The following post has been submitted by Max Temple
What Me356 Taught Us
I’ve heard it said that there is no better way to learn than by hands-on experience. Me356, seemingly a highly successful replicator of the Rossi Effect, is a perfect example of someone who mastered a skill by continual and exhaustive repetitive practice. The over five hundred posts he made on LENR Forum accurately record his transformation from a curious entrant into the LENR field seeking information to an experienced cold fusion or LENR expert – with perhaps better alleged results than anyone else in the field except perhaps the inventor of the E-Cat himself.
By the time Me356’s writings ceased, he seemed to have accomplished amazing results: the ability to produce high COP with Ni-H, Ni-H-Li,and more exotic glow discharge systems. Not only did he claim the production of excess heat, but he eventually gained the know how to turn the effect on and off via a claimed modification of the electrical input frequency or waveform provided to his resistor. He never stopped seeking to more fully develop his understanding of these systems; moreover, before departing he stressed how he would be continuing his work to develop a long lasting, reliable, and convincing demonstration unit.
If he were to never re-appear (although he has told various parties in private communications he will eventually do so) his legacy would still live on in his writings. They contain a number of general guidelines, practices, concepts, and bits of overall theory that can lead replicators in a good general direction. Although he does not lay out in detail the plans for a proof of concept device capable of the higher power outputs he eventually achieved, his words are extremely valuable. They could potentially lead an individual or team of replicators to a highly favorable outcome.
Me356’s over 500 posts are a lot to go through and digest. Some of the earliest posts conflict with his latter ones after he’d gained more experience; many of his comments are short answers to other forum users; his wordings can be a little unclear at times. To get all the facts and understand his themes you must pay close attention to all his posts. Jumping into the middle of his posting timeline andca sually browsing would yield utter confusion: I know this from experience. So last night, I yet again reviewed every last one of his posts, from the first to the last. I carefully digested the meaning of each and fought hard not to interpret them out of context from his other writings. By the time I was done, I felt a new appreciation for his extreme curiosity, sacrifices (time and money), work ethic, broad range of skills, and ingenuity.
At the end of this article are a list of excerpts from many of his posts – along with a few of the associated questions that were asked of him. I consider these to be his most important posts that seem to convey especially important messages and information. By not including a specifically post, I am not dismissing it as unimportant. The simple fact is that five hundred plus posts can be overwhelming; many people may not have the attention span to read fifty. But I urge you to read and digest the posts I’ve included. They may inspire you to read through his entire post history!
Now, I’d like to try and provide a concise summary of what I gathered from his posts – the essence of what he attempted to share in the most refined way possible. I wish I could sum it all into a couple sentences, but that’s flat out impossible. So here is a short list of points that should convey what this true LENR pioneer attempted to share with us. Like everyone else, to achieve his success he stood on the shoulders of giants, but he could not have obtained such knowledge without dedication and hard work. We should take these concepts, study them, apply them, and then build on them.
The Essence of Me356’s 500+ Posts
1) Nickel is often dirty, inside and out: the surface of the fuel should be cleaned of oxides, the trapped gases should be vacuumed out, and after flushing with hydrogen the process should be repeated. Fuel preparation in this manner is very important and can resolve many problems. Significant quantities of hydrogen can be absorbed after such fuel treatments. But differing samples of nickel may require different extents of processing to absorb the same quantity of hydrogen. Likewise, they may produce highly varying levels of excessheat. Proper preparation is the starting point.
2) Even low surface area nickel wire and hydrogen gas from a tank can “work.” High surface area powders are not required.
3) If properly cleaned, vacuumed, and processed, nickel wire can “breathe” significant quantities of hydrogen in and out. In other
words, hydrogen can be absorbed and desorbed. The level of hydrogen taken up into the lattice or expelled can modify the resistance of the wire by up to 40%. Multiple techniques (dropping or increasing temperature and/or pressure) can induce inhalation or exhalation. Anexcited state of excess heat production can be achieved in such a manner that can last for extended time periods.
