The Magic of Cracks, Pits, and Holes (Axil Axil)

The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil

Ed Storms:

“The NAE in my theory are cracks of a especially small gap size that are generated by stress relief in the material. They permit formation of a structure that is able to lower the Coulomb barrier and dissipate the energy by emission of low energy photons from the nucleus. The theory shows how helium, tritium and deuterium are made by the fusion process, what conditions are required for the process to work, and identifies engineering variables that are needed to control the process. ”

What does high packing of hydrogen above 95% into a palladium lattice or into a porous nickel fuel particle do in the LENR process or the cracks and pits of any metal lattice?

In the quantum mechanical world because of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle(HUP), if an object’s position becomes sharply defined then its momentum becomes highly uncertain, and vice versa. Thus, if we cool atoms down, the momentum of each atom decreases, and the quantum uncertainty of its position grows. Instead of being able to pinpoint where each atom is, we can now only see a blurry space somewhere within which the atom must be. At some point, the neighboring uncertain positions of nearby atoms start overlapping and the atoms lose their individual identities. Surprisingly, the distinct atoms become a single entity, and behave as one coherent unit.

When a gas is forced into a confining volume inside a metal lattice, the gas gains energy from the HUP. But that energy is carried off by the lattice and the gas cools. As additional gas is forced into the confining lattice, and its associated energy gains are cooled by energy transfer away from the volume, the gas becomes increasingly coherent. The lattice acts like the compressor in a refrigerator.

The compressed gas cools to a point where the individual gas atoms loss their identity and become a single waveform…in effects a single atom. This superatom can not tolerate a mixing of individual positive a negative charges inside its super nucleus, so a critical point is reached when the positive and negative charges of the protons and electrons separate.

The separation of the charges increases the loss of kinetic energy and this energy the last bit of kinetic energy from the individual atoms, is removed from the nascent superatom in Bremsstrahlung as the individual electrons wiggle their way out of the newly forming super nucleus. This burst of gamma rays are what we have seen in the segment 7 radiation bursts in some MFMP experiments and in early Rossi reactor startups.

These electons form a coherent cloud of negative charge that orbits around the newly formed composite positively charged superatom nucleus that has a combined composite spin producing a anapole magnetic field…a super-radiant monopole magnetic field.

What that compression of gas into the metal lattice has generated for us is a new particle…a quasiparticle…a Bose condinsate…a superconductor that serves the same function as the Anisotropic magnets do in LENR. This new particle acts as a molecular Anisotropic magnet that produces the special kinds of spinning vortex like magnetic fields that will excite the protons and neutrons in nearby atoms to decay under the auspices of the weak force.

Now we see strange mesons that turn into pions and then muons. In this bath of weird and uncommon sub-atomic particles, we see protons turn into neutrons, muon catalyzed fusion of light atoms and fission of heavy atoms, and then transmutations of every kind based on the random configurations of the atoms in the vicinity of the subatomic particle shower.

  • Gerard McEk

    I like this explanation, Axil. However, the heading is not sufficiently covered by the content of the article. Why are these cracks, pits and holes needed? Or are they a result of the formation of the Rydberg matter/Bose condensate?

    • Alan Smith

      ‘Why are these cracks, pits and holes needed?’

      They are where axil keeps his spare theories.

      • Gerard McEk

        🙂 Ah, yes when one theory becomes clear the other is blurred, that’s the Quantum theory!

      • Axil Axil

        I have just one theory for a long time but it has been improved with additional detail. LENR is complicated and many faceted. Getting to fundamental causation is not easy with all the many ways to produce the LENR reaction.

        • Zephir

          /* I have just one theory for a long time */

          Which theory? Axions, monopoles, tachyons, muons, strange or Rydberg matter?

    • Axil Axil

      The cracks, pits and holes act like gas storage cylinders where the hydride gas is compressed and stored. The more of this void that we have, the higher is the power production capacity of the resultant fuel will be. The power that a given system produces is proportional to the number of coherent gas particles that are produced.

  • Gerard McEk

    I like this explanation, Axil. However, the heading is not sufficiently covered by the content of the article. Why are these cracks, pits and holes needed? Or are they a result of the formation of the Rydberg matter/Bose condensate?

    • Alan Smith

      ‘Why are these cracks, pits and holes needed?’

      They are where axil keeps his spare theories.

      • Gerard McEk

        🙂 Ah, yes when one theory becomes clear the other is blurred, that’s the Quantum theory!

