Critical E-Cat Patent Discloses Full Fuel Details (Hank Mills)

The following post was submitted by Hank Mills

Andrea Rossi, the inventor of the Energy Catalyzer or E-Cat, has been granted a patent that covers many details of his technology – including a list of a fuel components and ratios. Titled, “Fluid Heater,” and assigned to Leonardo Corporation, this patent (US 0,115,913 B1) contains details of an apparatus capable of heating water or other liquids. Although worded to sound slightly mundane – with no mention of LENR or cold fusion – the document provides critical information that replicators can utilize to prove the reality and existence of this technology to the world.

The specific device overviewed in the patent is an earlier version of the E-Cat from 2011-2012. Readers of the patent should keep in mind that many enhancements to the high temperature E-Cat have been made over the past few years. Back in the time when the first version of the Hot Cat was being tested, maximum temperatures did not reach the extremely high levels of the Lugano device. However, the fact that Andrea Rossi has made improvements to the technology in no way whatsoever reduces the significance of the information contained in this patent. Although fairly short and vague in some areas, specific details about the reactor construction and fuel composition are disclosed.

In the patent, the composition of Rossi’s fuel and a starting ratio is revealed. It is stated to be 50% nickel, 20% lithium, and 30% lithium aluminum hydride. All of these fuels are in the powdered form, and the exact ratios are said not to be critical. However, different ratios govern the reaction rate. For the first time ever, we have been provided with a listing of ingredients and percentages. Combined with what we already know, this means that a combination of carbonyl nickel of a few micrometers in diameter (although other forms and particle sizes of nickel may also work), lithium aluminum hydride, and lithium can come together to produce a massive amount of energy if properly stimulated with heat and a varying electromagnetic field.

Another important detail revealed in the patent is that the nickel powder must be pre-heated to convert trapped water into supercritical steam, explode, and increase the porosity of the nickel. The concept of enhancing the porosity of the nickel is mentioned multiple times. Perhaps the enhanced surface area and tubercules of carbonyl nickel provide a good starting powder that is improved by pre-heating. It should also be noted that the most successful replicator of this technology, Alexander Parkhomov, who has successfully produced excess heat in at least a dozen different tests, recently revealed to the Martin Fleischman Memorial Project that he pre-heats his nickel to 200C to remove any water content. From my knowledge, very few replicators have been “cooking” their nickel in this fashion – or at all. Maybe this could be a step that will ensure more successful replications.

The fuel ingredients and ratio in the patent fascinates me. My personal hypothesis (which could be wrong) is that by adding lithium (pure) aluminum is removed from the reactor. I think that this may enhance the reaction rate, because the aluminum participates in few nuclear reactions. Lithium has multiple mechanisms by which the rate it reacts with protons to undergo fusion can be increased. One of these mechanisms is how Unified Gravity LLC has discovered that there is a low energy window of between 200ev and 5000ev in which protons can impact and undergo fusion reactions with lithium. This very low level of energy is up to a thousand times lower than what is required according to mainstream physics. The second of these mechanisms is Hidetsugu Ikegami’s discovery that protons ejected at liquid lithium near the point of phase change undergo a dramatic rate enhancement. As far as I know, there is no such rate enhancement for aluminum.

My guess is that aluminum acts to limit the rate of nuclear reactions and increase the temperature at which nuclear reactions begin. By being in the fuel mix, the aluminum may take up valuable space that could be filled with lithium atoms. I imagine the lithium atoms being like small balloons in a pile and aluminum atoms being like large balloons in that same pile. When protons are “fired” into the pile of balloons, more of the protons hit aluminum than lithium. And since energy is only released when lithium atoms are hit, the total output is reduced. If you remove some or all of the aluminum, then more of the protons will hit lithium atoms. This increases the energy output.

The follow is my hypothetical conjecture.

– The earliest low temperature E-Cats probably utilized nickel and pure lithium or perhaps an addition of potassium.

– The earliest hot cats that were injected with hydrogen gas may have only used a combination of nickel and lithium. It has been reported that even only using direct current heating they repeatedly “melted down.”

