stephen

    Hi Hank, thanks for a very interesting article. I have also been wondering about this since the unified gravity test results were presented. Their data seems to be very compelling. Although I haven’t yet convinced my self of their gravity theory it is a nice idea. It does seem that there is a correlation with low energy Protons which is interesting.

    Perhaps the proton energy is just sufficient enought to overcome the potential well and approach the nucleus with a zero or critical energy.

    I wonder if the degree of ionisation in the plasma is important? I suppose in a thermally ionised plasma if the temperature is in a kind of “godilocks zone” only the outer electrons would be removed and the inner k-shell or s1 orbital electrons remain bound. This might be indicated if there was an upper temperature limit where these electrons would be ionised where LENR stopped occurring. I wonder if unified gravity saw this. In there test it might be more visible than in other experiments LENR occurs in NAE and the temperature is taken more globally.

    In addition to the additional kinetic energy an EM effects in a hot plasma, removing outer electrons may improve the chance of a Proton, Hydrogen atom, or H- ion getting closer to the nucleus.

    If the inner electrons need to remain bound then it implies they have an effect on LENR and may be involved some how in the process. I could see several ways they might be involved:

    A) Internal conversion. If internal conversion is necessary in LENR then the low level electrons may need to be present.

    B) External conversion. Photo electric effect. If external conversion is required for LENR then the low level electrons would need to be present. In this effect the internal electons are emitted in preference over higher level electrons ( I have always wondered if the nucleus plays a part in this process).

    C) Electron capture. If electron capture is necessary in LENR it would also require the k shell electrons be present.

    D) Shielding. Low level electrons may be required to shield the approaching proton, hydrogen atom or H- ion from the nucleus.

    E) Unstable electon state effects. If electons that are disturbed in to lower energy States than are needed for the lowest level k shell are important for LENR they would need to be present. This could be important for Hydrinos if they exist or any similar sate or even if they simply are in an unstable state in the atom.

    F) spin effects perhaps the combination of the spin of the atom including the internal electrons the approaching proton in a magnetic field increases the probability of absoption across the Coulomb barrier.

    G) As an alternative to direct proton absorption perhaps inner shell electon recombination with a proton to form a neutron can occur. If there is something special about the low energy proton perhaps it is that it is slow and so has longer to interact with a shell electron to form a Neutron if there is sufficient energy or conditions for this to happen, perhaps this is more likely if some disturbance such as in (E) above also occurs as a result of the encounter and or spin effects are taken into account as in (D).

    H) Rydberg matter. If Rydberg matter is important perhaps the inner electrons should still remain but be excited to higher levels sufficient for Rydberg matter to form but insufficient for them to be fully ionised. We sometimes talk about Rydberg Hydrogen here but I wonder if Lithium can also form Rydberg matter and if lightly ionised atoms heavier than Hydrogen can also form this state.

    In addition to all these microscopic effects there maybe macroscopic consdiderations due to the magneto-hydro-dynamic behaviour of the plasma in an electromagnetic and/or RF environment. These could be both local in NAE or more distributed through the device.

    Of course if LENR occurs when the gas is fully ionised including the k shell electrons then it indicates that the k shell electrons have no part to play in LENR. That would also be very interesting information.

  • LookMoo

    I think you should simplify your point and get more hands-on so that MFMP can understand it.

  • LookMoo

    I think you should simplify your point and get more hands-on so that MFMP can understand it.

  • AstralProjectee

    This reminds me of John Rohner’s Plasmic Transition Process which also uses plasma to run it’s engines.

    • Axil Axil

      The electric arc will produce a plasma that when cooled will produce nanoparticles. It is the nanoparticles that produce the surface plasmon polaritons that induce LENR. The replicators need to produce nanoparticles of lithium, They can use an electric arc to do it quickly. Producing nanoparticles using super-critical fluids in not easy as done in the E-cat.

      The experiment discribed in the article sound just like the Leif Holmild experiment.