      • roseland67

        Nice

      • Axil Axil

        I have just one theory for a long time but it has been improved with additional detail. LENR is complicated and many faceted. Getting to fundamental causation is not easy with all the many ways to produce the LENR reaction.

    • Axil Axil

      The cracks, pits and holes act like gas storage cylinders where the hydride gas is compressed and stored. The more of this void that we have, the higher is the power production capacity of the resultant fuel will be. The power that a given system produces is proportional to the number of coherent gas particles that are produced.

  • GiveADogABone

    ‘What does high packing of hydrogen above 95% into a palladium lattice or into a porous nickel fuel particle do in the LENR process or the cracks and pits of any metal lattice?’

    For a starter try websearch terms:-
    Dislocation theory
    Hydrogen blistering and embrittlement
    Fatigue cracking
    Fracture mechanics

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_damage
    The Wikipedia page references :-
    A 39-page paper on hydrogen damage of metals by M.R. Louthan, “Hydrogen Embrittlement of Metals: A Primer for the Failure Analyst”, 2008, from U.S. DOE OSTI,

  • GiveADogABone

    ‘What does high packing of hydrogen above 95% into a palladium lattice or into a porous nickel fuel particle do in the LENR process or the cracks and pits of any metal lattice?’

    For a starter try websearch terms:-
    Dislocation theory
    Hydrogen blistering and embrittlement
    Fatigue cracking
    Fracture mechanics

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_damage
    The Wikipedia page references :-
    A 39-page paper on hydrogen damage of metals by M.R. Louthan, “Hydrogen Embrittlement of Metals: A Primer for the Failure Analyst”, 2008, from U.S. DOE OSTI,

    My view is that the sub-surface defect sites are the locations of the LENR process and are best idealized as the ‘penny-shaped cracks’ of fracture mechanics. Highly pressurised ‘penny-shaped cracks’ that are temperature cycled have the potential to cause major fatigue crack growth through the pressure variation.

  • hunfgerh

    By the action of the environment (oxygen,water vapor, etc.), a metal oxide and a hydrate layer are formed on the surface of a metal / alloy in a thin layer, which protects the underlying pure metal from further attacks.
    Due to its small size, hydrogen gas has the ability to penetrate this surface
    layer and to accumulate in the underlying pure metal / alloy. This results in
    embrittlement resulting in cracks, cracks and holes. Since in these
    straight-formed cracks, gaps and holes hydrogen first meets a non-saturated
    metal surface, the formation of metal hydrides is programmed here.

    The fusion-effective layer thus lies between metal oxide layer and pure metal.

  • hunfgerh

    By the action of the environment (oxygen,water vapor, etc.), a metal oxide and a hydrate layer are formed on the surface of a metal / alloy in a thin layer, which protects the underlying pure metal from further attacks.
    Due to its small size, hydrogen gas has the ability to penetrate this surface
    layer and to accumulate in the underlying pure metal / alloy. This results in
    embrittlement resulting in cracks, cracks and holes. Since in these
    straight-formed cracks, gaps and holes hydrogen first meets a non-saturated
    metal surface, the formation of metal hydrides is programmed here.

    The fusion-effective layer thus lies between metal oxide layer and pure metal.

  • Ophelia Rump

    Axil Axil, does that mean that if you super cool the fuel during loading you might also expedite the hydrogen loading?

    It seems possible that you might also get a spontaneous and rather large reaction when you bring it back to room temperature if the metal were loaded under a super cooled condition.

    “Thus, if we cool atoms down, the momentum of each atom decreases, and the quantum uncertainty of its position grows. Instead of being able to pinpoint where each atom is, we can now only see a blurry space somewhere within which the atom must be. At some point, the neighboring uncertain positions of nearby atoms start overlapping and the atoms lose their individual identities. Surprisingly, the distinct atoms become a single entity, and behave as one coherent unit.”

    • Axil Axil

      https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.06197v1.pdf
      Formation of Bose–Einstein condensates

      BEC formation theory posits that intense turbulence in the gas reduces the kinetic energy of the gas the fastest with a few high energy particles carrying off the most energy.

      As a disclaimer, I need some time to understand better BEC formation theory, however.

  • Ophelia Rump

    Axil Axil, does that mean that if you super cool the fuel during loading you might also expedite the hydrogen loading?

    It seems possible that you might also get a spontaneous and rather large reaction when you bring it back to room temperature if the metal were loaded under a super cooled condition.