4) Pushing the reactor “hard” constitutes inducing the nickel to absorb or desorb hydrogen at a faster rate than normal. This further
excites the fuel – inducing higher levels of excess heat and possibly in extreme cases unwanted emissions, possibly neutrons.
5) LiAlH4, elemental lithium, or lithium hydride added to the reactor can serve two purposes, according to Me356. First, the formation and decomposition of LiH back and forth (controlled by temperature) can produce powerful pressure increases and drops – up to five bar in some cases. If managed carefully, this can enhance the intensity of the inhalations and exhalations. Secondly, various emissions from excess heat producing (excited) nickel can strike the lithium atoms and induce nuclear reactions, producing a second source of excess heat. Lithium is mentioned as a shortcut to excess heat for both of these reasons.
6) Although he never mentioned this specifically, I’m sure Me356 understood that until the hydrogen recombines, when LiAlH4 and LiH
decomposes atomic hydrogen (H1) is emitted. This is obviously why he suggested that repeatedly cycling – decomposing and reforming and decomposing again – lithium hydride (LiH) could provide the highest COP.
7) Molecular hydrogen only slowly adsorbs and dissociates into atomic hydrogen on nickel. The rate of atomic hydrogen production is what he considered to be the throttle that controls COP. He considered this to be the key of higher excess heat production and could be used to set the output of a reactor.
8) He eventually learned how to switch the excess heat of a reactor on or off by modulating or adding a frequency to the power supplied to his thermal resistor coil, wrapped around the reactor. Likely, this was capable of exciting the fuel via the production of atomic
9) Moving away from nickel and hydrogen based systems to glow discharge tubes, he could further control the rate of H1 production.
10) He claimed there were lots of ways to achieve his level of results and even improve upon them. With absolute firm conviction, he
expressed how high powered NiH technology was a firm reality. Only his safety concerns stopped him from revealing more complete and organized details. Easy to replicate with the right know how and equipment; highly adaptable for use with various equipment and materials; capable of extreme levels of output. The sheer potential of his knowledge made him pause from sharing more.
If atomic hydrogen production and application to the nickel is truly the throttle for COP, then we have many options at our disposal. Each option, of course, would come with many design and engineering considerations along with different stimulation techniques. But the dramatic benefit of utilizing a form of hydrogen that can be rapidly taken up by nickel – eliminating the rate limiting steps of adsorption and disassociation steps on a nickel surface – should be taken advantage of.
In either fuel pre-hydrogenation or hydrogenation in an active reactor the following ideas of maximizing atomic hydrogen production could be tested.
– Slow initial heating of LiAlH4 from 100-225C to not waste initial release of atomic hydrogen before recombination at higher pressures.
Likewise, taking advantage of atomic hydrogen release during cycles of LiH decomposition.
– Addition of a hydrogen spillover catalyst to the fuel to accelerate the production of atomic hydrogen. Examples could be palladium (which Rossi likely used in his original fuel mixture), platinum, copper, or even nano-nickel of a smaller particle size than the micron-sized powder (if powder is being used at all).
– A hot tungsten filament or mesh (1600C -2000C or hotter) placed in the hydrogen environment as a heat source and atomic hydrogen
– A spark gap between electrodes in a hydrogen environment. This will not only provide an atomic hydrogen source, but an impulse or
shockwave of atomic hydrogen atoms towards the nickel. This may give hydrogen (molecular or atomic) on the surface of the nickel a strong “kick” to push them through the surface and into the lattice beneath.
– A glow discharge in a pre-hydrogenation vessel to disassociate H2 and direct the ions to nickel wire, foil, or powder positioned on an electrode.
Utilizing one or more of the above techniques – after cleaning, vacuuming, and H2 reduction of the the fuel for multiple cycles –
could dramatically improve the production of excess heat.