– To increase the operating temperature of hot cats, the model of hot cat covered in this patent may have utilized a mix of both lithium aluminum hydride (to provide hydrogen) and pure lithium. The presence of aluminum may have increased the operating temperature and stabilized the reactions.

– To allow for ultra high temperatures, the Lugano style E-Cat may have only used lithium aluminum hydride. This may have increased the temperature at which excess heat began being produced to around 700C.

– Ultra high temperatures are absolutely possible with pure lithium. However, I think the rate of runaway is probably much higher at high temperatures.

I hope the many individuals and teams around the world replicating use the information in this document to increase the likelihood of successful replications. One amazing possibility is that by using some pure lithium in addition to lithium aluminum hydride, reactors could start producing significant excess heat at temperatures far lower than 700C (or 1,300C for high levels of COP). If we can produce high COP at temperatures of lets say 400C, then components would last for extended periods of time, resistors would not break as often, etc. We do not need reactors operating at 1,300C to prove to the world that the “Rossi Effect” is real. A reactor at 400C self sustaining at that temperature for a significant period of time would be very strong evidence. Or, if we want, inducing “runaways” that melt down reactors also show strong evidence of anomalous reactions. By reducing the amount of lithium aluminum hydride, runaways may be easier to trigger.

This patent is also important, because it may be the first patent granted to a practical, real world cold fusion technology. I believe I have read about certain other cold fusion systems being patented. However, the high temperature E-Cat works and is real. It is not a pie in the sky fantasy like hypothetical “hot fusion” reactors.

Andrea Rossi also now has intellectual property protection. This is important as he starts working towards commercializing the one megawatt plant and the E-Cat X. We should all congratulate Andrea Rossi, Leonardo Corporation, and Industrial Heat on this monumentous accomplishment.

The world needs to wake up to the fact that the E-Cat technology is the solution to the energy crisis: it’s greater than solar, greater than wind, greater than fossil fuels, greater than conventional nuclear power, and greater than hypothetical “hot fusion” technologies that don’t even exist.

  • NT

    Very good analysis Hank and now let the replications begin in ernest around the world…

    • Nigel Appleton

      Yabbut… Lithium metal can be a pig to handle. A lithium fire is pretty but no joke. Have a dry powder extinguisher ready!

      • NT

        Yep, good suggestion as Boeing recently experienced with their lithium batteries…

      • US_Citizen71

        ..and or lots of sand! Class D fires are no fun to fight!

  • Nigel Appleton

    IMO, the patent discloses “A” fuel, probably not THE current fuel.

    One of the reasons I think this is the wording of Claim 9 in the patent

  • Agaricus

    Thanks for the analysis Hank. One quibble:- IMHO it seems likely that Rossi would initially have added lithium hydride to the nickel in an effort to get rid of the H2 tank – an experiment that possibly produced better results than anticipated due to the participation of lithium (serendipity #1).

    The purpose of moving to lithium aluminium hydride might simply have been to change the hydride decomposition characteristics to better suit the temperatures and pressures involved, or conceivably to change the inductive characteristics of the mixture to increase absorption of the EM driver energy (after he discovered the importance of this, possibly following an attempt to use induction heating – serendipity #2?).

  • Oystein Lande

    Rossi : “I am working on 64 patent applications right now”
    I wonder if he means 64 separate elements to be protected or some patents are just same patent but for different countries.

  • Nigel Appleton

    It seems that one might need some fairly exotic ceramic to withstand hot lithium

    Maybe “something not existing in commerce”? – at least in the desired shape/format

    • Obvious

      Google “Omegatite 650”

  • John Littlemist

    “For the first time ever, we have been provided with a listing of ingredients”
    Not true. Please see Example 1 on page 34 of this document:
    That application was filed 3 months BEFORE Rossi.

    • Good find, just what we need.