    “Thus, if we cool atoms down, the momentum of each atom decreases, and the quantum uncertainty of its position grows. Instead of being able to pinpoint where each atom is, we can now only see a blurry space somewhere within which the atom must be. At some point, the neighboring uncertain positions of nearby atoms start overlapping and the atoms lose their individual identities. Surprisingly, the distinct atoms become a single entity, and behave as one coherent unit.”

    I take it that you open the lattice by heating to allow the hydrogen to penetrate, when you heat.

    Wouldn’t cooling the lattice and the hydrogen until the positions become uncertain be even more effective at introducing two overlapping lattices with a more complete packing of spheres?

    • Axil Axil

      https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.06197v1.pdf
      Formation of Bose–Einstein condensates

      BEC formation theory posits that intense turbulence in the gas reduces the kinetic energy of the gas the fastest with a few high energy particles carrying off the most energy.

      As a disclaimer, I need some time to understand better BEC formation theory, however.

  • Axil Axil

    Getting pure hydrogen isotopes

    google.com/patents/US5312597

    “Depending on the type of hydride particles placed in the conduit, the apparatus may be used to recover hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture or to separate hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from each other. To recover hydrogen from a gaseous mixture, a low pressure hydride such as palladium, uranium or titanium is placed in the conduit. To separate hydrogen isotopes, a hydride with strong isotopic effects, such as palladium, vanadium or a lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloy, is used…

    ​To separate hydrogen isotopes from each other, one of two types of hydride is used. The first type, such as palladium, absorbs the lighter hydrogen isotopes better than the heavier isotopes; that is, it absorbs protium better than deuterium and tritium, and deuterium better than tritium. The second type of hydride, such as vanadium, absorbs the heavier isotopes better than the lighter isotopes, that is, it absorbs tritium better than deuterium and protium, and deuterium better than protium.”

    I wonder if the success that ME356 has had in firing up the LENR reaction is due to his hydrogen production equipment.

    • Zephir

      Nope, ME356 just used electric discharge.

  • Axil Axil

    Getting pure hydrogen isotopes

    google.com/patents/US5312597

    “Depending on the type of hydride particles placed in the conduit, the apparatus may be used to recover hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture or to separate hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from each other. To recover hydrogen from a gaseous mixture, a low pressure hydride such as palladium, uranium or titanium is placed in the conduit. To separate hydrogen isotopes, a hydride with strong isotopic effects, such as palladium, vanadium or a lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloy, is used…

    ​To separate hydrogen isotopes from each other, one of two types of hydride is used. The first type, such as palladium, absorbs the lighter hydrogen isotopes better than the heavier isotopes; that is, it absorbs protium better than deuterium and tritium, and deuterium better than tritium. The second type of hydride, such as vanadium, absorbs the heavier isotopes better than the lighter isotopes, that is, it absorbs tritium better than deuterium and protium, and deuterium better than protium.”

    I wonder if the success that ME356 has had in firing up the LENR reaction is due to his hydrogen production equipment.

    • Zephir

      Nope, ME356 just used corona discharge (of course, you’ve to have some hydrogen source for it). His experiments were sucessfull from the same reason like why the Quark-X experiments are reliable: the corona discharge cleans and reduces surface of nickel from oxides, the protons implanted by corona discharge oversaturate the surface of nickel with hydrogen in very fast and effective way.

  • Axil Axil

    If memory serves, Piantelli stated that deuterium was a poison to the Ni/H reaction and he uses deuterium to kill runaway LENR reactors.

    Early on, Rossi did the same runaway reaction killing function with nitrogen.

  • Axil Axil

    If memory serves, Piantelli stated that deuterium was a poison to the Ni/H reaction and he uses deuterium to kill runaway LENR reactors.

    Early on, Rossi did the same runaway reaction killing function with nitrogen.

    from

    http://news.newenergytimes.net/2011/01/19/rossi-and-focardi-lenr-device-probably-real-with-credit-to-piantelli/

    “Piantelli has an exciting story to tell of another experiment that, for few hours, was out of control. It was sometime around September 1993, before Piantelli-Focardi group’s first published paper on the subject. Around 7 in the evening, he looked at the monitor for the experiment. Something didn’t look right. The temperature was increasing rapidly. He wasn’t sure what to do. Should he kill the experiment, and if so, how would he stop it?

    A rapidly increasing temperature in an enclosed steel container could be a big, big problem. He was afraid. He wondered whether he should leave the building. Instead he called Focardi in Milano—at 2 in the morning—and asked, “What should I do?” This was before Piantelli knew about the poisoning effect of deuterium. But Focardi came up with a workable idea: introduce nitrogen. And it worked. It stopped the uncontrolled temperature rise and killed the experiment.