All of this requires testing and work: there are no guarantees. This field is still in its infancy and there are many unknowns. If he is correct and the extreme pushing of the nickel – with a high rate of hydrogen exhalation or inhalation – can produce emissions, there could even be risks some in the field might not expect. But the hard earned knowledge accumulated by this very REAL person should not be discarded or ignored. In fact, right now, I would step out on a ledge and proclaim that it’s the best information we have to go on!
For the record, I don’t agree with Me356’s decision to withhold more detailed and exact specifics (which could come in a number of
different forms) from the replicator community. I would love for him to provide a set of guidelines for building a basic Ni-H reactor, publish a paper going into details about his work/findings, or even responding to this article with additional information – tips, advice, theory, or even corrections! However, even if he doesn’t, we have a bread crumb trail that can enable skilled replicators to follow his footsteps towards the same results he obtained. He left it for us with his 500+ posts. Although, I’d love for him to connect a few more dots put together a couple more pieces of the puzzle for us. Almost an entire year has passed, Me356.
It’s time to throw us hungry kitty cats a bone or two!
Me356’s Most Seemingly Informative and Interesting Posts
(Please note that these are in mostly chronological order, starting his first post and ending with his very last messages. Also, many of
these are not entire posts, but only excerpts that have been selected.)
For me and others it seemed like the process was about to start many times. But PID controller always gradually halted the power (to
maintain setpoint) so this process stopped always suddenly too
It is likely that Rossi is using electromagnetic induction, this is why he is telling that AC is necessary. Nickel is electrical conductor, so it is even possible, that fuel itself is enough in the tube to make it work. You only need enough power. This is from my point of view better possibility why Parkhomov reactor works.
Altough I believe that higher temperature = lower stimulation power for triggering LENR.
I am in contact with Songsheng, his opinion is that direct stimulation is not necessary. He thinks that EM field created by rapid change of the voltage level is the reason for triggering LENR.
Power level change in a coils will always create magnetic field. And this happened before LENR effect was observed always. Even one sharp spike could trigger LENR if the power is high enough.
My conclusion is that for Hot Cat only magnetic induction is used with a proper modulation and power. This will not require Mhz or Ghz frequency at all.
I am thinking about making hydrogenation process better. For now it seems that it is needed to hydrogenate nickel in cycles. Maybe
succesfull replicators did it by mistake or intentionally. Also it is possible that if we want excess heat with just one
hydrogenation procedure we have to met more strict conditions (forexample vacuum from the beginning, optimal pressure range, certain
nickel type, ..).
I am thinking about getting excess heat.. I believe that to achieve it, we need contant pressure change.
Following steps should be performed periodically:
1. load hydrogen with nickel (slow process)
2. release hydrogen from nickel as fast as possible (theoretically fast process)
During hydrogen release we can observe excess heat if the pressure change derivation is high enough until nickel absorb hydrogen again.
The problem is, we don’t know how to release hydrogen from nickel correctly. At least after latest experiments I know how to absorb
hydrogen by nickel quite well.
My theory is, that this is only caused by abnormal temperature change and possibly EM stimulation. Thus the heater should be as close as possible to the fuel, because thermal transfer is faster too. Hydrogen release from nickel can be easier, if Nickel has already
enough hydrogen in it and/or if the temperature is higher. Thus few cycles of hydrogenation may be necessary.
Yes, this could be the event I am talking about – it could be the start of excess heat. I also think that we dont really need pressure
under the atmospheric. Only pressure change rate is important. Sudden increase obviously is starting the process.
I suspect, that you can release hydrogen from nickel by either sudden increase or decrease of the temperature. So in case of good insulation you have to rather increase it.
Good is, that with better insulation you can extend SSM. When LENR occur + temperature is high enough you can stop the power until the
temperature is low. Then again, you have to provoke sudden hydrogen release, wait for temperature increase and so on. So extending SSM is just matter of insulation and possibly greater release of hydrogen => keeping the temperature high as long as
possible => greater efficiency => higher COP.
