Rossi: Changing Magnetic Field Can Stop/Slow E-Cat Reaction

Thanks to LT for the following post about a Q&A he had with Andrea Rossi on the Journal of Nuclear Physics. I think it raises some interesting issues that could be of interest, especially to replicators.

I posted the following question to Andrea Rossi and got the answer as shown below

Dear Andrea Rossi,

Concerning the working of the ECAT I have the following questions :
1- Is it true that a (changing) magnetic field will stop/slow the low energy nuclear reaction in the ECAT
2- When no magnetic field is present the reaction can occur ?

Andrea Rossi
September 5, 2016 at 7:20 AM
Bert:
1- yes in some configurations
2- this is an object of a patent application on course and I cannot make predisclosure
Warm Regards,
A.R.

As I read Rossi’s comment he confirms that a changing magnetic field can stop the LENR reaction.
It might also explain why so many replication attempts fail. Possibly due to the magnetic field generated by the heating element. So it could useful to use a bifilair wound heating element or two coils with opposite fields in replication attempts.

LT

  • I think this has been suggested a number of times on this blog, but it’s very interesting to receive some confirmation that it is the case. It seems possible that the devices may self generate oscillating fields, and that external fields that are in phase with this field may amplify the reaction, while out-of-phase and anti-phase fields may dampen or extinguish the reaction.

    In the past I’ve suggested two possible mechanisms: (1) establishment of SPPs within the reactors, giving rise to a (very) rapidly oscillating zero-max magnetic field, or (2) existence of a natural magnetostriction-relaxation frequency in the metal substrate (nickel etc). The history of development of e-cats and DeChiaro’s ‘notes’ on his research possibly indicate the latter may possibly be the primary mechanism affected by external fields.

  • I think this has been suggested a number of times on this blog, but it’s very interesting to receive some confirmation that it is the case. I seem to remember that DLG also claimed that their devices generated intense magnetic fields. It seems possible that if Ni-H LENR reactors do indeed generate oscillating fields, then external fields that are in phase with these fields may amplify the reaction, while out-of-phase and anti-phase fields may dampen or extinguish the reaction.

    In the past I’ve suggested two possible mechanisms for such field resonance effects (there may be many other candidates): (1) establishment of SPPs within the reactors, giving rise to a (very) rapidly oscillating zero-max magnetic field, or (2) existence of a natural magnetostriction-relaxation frequency in the metal substrate (nickel etc).

    The history of development of e-cats and DeChiaro’s ‘notes’ on his research possibly indicate the latter may be the primary mechanism affected by external fields. However if this is the case then oscillation could only occur once initiated by an external field, although self induction (coherent field collapse/regeneration) might continue the effect for some period following initiation (i.e., like ringing a bell). I agree with Admin’s observation that random frequencies such as from mains-driven heater elements may not generally be helpful unless by ‘serendipity’ these are a close match to optimum resonant frequencies (Rossi’s luck when playing with a Triac?).

  • Andy Kumar

    I think e-cat is like a hurricane. Rossi keeps heating the fuel and the fire gets started completely unpredictably and cannot be controlled because of *nonlinearity* of the underlying processes just like the butterfly effect in the weather system. Once the fire is started, it cannot be stopped.
    .
    //The Butterfly Effect: This effect grants the power to cause a hurricane in China to a butterfly flapping its wings in New Mexico. It may take a very long time, but the connection is real. If the butterfly had not flapped its wings at just the right point in space/time, the hurricane would not have happened. A more rigorous way to express this is that small changes in the initial conditions lead to drastic changes in the results. Our lives are an ongoing demonstration of this principle. Who knows what the long-term effects of teaching millions of kids about chaos and fractals will be?//
    .
    http://fractalfoundation.org/resources/what-is-chaos-theory/
    .
    Sociological perspective on the fire:
    We did not start the fire. It was always burning since the world has been turning …
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m50p-XScreM

  • Alan Smith

    ‘Changing’ is the key word. Just use DC and it doesn’t change.

    • Jimr

      Not knowing anything on its operation, perhaps it requires pulsed power, dc or ac could cause a magnetic field.

      • Brokeeper

        Lugano test reported square wave EM control.

        • Engineer48

          Hi BroKeeper,

          Triac chopped AC.
          .

          • Brokeeper

            Or chopped DC. 🙂 Thanks.

  • Alan Smith

    ‘Changing’ is the key word. Just use DC and it doesn’t change.