      Please contact Steven Krivit, he can get back in touch with Swedish Media and work on how to discredit USPTO. A good way of doing so is to point out trivial non important information, also try to find random awkward pictures of employees working at Patent Offices to show how unreliable they are. Also, if one of them drives a ferrari, or ever been seen to drive a ferrari, BOOM, thats the smoking gun right there.

      Lets never forget that Rossi lied about his factory in Italy, he said it had 4 chimnes, but it seems, possible there was only three.

      • Pedro

        Remember that we always thought Nickle was the fuel? I remember that there where some worries about how much Nickle that would need and what that would do to the price of Nickel, etc. Some people did calculations and it turned out that in order to generate all the energy that the world consumes today, we would need approx. 1% of the current Nickle production.

        Now with the patent publishing the fuel composition, we know there may be a 2nd ‘bottleneck’, being the amount of Lithium needed.

        I did some checking on Wikipedia and it turns out there seems to be no problem (assuming that the 1% of Nickle was correct)… world production of Nickle is abount 2 Million Metric Tons and total known reserves are about 75 MMT. Lithium production is 0.65 MMT and reserves stand at 13 MMT.

        So Lithium production is about 1/3rd of Nickle production and we need less Lithium than Nickle in the fuel, this would translate to 1 or 2% of world Lithium production.

        If cold fusion based ‘batteries’ would be developped, replacing Lion batteries, we might end up using less Lithium then we use currently since a Lion battery most likely uses 100-1000 times more lithium than a CF device.

        • blanco69

          Yes. This is interesting. We all thought that Nickel was the fuel in an ecat because Rossi said so. Why would he say that if he knew this wasn’t the case? The goal posts are moving constantly. I will be excited to see the world’s first ecat heater in action. I wont, however, be surprised if it uses a process that is a new form of chemical reation and NOT cold fusion.

    • Jarea1

      It is not exactly the same mixture but interesting to see that this was accepted before. In my opinion ecat is prior to other devices in this technology. if the patent office decides to approve one before the other must be discussed with lawyers XD.

  • Daniel Maris

    Hank – Great summary of where we are now. I hope your analysis is as near as damn it and we can now see rapid progress. However, much remains to be done on the replication front.

  • ecatworld

    Frederic Maillard

    August 26th, 2015 at 4:23 AM

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    Congratulations for your granted patent and your immense work.
    In this patent (§ 33), you state that « nickel acts a catalyst for the reaction, and is not itself a reagent ».

    On the other hand, in the Lugano report, the ash analysis reveals that Ni-58 is turned into Ni-62.
    Does it mean that nickel, as a catalyst, still undergoes some transmutations ?

    Andrea Rossi

    August 26th, 2015 at 7:34 AM

    Frederic Maillard:
    The issue you raised is pertinent to another patent we are working upon.
    Warm Regards,

    • wpj

      It strikes me that the patent is less about the fuel, but more about the design of the 250MW reactors. In the Lugano report, it was a case of chuck everything in quickly and heat up.

      The design here with “wafers” either side of the heating element seems to me to be the real crux of the patent.

  • tomconover

    Hank et al,
    I cannot find any Lithium powder, just metal tablets. I purchased the lithium metal pellets, but Hank seems to think “all these are available in powder form”? Anybody, send me a link to a source of pure Lithium powder so I can purchase it for my replication attempts?
    Thank you, thank you,

    • wpj

      It is available as a “powder”, but only as a dispersion in mineral oil. It is available as foil, strips and wire (as well as chunks). I’ve only ever used the wire. It certainly handles much easier than sodium, but is much tougher to cut.

      • Nigel Appleton

        You could use the powder in oil – just mix the dispersion with dry hexane, filter, repeat several times, then allow the powder to dry (preferably excluding moisture)

        • wpj

          Could indeed be the source of the carbon in the ash analysis.

      • tomconover

        Thanks wpj. Sigma Alda won’t ship to me but I will try to source it elsewhere. I found some Lithium Tetraborate, it’s what Pekka used for her Li …

        • wpj

          That is mentioned in the patent cited below which someone said pre-dates the Rossi one.