It is really great time for LENR.
I understand the process more and more. Instead of making it more complicated the process seems to be relatively very easy if you are
not thinking too much at the nuclear level.
The problem is, that we want just the device. But to make it work, we have to be good in few areas at the same time else it wont work at all. We are trying to replicate Hot Cat, but this is relatively the most complicated device we can build in the sense that we have to be very lucky. There are too much ifs. Trying different combinations takes very long time. But it is probably very safe.
I am convinced that to get excess heat itself we do not need any magnetic stimulation or anything special if we are not talking about
Hot Cat. There can be part of the process, that needs external stimulation, but the core process will really not need it. Stimulation could be only prerequisite for other factor, that is causing excess heat.
And it will work with more materials. Nickel – Hydrogen system is just the cheapest as far as I know.
– Main feature is, that the process is cyclic.
– Period could be 10s or even few days long.
– The whole process is very similar to breathing.
– We can get extreme COP easily, but the process may be dangerous
because of excess radiation.
– Neutron bursts are created in a greater extent with respect to COP
we intend to get.
– It can work in wide range of temperatures – this is dependent on
Lithium alone can make triggering much easier with low temperatures.
Oh that is sad. Personally I do not want to exceed 10 bars never. If so high pressure is there then you should put less LiAlH4 or add
free volume there.
I have tested 4ml free volume with 100mg of LiAlH4 with good success. But I must say that there could be enormous difference between LiAlH4 from various sources.
By the way, Rossi commented few minutes ago, that pure Ni-H fuel never produced excess heat in his case. This mean that Lithium will help a lot, especially pure lithium.
I am testing various LiAlH4 powders and I have found really big differences in its structure, color and hydrogen amount.
It seems that one from Alfa Aesar I have ordered has maybe 20x more hydrogen than one I have used previously. So for good reproducibility it is better to get it from the same, verified source. This is because if you put somewhere exactly same amount as somebody else, you can get very different pressure.
By the way I wonder if it is possible to replace the fuel in a powder form for something like Nickel foil + Lithium pellets + LiAlH4
pellets. This is because much easier manipulation and more safety. Working with powders is really dangerous as it can potentially fly anywhere.
I am thinking about the cell more and more. If the reason for excess heat is just in addition of hydrogen and better thermal conductivity, then getting excess heat is pretty simple.
We have to check, if this phenomenon is same or different from Rossi effect and if it is really LENR. So the difference is, that this cell is not generating heat from outside to inside and then back to outside, but just from inside to outside.
This mean, that hot cat type reactor can’t work without heating element that create additional heat from inside. For example in the
very same way as induction cooker. So the heat from inside can be just more efficiently transfered to the body. If the heating element is not in hydrogen atmosphere, then it can’t boost thermal transfer so we will not get excess heat.
Is it really so primitive?
As you can see heat conductivity of the hydrogen gas is 26.85x higher at for example 6 bars then air at 1 bar.
And/or when enough power is applied you can heat the material inside the tube by electromagnetic induction. This is the reason why excess heat is observed by bigger power change even with DC voltage. Even induction with pure AC is not so efficient way to heat something metallic in the tube, you will need spikes, preferably rectangular pulses with kHz frequency to obtain better efficiency. In Parkhomov setup there may be lot of spikes.
I am not sure In the part how excess heat is obtained. But I think that direct heating (from inside) or by induction heating
can create much faster impulses for triggering LENR than with pure resistive heater that is outside the core.
That mean that you can create much higher derivation in the temperature which can induce fast release of hydrogen from nickel. And
in this way LENR can start much easily.
I am still very busy, but I have tested brand new induction heater and it works quite well, but for higher power it needs water cooling. I have also made circuit for regulation so the temperature can be controlled quite well.
Another experiment that I am doing is to find exact reason and behavior of the pressure inside the reactor. Because I am convinced that there are at least two separate processes I am playing only with Lithium + LiAlH4. This allows me to exclude Nickel as possible reason for pressure changes so I can focus just on these compounds.