    • Jimr

      Not knowing anything on its operation, perhaps it requires pulsed power, dc or ac could cause a magnetic field.

      • Brokeeper

        Lugano test reported square wave EM control.

        • Engineer48

          Hi BroKeeper,

          Triac chopped AC.
          .

          • Brokeeper

            Or chopped-up DC. 🙂 Thanks.

          • clovis ray

            Hi, Bro
            This seem familiar, if i remember right, the chopped, scrambled or distorted 3 phase dc, was first thought to be the reason it started early on. maybe frank can find it,

          • Future

            Hi Engineer48,

            The TRIAC chopped AC with single phase very well provide the configurable rotating magnetic field inside the reactor. This way, the magnetic field rotation inside reactor could be increased or decreased for various RPM.

            Thanks

  • KeithT

    Depends on how you read the question and answer, and how Rossi then defines the word “changing”, you could read the statement as the magnetic field being ON and the Ecat working, “changing” to the field being OFF and the Ecat not working. The object of the patent application could be the use of a magnetic field to switch the Ecat ON.

    • Ophelia Rump

      More likely it has to do with resonance of the particles inside the reaction. By changing the field you introduce an interference pattern altering the frequency of vibration of the particles.
      Think noise cancellation.

      The most effective changes given that theory would be discreet intervals of the oscillation. In effect if you altered the frequency precisely you would get a noise cancellation type effect on 1 in N cycles. Skipping beats, reducing the effectiveness of the operational frequency by 1/N.

      You are literally throttling back the nano machines operating speed like a step motor.

      Harmonics are used to drive the particles, beats are cancelled to throttle the reaction.

  • Gerard McEk

    Yes it can be expected that magnetic fields can influence LENR when LENR can also directly generate electricity. No doubt LENR will also generate (electro-)magnetic fields then.
    It is one of the reasons that I proposed a IGBT based pulse generator for driving the heater coil, but also able to control/dissipate voltages that are generated in the coil by the LENR process.
    I hope the patents will be published soon.

    • LT

      If you drive the heater coil with an IGBT based pulse generator you will create a changing magnetic field. My question to Andrea Rossi was : Is it true that a (changing) magnetic field will stop/slow the low energy nuclear reaction in the ECAT and Rossi’s answer was : yes in some configurations. That means in my opinion that you should not drive the heater coil with an IGBT based pulse generator.
      Why did Rossi ad “in some connfigurations”. My take is that if you have a LENR reaction with a large positive feedback (possibly large COP), the reaction can run away and you need a means to control it, eg the changing magnetic field. For lower COP applications with less positive feedback which are inherent stable you would not need the changing magnetic field to
      control the reaction. So for some ECAT configurations you would need it, for other types not.

      • Gerard McEk

        I agree that AC-like changes may damp the LENR reaction. I am not sure how AR has interpreted ‘(changing)’, though. It may also be that static magnetic fields damp the reaction. Besides that, the reaction may have an optimal operation point with regards to frequency and field strength. Additionally, my remark on dissipation damping must be taken seriously. If LENR generates voltages in the coil, you may be able to damp the reaction by controlled short-circuting the coil (using the IGBT’s). AR has already said that increasing the electrical load will reduce the heat output (thus damping the reaction).

        • LT

          Gerard,

          I posed the question to Andrea Rossi because I concluded from remarks by Rossi on his blog, analyses of the hotcat report and the Lugano report and hundreds of electrical simulations what could have happened, that the active runs where performed using 2 of the three heater coils. (look also at the appendix of the ECAT evaluation report which was later added, it shows only 2 phases active}. When two phases are used, 2 of the three connection points of the delta are shorted, so the third coil is also shorted. If the reaction would have been damped by short circuiting a coil, the reaction could not have occurred because of this third coil shorted. Because of this I don’t think that shortening a coil using IGBT’s will stop the reaction.
          That said, my disclaimer is that it is clear that the tester made mistakes in their reporting, as already shown by analysis done by other people. So I had to make assumptions about the errors the testers made in their reporting to get to my conclusions. I hope that these assumptions where correct.

          • Gerard McEk

            LT, this is totally new to me. In the Lugano picture all wires running to the coils seem equally orange, ergo: conducting a similar load. Also the three coils were glowing equally. I think it is unlikely that only two coils were used for heating. Obviously the picture shows only a single moment, but I do not believe that things were changed later. Coils cannot be shortcircuited in a delta configuration, that would blow out the fuses of the power controller which is then shortcircuited too.