        • wpj

          Seems it has been discontinued anyway! Additionally, it was high sodium which might have been a problem (used to help formation of lithium alkyls).

    • Ted-X

      At 356 deg. C lithium metal melts. Therefore, pellets should be OK.

      • Alain Samoun

        No Ted the melting point is 180.50°C, 356.90°F, 453.65 K

    • Alain Samoun

      Try alibaba,there are several companies making it in China – It seems that you can get 1Kg for about $100 – 1Kg is a lot so maybe several people interested can share. One question that I have: Lithium becomes liquid at about 180C Is the powder form really necessary in those conditions? If not one can dismantle a lithium battery and extract a solid foil of Li from it, it will be cheaper

  • “Black Cat’s” are not about speaking the truth – they are about avoiding the truth.
    The “Black Cat” is a reference to secret Russian military X-projects.

    • Axil Axil

      Who was awarded the potassium patent or was it deemed by Rossi and his legal team to be open source? Rossi’s low heat reactor (1 Megawatt version) must use a potassium based fuel. A Lithium based fuel must run in a reactor with and operating temperature of over 1000C. Is Rossi conceding the Big cat and his tiger reactor subsystem as using and open source technology?

      DGT used Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as their fuel. This is the standard LENR catalyst. It has been used from the earliest times of LENR. Thermocore might have been the first to experiment with potassium. Potassium could support the a fine LENR reactor design.

      Melting point (891 °C (1,636 °F; 1,164 K)

      Boiling point – decomposes.

      A competitor of Rossi could develop a reactor that uses K2CO3 with no patent recourse protection from Rossi. I believe that Rossi is reserving the Lithium aluminum hydrate fuel as a doorway to the direct conversion of the LENR reaction into electricity. This might be why Rossi made a point that the lithium based LENR patent was the first LENR patent to be set in place by Rossi’s team.

      A way to get around the Rossi patent protection is to mix chemical compounds containing cesium, potassium and lithium together is proportions that are different from those specified by the Rossi patent.

      Even if Mills does not discrib what he does in his technologies as LENR, as described by Mills in his patents, there are hundreds of chemical compound combinations that will support the LENR reaction.

      These chemicals uses as fuel are not fundamental to LENR, it is what these fuels produce that results in LENR. Those more fundamental elements are nanoparticles of the proper sizes and aggregations comprised of elements and/or chemical compounds.

      If you remember the story of how a LENR reaction melted and vaporized a hole a lab table and the the reinforced concrete floor of a LENR lab floor just under the table, that vaporized floor material served as fuel of the LENR reaction in that amazing case.

      • Axil Axil

        Producing nanoparticles by chemical means is a well defined branch of chemistry. This expertise is one of the many skills that a LENR replicator must master to get his reactor to function.

        • greggoble

          Per aspera ad astra is a Latin phrase which means any of the following: “Through hardships to the stars”, “A rough road leads to the stars” or “To the stars through difficulties”.

          The importance of nickel hydride and lithium aluminium hydride nanoparticles for LENR energy production got me looking into recent patents. Creating these nanoparticles is not cheap or easy. Clearly, if one develops improved economic mass production methods, creating fuel for LENR reactors will be a breadwinner. These patents by Toyota, and another by David Kidwell, caught my attention.

          The Nanoparticle Patents


          “Stable Complexes of Zero-valent Metallic Element and Hydride as Novel Reagents” US 20150098885 A1

          Publication date: Apr 9, 2015
          Filing date: May 5, 2014
          Priority date: Oct 4, 2013
          Inventors: Michael P. Rowe
          Original Assignee: Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.


          A composition and its method of production are provided. The composition includes at least one zero-valent metallic element atom in complex with at least one hydride molecule. The method of production includes ball-milling an elemental metal in a high-surface area form, with a hydride. The composition can be useful as a reagent for the synthesis of zero-valent metallic elemental nanoparticles.


          20. The method of claim 18 wherein the zero-valent metallic element is magnesium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, boron, indium, antimony, or bismuth.