    Piantelli didn’t know how hot the experiment had gotten before he killed it because the monitor eventually blacked out. However, the metal thermocouples inside the cell melted. This told him that the temperature exceeded 1450 C. Understandably, he was angry because these experiments take a long time to run and he had to abandon it prematurely.

    “It’s not good when they run too hot,” Piantelli said. “400 C is a much better range.”

  • Zephir

    In my theory LENR runs via low-dimensional collisions along long chains of atoms and near surfaces and domain dislocations such a collisions would be preferred. In particular, Piantelli invested a lot into apparatus for growing of nickel whiskers for good reasons.

    https://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/index.php/Thread/3437-The-general-cold-fusion-theory-aka-the-broad-view-of-LENR/?postID=28084#post28084

    But even without well arranged structures the low-dimensional collisions can be induced with laser beams, shock waves and similar coherent forms of radiation – and this is Holmlid’s route to lattice fusion.

  • Zephir

    In my theory LENR runs via low-dimensional collisions along long chains of atoms and near surfaces and domain dislocations such a collisions would be preferred. In particular, Piantelli invested a lot into apparatus for growing of nickel whiskers for good reasons. Whiskers are crystals formed by single dislocation, some whiskers have anomalous properties (extreme coercive force of magnetic domain and similar stuffs), because their domain structure is very robust and stable, also the deform forces and strains can be higher at small crystals due to their surface tension and quantum effects.

    https://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/index.php/Thread/3437-The-general-cold-fusion-theory-aka-the-broad-view-of-LENR/?postID=28084#post28084

    But even without well arranged structures the low-dimensional collisions can be induced with laser beams, shock waves and similar coherent forms of energy – and this is Holmlid’s/LeClaire’s route to cold fusion.

    BTW Regarding the Mill’s hydrino experiments there were some theories, that the negative curvature at the pores of metals could decrease vacuum energy up to level, the subquantum states of hydrogen will be prefered, but I don’t believe in hydrino stuff.

  • MorganMck

    I know very little about the physics or chemistry of LENR but listening to all this talk of the importance of micro (nano) cracks and pits makes me wonder if the reaction would not benefit immensley from micro engineered material as the medium. I have no idea if this is even possible today but these types of capabilities seem to be in our future. Perhaps some of our local SMEs could comment.

  • Axil Axil

    A particular coil wiring topology can produce an anapole magnetic field. This topology is shared with the hexagonal crystal structure that has been shown to be active in LENR effects.

    Russ Grise has been replicating the experimental claims made by Rodin which include overunity power production.

    It is my belief that the Rodin coil duplicates the magnetic field properties that metalized hydrides produce in the LENR reaction. One effect that Russ has come across is the production of ionization of air on the surface of the secondary windings of the Rodin coil.

    This video after 3:00 shows the production of plasma on the surface of the coil’s windings.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Df5CWQ44zgA&index=30&list=PLsiIKXpZfLKLZDEdBtaDgYeKkVN-OiwT-

    The Rodin coil may be a way to reproduce the magnetic signature that is LENR active at the nanoscale. I would like to verify this assumption about the production of vortex based anaopole magnetic field lines by producing a Rodin coil based electromagnet that produces the monopole magnetic signal the seems to be LENR active in rare earth Magnets.

    The production of vortex motion of hydrogen bubbles(as shown above) or smoke particles will show this LENR active nature of the magnetic field. Is there any experimenters up to this task?

  • Axil Axil

    A particular coil wiring topology can produce an anapole magnetic field. This topology is shared with the hexagonal crystal structure that has been shown to be active in LENR effects.

    Russ Grise has been replicating the experimental claims made by Rodin which include overunity power production.

    It is my belief that the Rodin coil duplicates the magnetic field properties that metalized hydrides produce in the LENR reaction. One effect that Russ has come across is the production of ionization of air on the surface of the secondary windings of the Rodin coil.

    This video after 3:00 shows the production of plasma on the surface of the coil’s windings.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Df5CWQ44zgA&index=30&list=PLsiIKXpZfLKLZDEdBtaDgYeKkVN-OiwT-

    The Rodin coil may be a way to reproduce the magnetic signature that is LENR active at the nanoscale. I would like to verify this assumption about the production of vortex based anaopole magnetic field lines by producing a Rodin coil based electromagnet that produces the monopole magnetic signal the seems to be LENR active in rare earth Magnets.