          • LT

            My analysis showed that the dummy run was done with all three heating coils powered, the active run with only two heating coils powered. So I think the photographs where taken during the dummy run. If in a delta you short one coil and connect one phase (for example phase 1) to that short and another phase (phase 2) to the remaining point on the delta and have phase 3 disconnected, then no short will occur. In my opinion the change between 3 phase and two phase was done in the connection box between the thyristor controller and the delta. (could be done with a simple changeover relais)

  • Future

    Might be rotating magnetic field plays the role

    • Ted-Z

      in the NMR spectroscopy usually the sample rotates…. this suggests that in LENR the magnetic field rotates….. so the relative motion might be the same!
      Li-7 and hydrogen (and all elements with the odd mass number) are NMR active!
      .. Are we getting closer to connect the dots?….

      • Future

        Hi Ted-Z,

        Interesting… The open community mostly follows the spring based heater coil which could not provide the effective magnetic field change. The fuel might end up in the center of the spring coil and magnetic change might not effective at the center. The heater coil arrangement better to be followed like Rossi design.

    • Engineer48

      Hi Future,

      While other older ECat do appear to use 3 phase excitation, it seems the 1 year test 51 x 20kW BlueCats and the 4 x 250kW Tiger reactors were powered via single phase.
      .

      • Future

        Hi Engineer48,

        The single phase could be arranged with capacitor to trigger the spin. The heater coil arrangements and connections might be important.

        • david fojt

          Future you explain your picture with 3 circuits to drive a NMR control system ?
          I remember for this we need one simple EM circuit and another one, but 3 no explanation ?
          David FOJT

    • david fojt

      Yes, rotating magnetic help to mix everything together up to curie point then LIH/lLI+H/Lih by bulbles created continue the mixing.
      Therefore may be 2 coils have done by khantal A1 and the last by no resistive wire as pure nickel to dedicaced this for EM control.
      David FOJT

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Just thinking out loud again. How to bring a proton (lithium-7 also has a spin) into resonance. We might learn something from this.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJhVotrZt9I

    • Engineer48

      So now Rossi indirectly reveals he controls the reactor by monitoring internal EM fields the reaction creates via the EMF they induce into the heater coil and monitored via this circuit.

      • LT

        I prefer another explanation being that when the reaction rate of the ECAT is throttled back by applying a changing magnetic field, he measures by this circuit the amount of magnetic energy he applied. This enables him to control the reaction rate precisely.

      • Axil Axil

        Rossi does not use heater coils anymore, see patent.

      • Appleby

        With existing tech you don’t need a heating wire. I have looked through the posts but haven’t seen anything posted on the subject of magnetic induction heating. With this type of heating you can also pick whether you want the thick metal to heat up before thinner metals (or vise verse) simply by changing the frequency.

        Lots of YouTube videos show melting metal with magnetic induction heating……..just a thought.

      • Rene

        That circuit doesn’t monitor EMF. It looks to be an opto-isolator that monitors the power to the heater coil. When power is applied to the heater, the coil EMF line goes to near 0V. When the heater is off, the coil EMF is pulled up to +5V. The most this does is send power to some other EMF circuitry (not disclosed) when the heater is not powered.

        • Engineer48

          Hi Rene,

          I know this circuit and application well.

          By selecting the resistance in series with the Opto led, you can select the voltage ranges that the Opto transistor can monitor. BTW this chip is available as a logic chip or a linear chip. As I did, I assume the designed also used a linear chip where the Opto transistor output varies as the Opto led input current varies.

          The output of the opto transistor goes to the ADC 0-3.3vdc 10 bit input of the I/O board.

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Just thinking out loud again. How to bring a proton (lithium-7 also has a spin) into resonance. We might learn something from this.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJhVotrZt9I

    • clovis ray

      Thanks Alan,
      That was great ,I dident know that H had a magnet personality.this fact along changes everything
      Wouldent you say.

      • Alan DeAngelis

        Oh, and deuterium also has a spin.
        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deuterium_NMR

        • clovis ray

          Alan,hi.
          I just love, this stuff, wish i had learned more, earlier.
          So spin quanti=angular momentum,orbital momentum, and if i understand these can= some sort of torque, and if that torque is restrained, by magnetics,to produce heat, and other radiological waves.