          Hydrides, compounds in which metals or metalloids are bound directly to hydrogen, are relatively energetic molecules with a large variety of known and developing applications in chemistry and energy technology. Such applications include uses as reducing agents, hydrogenation catalysts, desiccants, potent bases, components in rechargeable batteries, and potentially as solid hydrogen storage vehicles in fuel cell technology.

          Metal nanoparticles, particles of elemental metal in pure or alloyed form with a dimension less than 100 nm, have unique physical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and other properties in comparison to their corresponding bulk metals. As such they are in use or under development in fields such as chemistry, medicine, energy, and advanced electronics, among others.

          Another embodiment of this patent has been granted.

          “Stable complexes of zero-valent metal and hydride as novel reagents”

          US 8980219 B1
          Publication type: Grant
          Publication date: Mar 17, 2015
          Filing date: Oct 4, 2013
          Priority date: Oct 4, 2013
          Inventors: Michael Paul Rowe, Rana Mohtadi, Daniel Jeffrey Herrera
          Original Assignee: Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.


          Compositions of zero-valent metals in complex with hydrides and methods of synthesizing the compositions are described. A zero-valent metal can alternatively be described as a metal which is in oxidation state zero or as an elemental metal.

          As used here, a “metal” can refer to an alkaline earth metal, an alkali metal, a transition metal, or a post-transition metal. The phrase “transition metal” can refer to any D-block metal of Groups 3 through 12. The phrase “post-transition metal” can refer to Group 13 through 16 metals.

          As used here, a “hydride” can be a binary metal hydride (e.g. NaH, or MgH2), a binary metalloid hydride (e.g. BH3), a complex metal hydride (e.g. LiALH4), or a complex metalloid hydride (e.g. LiBH4 or Li(CH3CH2)3BH). In some examples the hydride will be LiBH4. The term “metalloid” can refer to any of boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, or polonium. The term hydride as described above can in some variations include a corresponding deuteride or tritide.

          David Kidwell

          “Metal Nanoparticles with a Pre-Selected Number of Atoms”


          A metron refers to a molecule which contains a pre-defined number of high affinity binding sites for metal ions. Metrons may be used to prepare homogenous populations of nanoparticles each composed of a same, specific number of atoms, wherein each particle has the same size ranging from 2 atoms to about ten nanometers.


          The metron (sometimes called an “atomic metron”) described herein has a particular number of high affinity, (Kd>1010) binding sites, which enable it to bind exactly that number of metal ions. This allows the metron to be used as a tool to select the number of metal atoms that will be included in each separate nanoparticle in a given batch of prepared nanoparticles.

          The word “metron” is derived from the Greek noun “μ{acute over (ε)}τρον” referring to a measure (quantity)…

          “Excess enthalpy upon pressurization of nanosized metals with deuterium”


          A method for producing excess enthalpy by impregnating metallic precursors on an oxide support that reduces sintering and particle growth; drying the impregnated support at a temperature where the particle growth is minimal; reducing the metallic precursors at a second temperature where the particle growth results in supported metallic particles 2 nm or less in size; and pressurizing the supported metallic particles in the presence of deuterium. The metal particles may comprise palladium, platinum, mixtures thereof, or mixtures of palladium and/or platinum with other elements. Also disclosed is a method for measuring excess enthalpy by placing a test material in a pressure vessel; heating the pressure vessel; evacuating the pressure vessel; introducing deuterium, hydrogen, or both into the pressure vessel; measuring the enthalpy generated during pressurization; again evacuating the pressure vessel; and measuring the enthalpy used during depressurization.


          The present application is a non-provisional application that claims the benefit of provisional application Ser. No. 61/246,619 by David A. Kidwell, filed Sep. 29, 2009 entitled “ANOMALOUS HEAT GENERATION FROM DEUTERIUM (OR PLATINUM) LOADED NANOPARTICLES,” the entire contents of which is incorporated herein by reference.


          The present invention relates generally to gas pressurization of metal particles and more specifically to the pressurization in the presence of deuterium of metal nanoparticles 2 nm or less in size in an oxide matrix.