    The production of vortex motion of hydrogen bubbles(as shown above) or smoke particles will show this LENR active nature of the magnetic field. Is there any experimenters up to this task?

  • Axil Axil

    I was fortunate enough to find a video that shows a smoke test were the smoke particles follow the anaopole vortex lines produced by a Rodin coil. The smoke particles are directed by the monopole field lines from the center of the coil.

    The very strange behavior that this coil demonstrates a persistence of the monopole field after the power was cut to the coil. The monopole field flux lines are not as strong as when the power was on but they was still there.

    I call for an experimenter to use standard magnetic measuring equipment to verify the behavior of this magnetic field.

    See after 4:00 in the video for the smoke test.

    [media]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOSLV2SbcTg[/media]

    I also request that an experimenter use this type of coil to check how this monopole magnetic field changes the radioactive isotope decay rate of an unstable radioactive isotope.

    • Zephir

      This is just an effect of corona wind from helical coil, no monopoles are there – sorry…

  • Axil Axil

    I was fortunate enough to find a video that shows a smoke test were the smoke particles follow the anaopole vortex lines produced by a Rodin coil. The smoke particles are directed by the monopole field lines from the center of the coil.

    The very strange behavior that this coil demonstrates a persistence of the monopole field after the power was cut to the coil. The monopole field flux lines are not as strong as when the power was on but they was still there.

    I call for an experimenter to use standard magnetic measuring equipment to verify the behavior of this magnetic field.

    See after 4:00 in the video for the smoke test.

    [media]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOSLV2SbcTg[/media]

    I also request that an experimenter use this type of coil to check how this monopole magnetic field changes the radioactive isotope decay rate of an unstable radioactive isotope.

    • Zephir

      This is just an effect of corona wind from helical coil, no monopoles are there – sorry…
      What he actually demonstrates is the laminar flow above coil. He claims, that coil field makes the smog “more stable”. I’m not buying it – the coil construction would make the stream more laminar by itself.

  • Zephir

    LENR with Zeolites http://www.lenr-coldfusion.com/2012/10/01/lenr-zeolites

    Zeolites are known by their narrow channels. Dr. Parchamazad showed two reactors that are very small, and his approach is similar to that of Dr. George Miley in that no external energy is applied. The zeolite is infused with very small palladium particles (10-20 atoms each) and deuterium is applied at pressure. Dr. Parchamazad noted heat generation in 10 out of 10 experiments. In this
    case, any heat generation is infinite COP because there is no input power. Dr. Miles made an off-the-cuff remark during the interview that the energy density would be on the order of a megawatt per gram, but Dr. Parchamazad was understandably cautious about that remark.

    https://youtu.be/2L-lKozWjSA

    Note that the another self running cold fusion system also did use porous carbon saturated with palladium (in presence of magnetic field) Dennis Cravens Golden balls

    http://infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/NIWeekCravens.pdf

    • Zephir

      The roles of pores for LENR may be vicarious in the way, they do increase the saturation of palladium with hydrogen by negative curvature of their surface. Inside the pores the pressure of hydrogen not only would be increased by its adsorbtion, but the effect of surface tension to small particles of palladium would be balanced. The surface tension would otherwise exert large pressure to fine palladium particles, which would decrease the load of hydrogen.

  • Zephir

    LENR with Zeolites http://www.lenr-coldfusion.com/2012/10/01/lenr-zeolites

    Zeolites are known by their narrow channels. Dr. Parchamazad showed two reactors that are very small, and his approach is similar to that of Dr. George Miley in that no external energy is applied. The zeolite is infused with very small palladium particles (10-20 atoms each) and deuterium is applied at pressure. Dr. Parchamazad noted heat generation in 10 out of 10 experiments. In this
    case, any heat generation is infinite COP because there is no input power. Dr. Miles made an off-the-cuff remark during the interview that the energy density would be on the order of a megawatt per gram, but Dr. Parchamazad was understandably cautious about that remark.

    https://youtu.be/2L-lKozWjSA

    Note that the another self running cold fusion system also did use porous carbon saturated with palladium (in presence of magnetic field) Dennis Cravens Golden balls

    http://infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/NIWeekCravens.pdf

    • Zephir

      The roles of pores for LENR may be vicarious in the way, they do increase the saturation of palladium with hydrogen by negative curvature of their surface. Inside the pores the pressure of hydrogen not only would be increased by its adsorbtion, but the effect of surface tension to small particles of palladium would be balanced. The surface tension would otherwise exert large pressure to fine palladium particles, which would decrease the load of hydrogen.