      See

      http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1302/1302.2781.pdf

      This is an example of cluster fusion where 10^13 DD fusions happening from just one laser pulse. Cluster fusion might also be happening in this Unified Gravity experiment.

      Multi atom entanglement causes LENR.

      • Ted-X

        Nano-particles of lithium
        ———————————-
        These can form as the temperature goes down (from somewhat higher temperature in the temperature oscillations). In the chemical engineering there is a concept of seeding of crystallization/ precipitation (otherwise supersaturated systems may be created – the supersaturated systems are known to be highly unstable – could this be related to the runaway conditions in the LENR reactors?; supersaturation and then the sudden appearance of a large number of both kinds of nanoparticles may cause those runaway conditions!). Nano-particles of nickel (or the surface of nickel particles) may serve as a seeding medium for the Lithium atoms (this is the most likely mechanism for the nano-particles of lithium, IMHO). Arcs will definitely create nano-particles as well. The mechanism of nano-particles formation may have more than one path. The Rydberg matter is a quite possible state of the formed nanoparticles, particularly of Lithium.
        ——————————————————————————————————————–
        I am not disputing any theories of the nucleus-level aspects of the LENR; my postings are related only to the experimental conditions and their effect on facilitation of the LENR effect.

  • AstralProjectee

    This reminds me of John Rohner’s Plasmic Transition Process which also uses plasma to run it’s engines.

  • http://unifiedgravity.com/

    They have a very simple website, which I like. Alpha particles can produce electricity directly, which makes their system potentially very useful.

  • http://unifiedgravity.com/

    They have a very simple website, which I like. Alpha particles can produce electricity directly, which makes their system potentially very useful.

  • Domenico Canino

    good insight, hank mills; but it lacks something; for me the creation of plasma in e cat is probable; but it needs a new atomic model; i think the “electrino” model of old school Russian scientists is the right model to explain plasma in ecat. As a matter of fact, Parkhomov has this kind of knowledge. Bazaev is the name of the discoverer of the electrino, i like very much the simplicity of that kind of model. It’s like the Occam razor.

  • Domenico Canino

    Plasma is the right way to understand how does e cat function; I am sure about it; but not with this atomic model, better to use a new Russian atomic model created by Bazaev, that includes the “electrino” as a new particle to explain electronic links and plasma creation; the sun is 95% plasma. Remember also that Parkhomov, and other old school russian scientists know everything about these innovative theories.

  • mike

    Randell Mills named his company after the plasma he creates. Blacklight. Things keep heading towards his theory it seems.

  • Rob Woudenberg

    Those are interesting thoughts. I wonder however how high enough voltages are formed within the reactor vessel which are required to form proton plasma, having alternating electrical fields from the outside. Reading Lipinski’s patent application I understand he applied inserted electrodes to generate the electrostatic field required to produce proton plasma within his reactor vessels.

    • Ted-X

      Lipinsky could benefit from a “toroidal transformer” concept, as in my other posting – electrodes would not be needed.