  • Zephir

    /* It might also explain why so many replication attempts fail. Possibly
    due to the magnetic field generated by the heating element. */

    Many people say instead, that DC heating doesn’t work, the cold fusion likes high frequency field instead… DC heating generates steady-state magnetic field.

  • Zephir

    /* It might also explain why so many replication attempts fail. Possibly
    due to the magnetic field generated by the heating element. */

    Many people say instead, that DC heating doesn’t work, the cold fusion likes high frequency field instead… DC heating generates steady-state magnetic field.

    • LT

      Maybe a steady-state magnetic field also stops the reaction ?.
      That’s why i propose to use a bifilair wound coil, which does not have a magnetic field
      Note that some recent reports of LENR experiments which showed excess heat, had a heater coils with the connections on one side of the coil. Now the easiest way to have the connections on one side of the coil is to use a bifilair wound coil. Coincidence ?

  • Axil Axil

    As Agaricus mentions below as follows:

    “I think this has been suggested a number of times on this blog,”

    The destructive effects to the LENR reaction of magnetic field applied to the reaction has been discussed in the open in dozens of posts here and elsewhere. With this in mind, how can Rossi expect to patent this LENR behavior when through open discussion it has been placed in open source and prior art for a long time now?

    In general, there has been so much good LENR theory discussed on this blog, and therefore placed in open source as prior art, that Rossi will have a difficult job of getting any patent protection for the LENR reaction.

    • Omega Z

      Rossi doesn’t withhold details because of Patent issues. He withholds them because they allow a better understanding of how the process works and this would lead to highly viable working reactors. It is the reactors that can be patented.

      You can’t patent LENR anymore then you could patent anti-gravity. However, you can patent a device that circumvented the laws that allowed the use and control of anti-gravity. In the mean time while developing such a device, you wouldn’t share details such as frequency of EM fields you may be working with in the process until your device patent was filed.

  • Axil Axil

    As Agaricus mentions below as follows:

    “I think this has been suggested a number of times on this blog,”

    The destructive effects to the LENR reaction of magnetic field applied to the reaction has been discussed in the open in dozens of posts here and elsewhere. With this in mind, how can Rossi expect to patent this LENR behavior when through open discussion it has been placed in open source and prior art for a long time now?

    In general, there has been so much good LENR theory discussed on this blog, and therefore placed in open source as prior art, that Rossi will have a difficult job of getting any patent protection for the LENR reaction.

    • Andy Kumar

      // In general, there has been so much good LENR theory discussed on this blog //
      .
      Axil, you have contributed much to the theory here, defeating Rossi’s monopolistic business plans. You are the unsung (for now) hero of the coming revolution. Cheers!

      • Omega Z

        Andy, No one can patent LENR. Only devices that allow it’s operation and use.
        The reason Rossi withholds certain details is that they would be beneficial to his competitors in developing working reactors that can be patented. Having this edge in knowledge allows Rossi “the possibility” of patenting the best reactor designs.

        • clovis ray

          Yup, I agree.

    • Chapman

      Rossi can only patent his specific reactor design as a unique engineering solution/device, All of the reactions and processes going on inside the reactor are publicly available information. This was sited in the exhibit 1 patent denial from IH.

      The examiner pretty much stated that the science likely behind the device was “covered under Butler” and that the patentable aspect would have been the unique reactor design features that enabled the initiation and containment of those processes, rather than the processes themselves.

      We can do all the reverse engineering we want, and we may nail down the exact processes taking place in both the E-Cat and the Quark, but our efforts will not affect Rossi’s patents. They are for HARDWARE – not theory.

    • Omega Z

      Rossi doesn’t withhold details because of Patent issues. He withholds them because they allow a better understanding of how the process works and this would lead to highly viable working reactors. It is the reactors that can be patented.

      You can’t patent LENR anymore then you could patent anti-gravity. However, you can patent a device that circumvented the laws that allowed the use and control of anti-gravity. In the mean time while developing such a device, you wouldn’t share details such as frequency of EM fields you may be working with in the process until your device patent was filed.

  • clovis ray

    Hi, Guys,
    Well, they say with new info, you can change your mind on things, i ask the good Dr. if there was any nuclear processes going on in his reactor, he basically said nothing measurable on the outside, and i have been arguing that there should be on N in LENR, so no more of that for me,and i ask about if there was any superconducting going on.
    He didn’t answer, but did, for Gerhard meissner when asked, and answered with, a resounding NO. so more new info as well. thanks Dr. Rossi,

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Heat it with an infrared LED instead of a coil?