Result: I was able to change the pressure on demand +/- 5 bars only with the temperature – this is the key process to boost excess heat – it is not initiator of it, but only accelerator. This process is happening around 700°C.
First process that I am talking about is Excess heat from Ni + H reactions. From this process you can get probably COP of around 1.2.
Second process is LiH composition and decomposition. With ratio between Hydrogen and Lithium you can control the rate (how fast you
can change the pressure, respectively how fast LiH can be composed/decomposed).
2 Li + H2 → 2 LiH
The higher rate mean higher COP.
If I understand it correctly, when you combine these two processes you will get excess heat of virtually unlimited COP. COP of 6 should be still very safe. This process can be possibly replaced by pumping the hydrogen from a tank, but it can be dangerous and more prone to mechanical failures.
Because of Lithium, we are interfacing a big problem that it reacts with many materials, especially Alumina!! Thus the second process will fail mostly even before it can happen. This leads mostly to a breach and hydrogen escape + contamination of the fuel.
What I highly recommend is to not use Alumina tubes or to use a proper fuel container. I have observed that Lithium will react in
irreversible way and as soon as it happens the experiment can end.
The conclusion is very important for all replicators – until you are unable to control the pressure, you can’t get noticeable excess heat. If you can control it well, you can get very stable reaction. As I said earlier, it should periodically breathe. Constant pressure changes are also demanding for used materials, so there are many, many reasons, why the replication is so hard.
Yes, it is related with the pressure and loading process. I have mentioned it more times, but because results are not perfectly
reproducible yet and I don’t know for sure why, then I can’t tell you anything particular. I think that we have to control the pressure so we will be able to release the hydrogen as quick as possible and then load it as fast as we want. I know it is possible even in range of 250 – 400°C very well.
I think that this is the most important thing that we should investigate right now. As soon as we will know how to control it, we
will be able to drive LENR in a very stable way with great possibility for SSM. I have found only basic principle how to control it. Also without pure lithium it is not possible (at least in a lower temperatures).
Axil, Mats002: You are right, I think that we are slowly revealing reaction. I am not good in theory, but I have gained a lot of practical knowledge in the very same way as Rossi did.
I think that I understand mouse and cat in the practical way so when I will be able to realize it, I will be able to achieve very high COP. There are many chemical and few nuclear aspects that are very important in both mouse and cat.
Hopefully I will be able to write some paper about it.
What I am trying to say for long time here is, how Cat part is working in the practical way. Pressure is the most important factor here that we must control perfectly. It is cyclic process.
There is period for heating the reactor surface. Then there is another where power is turned off (SSM mode) or throttled when you are trying to cool the surface as slow as possible. In the first period you want to release extremely high amount of hydrogen as fast as possible so you will boost the Mouse process. Another reason is because heat transfer is much better in high pressure of hydrogen. So you can boost COP of the mouse process by few times from usual (low) COP. At this moment you can heat the surface
very quickly as well.
In the second period, the intention is to maintain so high temperature as long as possible above a threshold. So you want that previously accumulated temperature is not lost in the environment but stored and used. In this part achieving very low pressure (or even vacuum) is beneficial to insulate the heater and thus to lower thermal conductivity inside the reactor.
So this is the reason, why you want to release hydrogen on demand and then load it when needed. There is nuclear and chemical reason why you want to do that.
Amount of released pressure is directly responsible for the COP value.
If you will release 15 bars, COP could be for example 3.
When you will make the heat storage more efficient, second period can be much longer. Thus you can for example double the COP just by making good and efficient design.
Everything must be designed very cleverly to not waste heat and to make heat transfer as efficient as possible to gain the highest
possible COP. This is how E-Cat is probably working.
Indeed I am not able to find any other reason. But we have to be still skeptical. But in case that there is any error, it was repeated very well.