  • Ted-X

    THE THEORIES ARE CONVERGING NOW
    —————————————————————
    1. Thermodynamic equilibrium (understood only by the chemists here).
    – There is always some Lithium in the vapors, the quantities depend on the temperature and the presence of local sparks; this Lithium can interact with protons from ionized hydrogen.
    – The thermodynamic equilibrium in connection with the temperature swing (the temperature oscillations are IMPORTANT) causes formation of nanoparticles of Nickel on each “temperature swing” (through the carbonyl mechanism; these nanoparticles could ADSORB Lithium and perhaps make it more reactive (maybe Nickel absorbs the alpha particles, even). The presence of “impurities” of carbon and oxygen are important – this could be the real “catalyst” (for the nickel-carbonyl mechanism). Increasing the temperature after a “swing” reduces the number of nanoparticles from the carbonyl process (it could be a way of controlling the process – within limits, before nanoparticles start forming from the locally-boiling nickel in a run-away reaction).
    2. Temperature oscillations: should be “optimized”, they are necessary for the formation of nickel nanoparticles.
    3. Square vawes in the coil: causes “back-emf”, where the voltage goes very high and causes sparking (the harmonics could be contributing, so the “self-resonance” of the inductance and capacity should be “optimized” or scanned in preliminary experiments). Another approach, which I have advocated before, is to use a “toroidal bone”, where the “ceramic bone with nickel” would be a short-circuited single ring (a sort of welding transformer, where the high-current but low volatege circuit would be the short-circuited “toroidal bone”). The sparking would be local, between nickel particles and aligned nanoparticles of nickel with adsorbed Lithium. Please note that the welding process is BASED on an electrical arc/sparks.
    4. Nano-particles of nickel could interact with polaritons on the surfaces of nickel.
    5. The nuclear hyperpolarization effect (known to be intense for the alkaline metals) could enhance the nuclear reactions or even be a key to overcoming the Coulomb barrier. Meta-stable forms of atoms could form in the eCat conditions (they have “exposed” neutrons or even protons). There could be a synergy between hyperpolarizations and the polaritons.
    6. Excitation of nuclei using ultrasound (for the nuclear resonance) or lasers (corresponding to hyperpolarizations) could potentially enhance the eCat process.
    7. In the “metallurgy – fringe approaches” there is some talk about “orbitally rearranged nuclei” or even forms of metals which could be in a “nearly-Bose-Einstein condensates form ” at room temperature.
    ——————————————————————————————————————-
    It seems that the theories are converging. I regret that nobody, so far, have considered some “optimization” of the above listed effects.
    ——————————————————————————————————————–
    This posting is mostly for the MFMP and similar experimenters, for consideration.

    • Rob Woudenberg

      Ted, can you please explain how back EMF is created in a closed tube containing metal particles that sinter above approx. 300 degrees C? Below sintering temperature metal particles could form a ring that allows back EMF to form by means of external coil EMF.

      • Ted-X

        Rob,
        Back EMF is always created when the current is turned off (as, for example in the case of square pulses). The coil itself creates the back EMF (opposes the disappearance of the current). The coil with its own EMF creates eddy currents in the metal (sintered or not sintered). The interplay between the inductance of the coil and the capacitance of the circuitry causes resonance frequences to appear. This is well known, high school physics. The potential of the back EMF is proportional to the differential: d(current, A)/d(time, s). A toroidal reactor with powdered nickel would be more effective from the point of inductance (and some other factors) than the dogbone shape of the reactor.

        • Rob Woudenberg

          Ted, all that said, I still fail to see how that creates proton plasma within a dogbone setup. Eddy currents are caused by d(magnetic flux)/dt in solid metal parts that are shorted within that particle itself, so there is no potential building up (or hardly any) that allows enough electrical field strength that allows for forming proton plasma. What do I miss out?

          • Ted-X

            Rob, I think that you are missing that the particles, even the sintered ones, will have different electrical charges, so there will be some current flowing between them. I would expect discharges to occur between the particles and the formation of the plasma via those discharges. I think that eddy currents have a larger scale than the single particles. In transformers, the iron sheets are thin and separated, to minimize the eddy currents. I am not an expert in eddy currents, but in a dogbone I would expect their scale as perhaps 1 cm (that is much larger than the 100 micrometer particle size).
            —————————————————————————————————-
            Perhaps somebody here knows more about eddy currents?

          • Axil Axil

            In dipole motion protons stay in place and electrons move. When SPPs form from photons and electrons, they only move in one direction away from the proton. SPPs accumulate at the farthest point of the dipole vibration away from the proton.

            ———————
            The key component in the Ni/H reactor LENR reaction is the production of topological polaritons or as they have been newly named “Topolariton”. Science has thus caught up with LENR in tht these quasiparticles offically dubbed topological polaritons have made their debut in the theoretical world.