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Heat it with an infrared LED instead of a coil?

  • James Andrew Rovnak

    As I alway suspected the E-Cats are stopped & started with magnetic field manipulation (EM frequency & magnitude)! I’ve presumed this is used to raise, lower or maintain self sustaining mode (ssm) of operation in all Rossi’s product although he doesn’t absolute confirm that here but does infer it, No?

    • Engineer48

      Hi James,

      It appears Rossi excites the heater coil with AC that is switched on and off with common relays.
      .

  • Ted-Z

    The role of the magnetic field indicates to me that so called Nuclear Magnetic Resonance may be involved in the mechanism of the LENR reactions. the nuclear resonance depends on the magnetic field. In the case of LENR the NMR seems to be a non-standard …
    solid state and the magnetic field changing… it is still possible!

    • Julio Ruben Vazquez Turnes

      I am not physicist but I already guessed long time ago (and I wrote it here) that creating a resonance where the electrons spin around the nuclei would cause the protons to spin to compensate and that would create a hole in the coulomb barrier. And there is where the proccess start.

      The more i read, the more convinced i become of this being true.

      • Ted-Z

        Nuclear resonance by resonabe-transfer of energy from électrons to the nucleus is a well known process, but it is hidden by the scientific jargon used in this field. Several effects are there in the literature. I agree that the nuclear reesonance might be the key to understanding the LENR. Even more interesting is that the state of excitation can be on the order of tens of seconds (physicists generally do not know that, as it was observed by chemists). In addition to the NMR effect, a metastable ring of protons or neutrons might be an additional factor.
        —————————————————
        Regarding Rossis mysterious isotope enhancement: I believe that it is a cryogenic process of HAMMERING the nickel powder. Cryogenic processes are known tio be capable of releasing neutrons (known in the literature…). The future will prove that I am right there. The method is not in the public domain, but I hope that this posting will make it non-patentable. Sorry, Dr. Rossi.
        —————————————————-
        Pro publico bono.

  • Ted-Z

    The role of the magnetic field indicates to me that so called Nuclear Magnetic Resonance may be involved in the mechanism of the LENR reactions. the nuclear resonance depends on the magnetic field. In the case of LENR the NMR seems to be a non-standard …
    solid state and the magnetic field changing… it is still possible!

    • Julio Ruben Vazquez Turnes

      I am not physicist but I already guessed long time ago (and I wrote it here) that creating a resonance where the electrons spin around the nuclei would cause the protons to spin to compensate and that would create a hole in the coulomb barrier. And there is where the proccess start.

      The more i read, the more convinced i become of this being true.

      • clovis ray

        Hi Julio
        Its as good,as any, I just had one of my theorys shoot down about superconductivity But thats the nature of being on the Frontier.

      • Ted-Z

        Nuclear resonance by resonabe-transfer of energy from électrons to the nucleus is a well known process, but it is hidden by the scientific jargon used in this field. Several effects are there in the literature. I agree that the nuclear reesonance might be the key to understanding the LENR. Even more interesting is that the state of excitation can be on the order of tens of seconds (physicists generally do not know that, as it was observed by chemists). In addition to the NMR effect, a metastable ring of protons or neutrons might be an additional factor.
        —————————————————
        Regarding Rossis mysterious isotope enhancement: I believe that it is a cryogenic process of HAMMERING the nickel powder. Cryogenic processes are known tio be capable of releasing neutrons (known in the literature…). The future will prove that I am right there. The method is not in the public domain, but I hope that this posting will make it non-patentable. Sorry, Dr. Rossi.
        —————————————————-
        Pro publico bono.

  • bachcole

    This is not a statement that a con-artist would make.

    • clovis ray

      Hi, bubby welcome back.
      How many times have you had to say that over the years. . Smile

      • bachcole

        I haven’t gone any where.

        • clovis ray

          oh, sorry, i missed you, for the last little while, i had to take a short hiatus, but now back to the most wonderful story ever told, smile

    • Obvious

      A confidence artist will make any statement she/he believes will get your trust and/or fulfill their goals.