Tommorow I want to refuel it. It is not possible right now, because humidity is 90% at the moment. I am very curious, if it will be possible to get higher COP with higher pressures.
In case that it is really LENR, then adding pure Lithium can boost it extremely. Because of this, I want to buy Neutron detectors as soon as possible. Rossi have found the limit so that Neutron emmission is very low. It is possible that one day we will get uncontrollable reaction which may be really dangerous. From my point of view LENR may be very safe, but if you want, you can
make really bad things.
Basically you should be able to do this even with normal coils th induction heater has very small resistance and it can propagateat we are using. But magnetic field very well.
When you are able to modulate the frequency as needed, you can:
1. heat the whole tube to achieve required temperature
2. heat only specific particles in the reactor
3. do it together or separately when needed.
So you can govern the reaction very well with this.
Experiment is running again.This time there is 250mg of LiAlH4. I have to say that LiAlH4 that I am using in this experiment has very small amount of stored hydrogen when I am comparing it with Alfa Aesar stocks. This one is from local chemist (same as in the previous
I have carefully checked the reactor before loading and there were no visible changes inside and outside the tube and also there was nothing like I have seen before (no strange structures on the wire.
I also think, that the reason why we are not successfull with Parkhomov replication is, that there must be good modulation of the
signal. I can imagine, that you can use a normal heater similarly as induction heater. You can even use it in the way, that you can heat the surface, but you can also induce current in the fuel which could then emit own infra radiation in the reaction chamber. And you can do this in the way, that you can control it as you wish, thus you can achieve closer frequencies by changing infra radiation spectrum.
By this control mechanism, you can control also neutron flux (if Swedish theory is correct).
If there is no modulation or it is inapproriate, then we will need really a lot of power which will destroy the heater. This is probably reason, why some replicators are successfull only with very high temperatures.
But there are many ways how to do a proper stimulation in less “destructive” way. There must be lattice deformation. Also getting good loading Ni/H ratio can take at least few days of preparing the lattice.
What most replicators are doing is just start the experiment for few hours and that is all. Then another try with new fuel, etc.
Mostly the fuel is even more degraded with time because of inproper storage.
It is important to study loading capability and know when the ratio is good enough. Unfortunately with Parkhomov-like setup it is not easy task.
Short duration of the experiments is not a problem. It can take just 30 minutes and you can find excess heat. The problem is, that fuel is not pre-processed in a good way. It is possible to prepare lattice with significantly increased loading ratio.
Very high loading ratio is one of the key to succeed. Even Palladium must be prepared correctly to load a significant amount of
hydrogen/deuterium so it is at least in a pure Beta state.
It is confirmed that extremely high loading ratios are able to generate significant excess heat. It was also many times verified,
that such process can generate even Tritium and of course radiation, even that excess heat is not evident.
We are playing with LiAlH4 which is decomposing in a relatively complicated way. And in my opinion what we are using is not too good
quality. Our cells are full of the air. During heating we can’t distinguish very well if the Nickel is loading hydrogen or lithium is forming lithium hydride or even some oxides (that are present certainly). Adding pure Lithium is complicating it
even more as it reacts with many materials agressively.
I agree that we should study behavior of a pure Nickel (or other
metals) + Hydrogen (or Duterium).
To explain why the air is problem – it is problem because ions are colliding with such gas mixture that shouldn’t really be there.
Many impurities are degrading the fuel.
We really need to work with inert atmosphere. During cleaning of oxides one must work with flow of gas. Not with flow of air to form
even more oxides.
Yes, Parkhomov succeeded without any special instruments, but he evidently did some extra steps that are not mentioned and/or some
replication factors are not looking/are not presented to be important. We can’t be so naive to think it is so easy. It is very easy, if you know what to do.
I recommend to start with the basic things. Nickel and Hydrogen. Nothing more. If one can master this, then it can be improved gradually. If you want to mix everything and everything is unknown, it can totally mess the process.
