The E-Cat as a Cavity Resonator Producing 50-120keV Radiation With Side Effects (Paul Dodgshun)

The following post has been submitted by Paul Dodgshun

The E-cat as a cavity resonator producing 50-120keV radiation with side effects.

Define machine :
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

‘A machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action.’
[following the definition, a helpful sentence]

‘Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, THERMAL, or ELECTRICAL means, …’

The essence of a machine is to use energy (in all its forms) for a defined purpose.
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http://www.e-catworld.com/2012/09/24/summary-of-citta-del-capo-radio-metropolitana-interview-with-andrea-rossi/comment-page-1/

Part 2 – The Theory
The main effect is the thermalization of low-energy Gamma (50-120 keV).
The transmutation of Nickel into Copper is a side effect.
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The cavity magnetron outputs microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators)

So you need an oscillator that produces ‘low-energy Gamma (50-120 keV)’.

What oscillator would do that?

Free Electron Laser Oscillator (FELO) – An FELO for hard X-Rays

https://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Hamburg2016/Hamburglectures/KimXEFLO.pdf

A low-gain device with a low-loss x-ray cavity
https://www.google.com/patents/EP2753155A2?cl=en

Where have we got cavities in the Nickel that could oscillate? We have just been discussing that. The cavities in the Nickel generated by very high pressure H2 and close to the Nickel surface where EMF stimulation will work. The cavities absorb some of their own heat output to keep the Nickel and Hydrogen atoms/molecules vibrating as the cavities emit energy as radiation.

A resonant cavity is a MACHINE. It uses heat and EMF stimulation to output 50-120keV radiation. Energy inputs and outputs defined. In the case of the E-cat, the 50-120keV radiation is dumped in the lead shielding, the lead heats the water and boils it into steam. That is CoP=6 sorted.

Next figure what kicks off p+Li7->2He4+17.3MeV. From Piantelli :-
1: Orbital Capture
(H-)-2e -> p

2: Nuclear Capture
p+Ni -> Cu
-1H + 58Ni-> 59Cu + 3.417 MeV{1a}
-1H + 60Ni-> 61Cu + 4.796 MeV{1b}
-1H + 61Ni-> 62Cu + 5.866 MeV{1c}
-1H + 62Ni-> 63Cu + 6.122 MeV{1d}
-1H + 64Ni-> 65Cu + 7.453 MeV{1e}

3: Coulomb Repulsion
p+Ni -> p+Ni 6.7Mev

Repelled ‘p’s
3.1 p+Ni -> Cu Nuclear Capture as in 2:
3.2 p+Li7 -> 2He4 Lithium Fission

Why cannot (H-)-2e -> p feed directly into p+Li7 -> 2He4 as well as p+Ni -> Cu?
p+Li7->2(He4+17.3/2Mev)

He4+8.65MeV hits H2 and produces one of H0+H2 or two of H1 (where 0,1,2 is the number of attached electrons).
He4 is also looking for electrons to form a neutral atom. H0 is a proton p and the H1 a heavy electron that might reach the Li nucleus through an electron cloud of just seven electrons.

That is a possible four protons out for two He collisions with two H2 molecules from just one p+Li7 event.
That has the makings of a chain reaction !! Now figure out the control scheme to get the number of ‘p’s in one
generation the same as in the next, so the reactor can run in a stable fashion.

  • GiveADogABone

    Some more data on the p+Ni reaction :
    http://journals.aps.org/pr/abstract/10.1103/PhysRev.54.1021
    Nickel bombarded with 6.3-Mev protons shows activities of half-lives of 10.5±0.6 min., 3.4±0.3 hr., and 12.8±0.8 hr., corresponding to known periods of Cu62, Cu61 and Cu64, respectively.

    The reactions are principally of the p−n type but there is evidence that in the case of Cu62 proton capture occurs at energies below the p−n threshold.

    The maximum β-ray energies obtained by absorption method are 2.8, 1.2 and 0.68 Mev for Cu62, Cu61 and Cu64, respectively.

    Thick target excitation curves are given.

    Copper bombarded with 6.3-Mev protons shows two activities of half-lives 38.3±0.5 min. and 235±20 days due to Zn63 and Zn65, respectively.

    Both must be formed by p−n reactions.

    The Zn63 positrons have a maximum energy of 2.3±0.15 Mev.

    Thick target excitation curve shows a threshold proton energy of 4.1±0.1 Mev in good agreement with the energy relations.

    Average (thick target) cross section for the Cu63(p−n)Zn63 reaction is 0.28×10−25 cm2. For protons of energy 6.1 Mev it is 0.95×10−25 cm.

    Received 14 October 1938

  • Axil Axil

    Rossi stopped seeing copper in his ash when he stopped using copper pipe in his reactor. The copper seen in the ash may have been caused by contamination from the pipe.

    Theory must conform to experimental observations. Lugano shows that all the isotopes of nickel converge to Ni62, even Ni64 becomes Ni62, and no on otom of copper is detected.

    nickel-62 is the most tightly bound nucleus in terms of energy of binding per nucleon. This high binding energy of nickel isotopes in general makes nickel an “end product” of many nuclear reactions (including neutron capture reactions) throughout the universe and accounts for the high relative abundance of nickel.

    Protons can enter the Nickel nucleus by these protons will be converted to neutrons via electron capture.

    All the unstable nickel isotopes decay into some other element (copper and cobalt) so the way that nickel gets to Ni62 is most likely through proton capture and then electron capture. Ni62 is a nuclear dead end and is great stuff for a non reactive substrate in which LENR could occur.

    From experimental observation using their on line spectrometer, DGT told me that heavy element transmutation is not important in LENR as a source of energy. All the gainful reactions take place in the light elements. The heavy elements like nickel only function to support the topological conversion and amplification of EMF.

  • Jouni Tuomela

    Please give some examples of resonatinon in other frequencies, like sound. Not much there to talk about?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wvJAgrUBF4w

  • Kevmo ✓ᵀʳᵘᵐᵖ

    Is a cavity resonator an example of chemical energy giving off a nuclear byproduct?

  • giovanniontheweb

    hi chapman, your confusion is higher than what you believe, have a good rest

    • Chapman

      That was a weird statement…

      I can’t tell if that was a joke, an insult, or just Jack Daniels talking.

      For the record, it looks like you are translating from some other primary language. As you would know from other posts, I am a big supporter of bilingualism and folks bravely crossing language barriers, so I am not criticizing you if that is the case. In fact, I enjoy knowing what a persons native language is and observing how their minds translates certain terms and expressions when they speak in english. So do not take any insult from my comment if you were actually making a deep and clever joke that just did not come through clearly!

      If you WERE intending an insult for some reason, well – nice try… You gotta try harder than that! But keep at it, someday you will get it right, and I will insult you back, then you will try some feeble comeback, and I will give back some cutting rebuke and a comment about your kung-fu, and so on, and so on – and we will all have a good laugh. 🙂

  • GiveADogABone

    The LENR reactor?
    Atomic Hydrogen and applied EMF in, X-rays, heat and emitted EMF out.
    This is just the small relation of the cavity magnetron.