  • It may be instructive that Godes and Hagelstein use pulses to excite/control reactions. I liken it to the ringing of a bell. In order to be effective, a bell’s clapper needs to rebound from the bell and allowing to ring at its natural frequency. In the same way a short EM nano-pulse might do the same for the LENR sites. Ding!

    • GiveADogABone

      I would be interested in where the ‘LENR sites’ are located. Any views?

      • Not really… I’m an EE controls guy and wanna be replicator. Most of my nuclear physics and nano-materials exposure is from attending ICCF-18 and following the story here over the past few years. From the amateur replicator’s perspective, I don’t think it matters. Just send the EM pulse down a small diameter pellet of properly prepared and loaded fuel. It will find the sites. But the pulse must be short, a few nano-seconds, and not too frequent. IMHO…

  • It may be instructive that Godes and Hagelstein use pulses to excite/control reactions. I liken it to the ringing of a bell. In order to be effective, a bell’s clapper needs to rebound from the bell and allowing to ring at its natural frequency. In the same way a short EM nano-pulse might do the same for the LENR sites. Ding!

    • GiveADogABone

      I would be interested in where the ‘LENR sites’ are located. Any views?

      • Not really… I’m an EE controls guy and wanna be replicator. Most of my nuclear physics and nano-materials exposure is from attending ICCF-18 and following the story here over the past few years. From the amateur replicator’s perspective, I don’t think it matters. Just send the EM pulse down a small diameter pellet of properly prepared and loaded fuel. It will find the sites. But the pulse must be short, a few nano-seconds, and not too frequent. IMHO…

  • The Wright brothers didn’t leapfrog everyone else by virtue of the fact that they jumped into the sky higher or faster or even longer than others. It was due to the fact that they had CONTROL over their craft.

    • And they invented the wind tunnel before of that, to be able to test their ideas very fast.

      • My understanding was that they weren’t the inventors of the wind tunnel, someone else invented it before them. They were just so creative and sharp that they used it to produce real results that were profitable in generating real wings on a real airplane. They also used it to find that the previous luminary in the field, Lilienthal, was simply wrong in his calculations & data when it came to Lift/Drag on curved airfoils.

      • bachcole

        I believe that Mirco is correct about the wind tunnel, but that is merely a vote, not proof. And Kevmorable the adorable is right about CONTROL.

  • Engineer48

    So now Rossi indirectly reveals he controls the reactor by monitoring internal EM fields the reaction creates via the EMF they induce into the heater coil and monitored via this circuit.

    • LT

      I prefer another explanation being that when the reaction rate of the ECAT is throttled back by applying a changing magnetic field, he measures by this circuit the amount of magnetic energy he applied. This enables him to control the reaction rate precisely.

    • Axil Axil

      Rossi does not use heater coils anymore, see patent.

    • Appleby

      With existing tech you don’t need a heating wire. I have looked through the posts but haven’t seen anything posted on the subject of magnetic induction heating. With this type of heating you can also pick whether you want the thick metal to heat up before thinner metals (or vise verse) simply by changing the frequency.

      Lots of YouTube videos show melting metal with magnetic induction heating……..just a thought.

    • Rene

      That circuit doesn’t monitor EMF. It looks to be an opto-isolator that monitors the power to the heater coil. When power is applied to the heater, the coil EMF line goes to near 0V. When the heater is off, the coil EMF is pulled up to +5V. The most this does is send power to some other EMF circuitry (not disclosed) when the heater is not powered.

      • Engineer48

        Hi Rene,

        I know this circuit and application well.

        By selecting the resistance in series with the Opto led, you can select the voltage ranges that the Opto transistor can monitor. BTW this chip is available as a logic chip or a linear chip. As I did, I assume the designed also used a linear chip where the Opto transistor output varies as the Opto led input current varies.

        The output of the opto transistor goes to the ADC 0-3.3vdc 10 bit input of the I/O board.

  • Engineer48

    Hi Future,

    While other older ECat do appear to use 3 phase excitation, it seems the 1 year test 51 x 20kW BlueCats and the 4 x 250kW Tiger reactors were powered via single phase.
    .

  • Gerard McEk

    I agree that AC-like changes may damp the LENR reaction. I am not sure how AR has interpreted ‘(changing)’, though. It may also be that static magnetic fields damp the reaction. Besides that, the reaction may have an optimal operation point with regards to frequency and field strength. Additionally, my remark on dissipation damping must be taken seriously. If LENR generates voltages in the coil, you may be able to damp the reaction by controlled short-circuting the coil (using the IGBT’s). AR has already said that increasing the electrical load will reduce the heat output (thus damping the reaction).