            The tools that Condensed-matter physicists often turn to are particle-like wave form entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena seen in the solid state. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction.

            This one way propagation is a critical revelation that explains how topolaritons arise from the strong spin based coupling of a photon and an exciton, a bound state of an electron and a hole. Their topology can be thought of as knots in their gapped energy-band structure. The niclel microparticles used in the Rossi reactor design provides topological one dimemsional nanowire structures from whic topolaritons emerge, these knots unwind and allow the topolaritons to propagate in a single direction down the nanowire without back-reflection. In other words, the topolaritons cannot make U-turns. Back-reflection is a known source of detrimental feedback and loss in photonic devices. The LENR centric topolaritons’ immunity to back-reflection may thus be exploited to build long lived aggragates of topolaritons with increased performance.

            The paper by Gil Refael explains where the spin of these topolaritons come from and why they last for so long. In this newly released paper, these researchers are strugling to produce and use Topolaritons, but LENR inventors have been at this business for decades. It is promising that science is catching up with this everyday world of LENR.

            http://xxx.tau.ac.il/pdf/1406.4156.pdf

            Topological polaritons

            Torsten Karzig,1 Charles-Edouard Bardyn,1 Netanel H. Lindner,2, 1 and Gil Refael1

            1-Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
            2-Physics Department, Technion, 320003 Haifa, Israel

            The interaction between light and matter can give rise to novel topological states. This principle was recently exemplified in Floquet topological insulators, where classical light was used to induce a topological electronic band structure. Here, in contrast, we show that mixing single photons with excitons can result in new topological polaritonic states — or “topolaritons”. Taken separately, the underlying photons and excitons are topologically trivial. Combined appropriately, however, they give rise to non-trivial polaritonic bands with chiral edge modes allowing for unidirectional polariton propagation. The main ingredient in our construction is an exciton-photon coupling with a phase that winds in momentum space. We demonstrate how this winding emerges from the finite momentum mixing between s-type and p-type bands in the electronic system and an applied Zeeman field. We discuss the requirements for obtaining a sizable topological gap in the polariton spectrum, and propose practical ways to realize topolaritons in semiconductor quantum wells and monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

          • Rob Woudenberg

            Axil, that makes sense, thanks. This mechanism could indeed build up electrical dipoles in individual metal particles.

          • Rob Woudenberg

            B.t.w. looking at how microwaves cause electron movements in metals, it’s clear that charge build up in individual metal particles happen. Simply looking how sharp metal particles in microwave oven cause sparking is a practical proof of that. This proves that Rossi is a very pragmatic engineer. Simply apply PWM magnetic fields allows for control of the desired plasma quantity. I also noticed some Russian experimenters use inductive heaters which normally operate at several tens of KHz AC. Advantage of these heaters is that the transmitter coil normally consists of pipes that can be water cooled. Disadvantage is however that they normally operate at several tens of KHz, which is probably less effective to generate plasma compared to using squire waves.

    • Axil Axil

      The cluster fusion description overview in a nutshell.

      1. a chemical super critical process or arc discharge produces Rydberg matter based nano particles from an alkali metal including hydrogen, potassium and/or lithium .

      2. nanoparticles produce surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) when they aggregate under electrostatic attraction.

      3. Dark mode SPPs are EMF rotating black holes.

      4. These EMF black holes are Bose condensates of SPPs (a soliton).

      5. SPP black holes produce entangled Hawking radiation, This coherent radiation are photons entangled with the SPP soliton.

      6. Entangled Hawking radiation entangle atoms just outside of the SPP. These atoms join the SPP BEC ensemble.

      7. A process of fusion of these entangled atoms occurs whereby the energy of this fusion(s) event is absorbed by the SPP BEC. This energy is transferred to the SPP BEC via a special kind of multiply connected wormhole connecting the fusion events to the SPP BEC. What triggers the fusion of the entangled atoms is not known. It might be the probabilistic resolution of quantum superposition between the entangled atoms and the SPP soliton.