    • Axil Axil

      From MFMP as follows:


      Filing date Nov 27, 2012
      Priority date Nov 27, 2011
      Also published as US20150162104, WO2013076378A2, WO2013076378A3
      Inventors Pekka Soininen

      From this patent

      [0116] In an embodiment of the present invention styrene catalyst is utilized for enhancing nuclear fusion in a solid state system. The precursor for the styrene catalyst, hematite Fe203, having corundum crystal structure is reduced with hydrogen gas into magnetite FesO i. The precursor (iron oxide) is doped with alkali metal hydroxide comprising lithium hydroxide LiOH, sodium hydroxide NaOH, potassium hydroxide KOH, rubidium hydroxide RbOH and/or cesium hydroxide CsOH or with alkali metal oxide comprising lithium oxide Li20, sodium oxide Na20, potassium oxide K20, rubidium oxide Rb20 and/or cesium oxide Cs20. The alkali metal hydroxide is preferably KOH and the alkali metal oxide is preferably K20. Textural promoters comprising alumina Al203 and/or chromia Cr203 are added to the iron oxide. The said textural promoters are stable in process conditions in hot, highly reducing environment and they prevent the loss of lattice defects that are necessary for storing Rydberg matter and inverted Rydberg matter.

      [0123] Industrial catalysts have been optimized for specific chemical processes. For example, formation of coke (solid carbonaceous material) on the catalyst surface is avoided if the process temperature is kept in a specified temperature range. The present invention does not utilize compounds that form coke and temperatures above the normal temperature range for catalytic processes can be used in the present thermal- energy producing reactor. [0124] The probability for obtaining nuclear fusion near a single structural defect of a material is very small. Arranging a very large number of particles with surface and lattice defects to the reaction container increases the probability for nuclear fusion events per time unit within the reaction container to a noticeable and useful level. For example, if a 50 g piece of nickel is converted into 5 nm Ni nanoparticles with about 6000 atoms, about 8.55*1019 Ni nanoparticles is obtained. Each Ni nanoparticle may be in contact with a catalyst nanoparticle that promotes the formation of Rydberg atoms and clusters. Even a very small probability for obtaining nuclear fusion near a single Ni nanoparticle becomes considerable and useful when all the 8.55*1019 probabilities are added together.

  • Axil Axil

    Who was awarded the potassium patent or was it deemed to be open source. Rossi’s low heat reactor (1 Megawatt version) must use a potassium based fuel. A Lithium based fuel must run over 1000C. Is Rossi coinciding the Big cat as open source?

    • Alain Samoun

      If you are thinking to use potassium think twice – It is a very dangerous element that burns and explode even with the smallest quantity of water. People who work with it think that it is evil…

      • Axil Axil

        DGT used Potassium carbonate (K2CO3). This is the standard LENR catalyst. Melting point (891 °C (1,636 °F; 1,164 K)
        Boiling point – decomposes

  • Axil Axil

    From the Rossi patent, both palladium and platinum can be used as a substitute for nickel. Both these metals have a higher reactor operating temperature potential than does nickel.

  • Axil Axil

    The role of the electron may not be as inportant to that of photons. The role of bosons in the form of polaritons in LENR makes unlimited accumulation of EMF possible.

  • Jarea

    So you say that is completely chemical. The ECAT use a “Gas-ring of Langmuir”. But that doesn’t clarify that the device works for 1 Month providing far more energy that is possible with that chemical reaction isn’t it? Is is possible?.
    Besides, the laboratory found Nickel transmutations. That is not possible with your process. You have to accept that either there is bad science or fraud, if your theory is correct.

    At this point, i tend to believe that you don’t have all the data about ECAT and your option doesn’t cover all evidences so it is less probable to be true. It doesn’t match with the evidence provided by Rossi (if you believe that the evidence is true).

    If you still are convinced on your idea, why don’t you come up with a replication of the ECAT but using your chemical “Gas-ring of Langmuir”?. Do it as MFMP does, with live science to see really that the COP is >3 during some days.