It was confirmed many times, that pure Ni-H can generate excess heat. Why we are not thinking about this?
For example we even don’t know if used Nickel is good or not. If atmosphere inside the reactor is clear enough.
So with such replications we are trying to skip something fundamental. It is similar to writing a letter without knowing how to hold a pencil.
Main purpose of the lithium in the reactor is to make it breathe as I have described few months ago. You can create sudden pressure changes in the reactor (of few bars) up and down just by faster temperature transitions. This is used for nickel lattice stimulation. Lithium is acting there in more areas, but this one is main task. You do not have to fill pores at all. Lithium can be replaced and
stimulation can be done in a very different ways.
For this post I have returned to my older thread where I have tried to replicate work of Parkhomov. While I have changed some parameters I think that it could be still marked as e-cat replication.
Today I have tried to verify my latest findings – to find if I can get excess heat with 1 year old stuff that was used/designed for Parkhomov replication. Result: Yes, it is. Fuel was completely prepared today in a few minutes.
Now I am able to turn the excess heat on and off on will. This is something that allows me perfect verification and comparison.
Achieved COP was only around 1.5, yet I didn’t expected to be high as with my other reactors.
Please check attached photos.
One photo was taken while excess heat was On, second one while excess heat was Off (just 3 minutes later).
Can any skeptic explain me, how this can be achieved (other than with some source of heat) if you have no heater inside? And to maintain this for at least few minutes…?
Note that the glow was even 2 times further from the heater during the highest COP. Normally glow ends just under heater due to thermal conductivity. Also note, that temperatures of the heater are very same in both cases.
Power was also very same.
I can just say, that the fuel ends approx. 4cm far from the heater.
As I said, same power, both with very same fuel. Right photo was captured 3 minutes later when I turned excess heat off (Yes, it is
possible). Absolutely nothing changed, just one is running with excess heat second one without. It is identical reactor, but photo was captured 3 minutes later. Later I have turned excess heat On again.
Temperature of the heater is also same. You can see that the heater is heating stainless steel tube. But stainless steel tube on the left is glowing “on its own” even on the place where heater is not present. If you know what is thermal conductivity of a stainless steel you will see that something is really strange on the left photo..
This is nothing to convince anybody. Just something for thinking..
Thermal conductivity is same in both cases. Internal and external pressure stays perfectly same. And even after changing it a few bars
it can’t produce such difference in any way (Tested a few times).
Temperature of the heater was kept constant with 0.1°C precision by controller. Alternatively I can make constant power – I can drive my
reactor by any variable.
H-G Branzell: the position was not changed. I have not touched the reactor at all. It didn’t moved a single milimeter in any way I can
imagine. But you are right that this effect could be done in this way. But it wasn’t.
I am working at least on a three very different reactors while one is ready for production. I have verified it many times and it works for half year.
Because of latest findings I believe that COP of 7+ can be achieved with a new design that utilizes plasma. This design is even not patented and probably can’t be.
I want to not use lithium since it is very problematic and its usage throws many problems and instabilities. But it is easy way to get high COP, easy from the beginning. Hard to maintain for longterm.
My wire was not oxidized nearly at all – it was already shining (silvery) from the beginning.
I have treated it with hydrogen always. At the beginning (first experiments) it was only LiAlH4 powder that allowed to achieve COP of
1.6. I had no equipment as today.
Now I do not use any powders. Only H2 and vacuum pump. Vacuum pump can pump all the impurities out. After treating the nickel is shining even more and after repated hydrogenation it is able to change the resistance even by 40% up and down in a few seconds.
This mean that hydrogen loading ratio is quite fast and it has great impact on the lattice.
You are right, but I wanted just to express that it is not “absolutely” necessary.
With a proper construction you can still change pressure without
affecting Li/LiH – for rapid research it is very usefull.
Dear Prof. Celani,
thank you very much for your input! Really appreciated!