      8. As the SPP BEC gathers and increases its energy content over time, the SPP BEC will eventually reach a energy storage limit and explode when its size of the soliton grows beyond 100 microns. This is called a Bosenova. These explosions release the energy stored in the SPP soliton which contains both electrons and photons (soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet) from the SPP BEC.

      This theory explains how LENR experiments having observed up to 10^13 DD Rydberg matter based fusion events can occur in a few nanoseconds.

  • Axil Axil

    The electric arc will produce a plasma that when cooled will produce nanoparticles. It is the nanoparticles that produce the surface plasmon polaritons that induce LENR. The replicators need to produce nanoparticles of lithium. This is lithium based Rydberg matter. They can use an electric arc to do it quickly. Producing nanoparticles using super-critical fluids in not easy as done in the E-cat.

    The experiment described in the article sound just like the Leif Holmild experiment.

    See

    http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1302/1302.2781.pdf

    This is an example of cluster fusion where 10^13 DD fusions happening from just one laser pulse. In that experiment the Rydberg matter was deuterium. Cluster fusion might also be happening in this Unified Gravity experiment.

    Multi atom entanglement causes LENR.

    • Ted-X

      Nano-particles of lithium
      ———————————-
      These can form as the temperature goes down (from somewhat higher temperature in the temperature oscillations). In the chemical engineering there is a concept of seeding of crystallization/ precipitation (otherwise supersaturated systems may be created – the supersaturated systems are known to be highly unstable – could this be related to the runaway conditions in the LENR reactors?; supersaturation and then the sudden appearance of a large number of both kinds of nanoparticles may cause those runaway conditions!). Nano-particles of nickel (or the surface of nickel particles) may serve as a seeding medium for the Lithium atoms (this is the most likely mechanism for the nano-particles of lithium, IMHO). Arcs will definitely create nano-particles as well. The mechanism of nano-particles formation may have more than one path. The Rydberg matter is a quite possible state of the formed nanoparticles, particularly of Lithium.
      ——————————————————————————————————————–
      I am not disputing any theories of the nucleus-level aspects of the LENR; my postings are related only to the experimental conditions and their effect on facilitation of the LENR effect.

  • Ted-X

    Rob,
    Back EMF is always created when the current is turned off (as, for example in the case of square pulses). The coil itself creates the back EMF (opposes the disappearance of the current). The coil with its own EMF creates eddy currents in the metal (sintered or not sintered). The interplay between the inductance of the coil and the capacitance of the circuitry causes resonance frequences to appear. This is well known, high school physics. The potential of the back EMF is proportional to the differential: d(current, A)/d(time, s). A toroidal reactor with powdered nickel would be more effective from the point of inductance (and some other factors) than the dogbone shape of the reactor.

    • Rob Woudenberg

      Ted, all that said, I still fail to see how that creates proton plasma within a dogbone setup. Eddy currents are caused by d(magnetic flux)/dt in solid metal parts that are shorted within that particle itself, so there is no potential building up (or hardly any) that allows enough electrical field strength that allows for forming proton plasma. What do I miss out?

      • Ted-X

        Rob, I think that you are missing that the particles, even the sintered ones, will have different electrical charges, so there will be some current flowing between them. I would expect discharges to occur between the particles and the formation of the plasma via those discharges. I think that eddy currents have a larger scale than the single particles. In transformers, the iron sheets are thin and separated, to minimize the eddy currents. I am not an expert in eddy currents, but in a dogbone I would expect their scale as perhaps 1 cm (that is much larger than the 100 micrometer particle size).
        —————————————————————————————————-
        Perhaps somebody here knows more about eddy currents?

      • Axil Axil

        In dipole motion protons stay in place and electrons move. When SPPs form from photons and electrons, they only move in one direction away from the proton. SPPs accumulate at the farthest point of the dipole vibration away from the proton.