    • LT

      Gerard,

      I posed the question to Andrea Rossi because I concluded from remarks by Rossi on his blog, analyses of the hotcat report and the Lugano report and hundreds of electrical simulations what could have happened, that the active runs where performed using 2 of the three heater coils. (look also at the appendix of the ECAT evaluation report which was later added, it shows only 2 phases active}. When two phases are used, 2 of the three connection points of the delta are shorted, so the third coil is also shorted. If the reaction would have been damped by short circuiting a coil, the reaction could not have occurred because of this third coil shorted. Because of this I don’t think that shortening a coil using IGBT’s will stop the reaction.
      That said, my disclaimer is that it is clear that the tester made mistakes in their reporting, as already shown by analysis done by other people. So I had to make assumptions about the errors the testers made in their reporting to get to my conclusions. I hope that these assumptions where correct.

      • Gerard McEk

        LT, this is totally new to me. In the Lugano picture all wires running to the coils seem equally orange, ergo: conducting a similar load. Also the three coils were glowing equally. I think it is unlikely that only two coils were used for heating. Obviously the picture shows only a single moment, but I do not believe that things were changed later. Coils cannot be shortcircuited in a delta configuration, that would blow out the fuses of the power controller which is then shortcircuited too.

        • LT

          My analysis showed that the dummy run was done with all three heating coils powered, the active run with only two heating coils powered. So I think the photographs where taken during the dummy run. If in a delta you short one coil and connect one phase (for example phase 1) to that short and another phase (phase 2) to the remaining point on the delta and have phase 3 disconnected, then no short will occur. In my opinion the change between 3 phase and two phase was done in the connection box between the thyristor controller and the delta. (could be done with a simple changeover relais)

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Yeah Lesio, if we could just find the right frequency. I had this paddle ball analogy here (from 2013. So not borrowed from Norman Cook).

    “Because the palladium (or nickel) is anchored to the lattice, the Mössbauer effect comes into play.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%B6ssbauer_effect
    So, the paddle ball analogy is better than the two balls on a spring analogy. The lattice can be thought of as the paddle and the deuterium (or hydrogen) can be thought of as the ball on the rubber band. Perhaps heating (thermal infrared radiation, IR) starts up these IR stretching oscillations throughout the lattice.”

    For the comments here:
    http://coldfusionnow.org/peter-gluck-and-yeong-e-kim-on-lenr-research/

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Oh, and deuterium also has a spin.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deuterium_NMR

    • david fojt

      Yes, rotating magnetic help to mix everything together up to curie point then LIH/lLI+H/Lih by bulbles created continue the mixing.
      Therefore may be 2 coils have done by khantal A1 and the last by no resistive wire as pure nickel to dedicaced this for EM control.
      David FOJT

    • RLittle

      Such experimental observation of static magnetic field by Mr. Rossi is consistent with the theory of RBL. The theory of RBL also explains why changing magnetic field would slow the reaction.

  • Obvious

    A confidence artist will make any statement she/he believes will get your trust and/or fulfill their goals.

  • artefact

    On JONP:

    “Andrea Rossi September 6, 2016 at 1:47 PM
    Charles:
    Today we completed the test, it has been good.
    Now we pass to a superior level of engagement.
    Warm Regards, A.R.

    Frank Acland September 6, 2016 at 7:25 PM
    Dear Andrea,
    Congratulations having passed the recent test with the QuarkX. Can you give any more information about what a ‘superior level of engagement’ is?
    Best wishes, Frank Acland

    Andrea Rossi September 6, 2016 at 7:39 PM
    Frank Acland:
    Now we have to organize the production of a module that can go by self, without continue assistance, reliably and safely.
    Warm Regards, A.R.”

    • georgehants

      Another possible reply from Mr. Rossi could be.
      I feel immensely proud to announce that my Research has been successful in confirming a new power source, that I give freely to the World, so that instead of the few Researchers in my organisation spending years trying to perfect it and I become a multi-trillionair, thousands of scientists Worldwide can use this Technology to help save the suffering of millions, of my fellow human beings, all of nature, and the planet.

      • bachcole

        All of these years of hard work of 16 hour days, all of these investors who have risked their fortunes and may not be all that keen about giving it away, with Rossi looking at poverty in his old age, and you think that he should just give it away. George, you really do live in a unicorn world of your own fantasies.

