LENR is a Fundamental Force of Nature (Axil Axil)

The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil

http://www.ptep-online.com/index_files/2011/PP-26-07.PDF

Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun

The reference puts forth a case that explains the sun as a condensed matter object made up of a liquid hydrogen lattice. The evidence that supports this idea is rooted in the continuous black body spectrum of the light that the sun produces. Only a solid like graphite can produce such a continuous spectrum. This idea that the sun is a condensed matter object rather than a gas explains many of the solar mysteries that have perplexed solar science for the last two centuries. But what cannot be explained and what is discouraging the idea that he sun is a condensed matter body made up of liquid hydrogen is how that liquid could remain liquid under the tremendous heat and pressure that exists inside the sun and in its atmosphere.

Another mystery about the sun is why it is not far denser than it is. There is a force intrinsic to the liquid hydrogen from becoming degenerate and therefore keeps the fusion going in the sun.

Degeneracy removes all of the forces which lead to fusion. As such, it should be more reasonable to maintain the relative incompressibility of condensed matter. The Sun, after all, has a very ordinary density of 1.4 g/cm3 [141] and the same is true for the giant planets.

From the conclusion:

Relative to the Sun, a condensed approach brings interesting contrasts and dilemmas versus the gaseous models. The latter are endowed with tremendous mathematical flexibility [1, 2], but their physical relevance appears limited. Gases cannot by themselves impart structure and the solar spectrum is not easily explained in a gaseous framework [9]. The gaseous stars suffer from the stellar opacity problem [9]. Conversely, a liquid metallic hydrogen model imparts a wonderful ability to explain the origin of the solar spectrum relying on the layered structure held in common with graphite [141–149]. Metallic hydrogen possesses a very high critical temperature and can exist as condensed matter even on the solar surface accounting for many features of the Sun best characterized by material endowed with a lattice [141]. Most of the physical attributes of the Sun are more simply explained within the framework of a liquid model [141]. However, a condensed Sun is not as open to theoretical formulations. The advantages of a liquid Sun are now so numerous [20, 141–149] that it is difficult to conceive why the model was not proposed long ago. This speaks to the allure of the gaseous Sun and the mathematical beauty of the associated equations of state. In closing, it should be highlighted that there is currently an effort to describe the Sun as “liquid-like” (e.g. [162]). In the end, the author believes that such terminology should be avoided. If the Sun is condensed, it should be viewed as liquid, not “liquid-like”. Even gases could be “liquid-like”. Such terms cannot be sufficient, since a real lattice is required for production of the solar thermal spectrum. No compromise can be made on this point for those who have studied thermal emission in real materials. “Liquid-like” might refer to anything from a gas, to plasma, to fully degenerate matter, to supercritical fluid and none are necessarily endowed with a lattice. The contention of this work remains that the photosphere of the Sun is liquid, with true lattice structure and ordered interatomic distances. The adoption of liquid metallic hydrogn as a solar constituent brings with it a wealth of possibilities in describing solar structures and understanding the solar spectrum. Central to this advancement, the lattice must remain the foremost element in all of condensed matter, whether here on Earth, within the Sun, and even, in the firmament of the stars. Acknowledgement Luc Robitaille is acknowledged for producing a rendition of graphite’s layered lattice.

LENR is a fundamental force of nature. LENR gives liquid hydrogen its incompressibility. We who have been studying LENR understand that a monopole magnetic shield protects the liquid hydrogen that we know as Rydberg hydrogen matter from becoming degenerated matter in the giant planets and stars. Degenerate matter cannot support fusion so LENR is keeping the sun shining. This monopole force keeps the biggest and most massive stars from burring out and collapsing in on themselves. This monopole force gives LENR the ability to produce nuclear reactions directly within the nucleus of the atom through the strong force. The evidence from the sun and the planets adds to our understanding of what LENR is.

Axil Axil

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