        I wonder, would you promise to support him in his old age after he has given it away? Or do you believe that everyone else should be charitable and make sacrifices but not you.

        • georgehants

          Roger, many thanks for adding your view.

      • Alan DeAngelis

        Ah yes, the hot fusion model.

        • georgehants

          Alan, Ah yes, could that be another example of incompetence and corruption by those in positions of power and favour, working against the good of all for the benefit of the few.
          Should the people who ignore the possibilities of Cold Fusion be removed and thrown on the scrap heap.

  • artefact

    On JONP:

    “Andrea Rossi September 6, 2016 at 1:47 PM
    Charles:
    Today we completed the test, it has been good.
    Now we pass to a superior level of engagement.
    Warm Regards, A.R.

    Frank Acland September 6, 2016 at 7:25 PM
    Dear Andrea,
    Congratulations having passed the recent test with the QuarkX. Can you give any more information about what a ‘superior level of engagement’ is?
    Best wishes, Frank Acland

    Andrea Rossi September 6, 2016 at 7:39 PM
    Frank Acland:
    Now we have to organize the production of a module that can go by self, without continue assistance, reliably and safely.
    Warm Regards, A.R.”

    • georgehants

      Another possible reply from Mr. Rossi could be.
      I feel immensely proud to announce that my Research has been successful in confirming a new power source, that I give freely to the World, so that instead of the few Researchers in my organisation spending years trying to perfect it and I become a multi-trillionair, thousands of scientists Worldwide can quickly use this Technology to help save the suffering of millions of my fellow human beings, all of nature and the planet.

      • bachcole

        All of these years of hard work of 16 hour days, all of these investors who have risked their fortunes and may not be all that keen about giving it away, with Rossi looking at poverty in his old age, and you think that he should just give it away. George, you really do live in a unicorn world of your own fantasies.

        I wonder, would you promise to support him in his old age after he has given it away? Or do you believe that everyone else should be charitable and make sacrifices but not you.

        • georgehants

          Roger, many thanks for adding your view, without suggesting any alternatives you may think of to solve the problems you outline.

      • Alan DeAngelis

        Ah yes, the hot fusion model.

        • georgehants

          Alan, Ah yes, could that be another example of incompetence and corruption by those in positions of power and favour, working against the good of all for the benefit of the few.
          Should the people in control who ignore the possibilities of Cold Fusion be removed and thrown on the scrap heap.

    • If they have solved the engineering of a module not needing continue management by a computer system / people and able to work in a reliable and safe way (and have the certifications for it) they can start the engineering of mass production (whatever “mass” means).

      It is obvious, for me, the engineering process of the module is / was a recursive process between the module ability to work as expected (in safe, reliable and unattended way) and the production process design (a design able to be mass produced cheaply – whatever “cheaply” is in this contest).

      If the production process and the module design are done properly, the first factory could be built very rapidly and replicated even more rapidly. In this it would be like the Gigafactory of Elon Musk, where the real product is not the battery cell produced, by the factory itself, with its ability to be duplicated multiple times around the world.

  • clovis ray

    HI, GUYS.
    I am a little off topic, but was looking through some information on annealing of metal ,and found it very interesting,
    When considering the quanti crystalline structure of say nickle , we need it to be as porous as possible, in order for H2 to saturate the deeper portions of this same lattice, so wouldn’t it follow that some heat treatment. or annealing process, be critical in resolving the H2 absorption and hot spot anomaly and a more stable fuel. in the reactor, —-
    http://www.slideshare.net/RakeshSingh125/f-annealing

  • RLittle

    Such experimental observation of static magnetic field by Mr. Rossi is consistent with the theory of RBL. The theory of RBL also explains why changing magnetic field would slow the reaction.

  • Kevmorableᴰᵉᵖˡᵒʳᵃᵇˡᵉ

    My understanding was that they weren’t the inventors of the wind tunnel, someone else invented it before them. They were just so creative and sharp that they used it to produce real results that were profitable in generating real wings on a real airplane. They also used it to find that the previous luminary in the field, Lilienthal, was simply wrong in his calculations & data when it came to Lift/Drag on curved airfoils.

  • bachcole

    I believe that Mirco is correct about the wind tunnel, but that is merely a vote, not proof. And Kevmorable the adorable is right about CONTROL.