I have already learned a lot from your papers (and MFMP)! For sure I have to study more from your work.
My personal theory is that producing atomic hydrogen more effectively is key to achieve higher COP. Atomic hydrogen that was created before can then enter a transition material directly without too much “effort”. When transition material is then temporarily stressed it can yield excess energy, in very simple words. If you can do this very often, very fast and without material destruction, the highest COP is achieved.
If rates of atomic hydrogen production vs recombination back to H2 are correct it will produce additional heat and H2 can be recycled without a loss.
But there are so many things to try, that one can spend whole life to understand the process.
Tarun: Yes, for sure there are many mechanisms how you can do so. When you check published patents, you can see at least few ways how to trigger and turn off the excess heat. Changing pressure, gas, mixture, electrical stimulation, ionizing source, sonic wave, etc.
I can say, that with any missing part of the fuel it will not work during the same condition.
Paradigmnoia: No, no heating element inside. Each reactor type has advantages and disadvantages.
* Chemical energy? – maybe, but at the temperature that was present
everything was decomposed.
* Released energy in a phase change? – rather no, state of the excess
heat can work for long time.
* inductive heating? – can’t be. This is stainless steel, it can’t be
heated with AC from the heater and with the power that was present.
With true induction heater (that I’ve also tested) it will not heat
stainless steel too much at around 50 KHz. You will need much higher
frequencies and higher power – but what is really missing is a coil
around the area that started to glow.
Hank Mills: Welcome to the forum.
First from all I want to say, that I will share all the details, but for now I can’t answer each question. I hope that it is
understandable. Either due to lack of time.
1. Nickel, Lithium and H2. But different combinations will work. Even
trace amount of lithium can be enough.
3. All and repeatedly.
6. I believe that LiAlH4 can work in a few ways – you can get stable
output. Aluminium is throttling the reaction, especially in a higher
temperatures can be benefit. All in all lithium is very reactive and
will react with the chamber sooner or later.
7. I believe that LiH is not needed at all. It can be good to maintain
reaction stable (turn it on and off when needed). But similar thing
can be done also with LiAlH4 (due to fully reversible reaction).
8. Li as vapor will work.
10. Yes, I think so.
11. Damage and reaction with materials you do not want.
12. I have not tested it yet, but I am convinced that it will work at
least for a few seconds. Especially after some modifications.
I hope that it can help.
wishfulThinking: pure Lithium in a wire form, temperature was approx. 960°C on the heater. Internal temperature was so high that nickel melted at the end of the test.
I have already created design that allow precise calorimetric measurement nearly without thermal losses. I can connect my reactor even to a water grid, tank, etc.
eros: Fortunately no.
Jack Cole: Yes, I have tried it a few times.
wishfulThinking: I recommend so that the pressure is around 1 bar absolute – without external control it is not too easy. Because of
safety and reactor integrity it is good to keep pressure low. Then you have to decrease it before triggering excess heat.
Normally the problem is, that LiAlH4 will give you too much hydrogen, on the other hand you have not too much Lithium for the reaction. So you have to wait very long time if you have no additional pressure control until the pressure is low enough – can take hours – weeks if it is a wrong ratio.
To allow reversible reaction of LAH that will give you good “control” you need more Lithium – this is very dependent on the composition of LAH.
Alternatively you will lack aluminium if the reaction is too strong if too much of pure lithium was needed to add (but I guess that this is acceptable for the first tests).
I recommend to not use LAH at all for the first tests if you have an external pressure control.
Stephen Shorland: I think that parallel and serial connection of the
reactors where one can interfere with each other can lead to these
results. For example if there is some output from one reactor that can
stimulate reaction of a second reactor (unused output – e.g. some sort
of radiation) it can be utilized for boosting the reaction when second
reactor is in SSM. By such cascade you can achieve much longer SSM
periods just because you can cleverly harness all the output products.
Thus COP can be multiplied a few times even that the basic technology
is very same.
Thankyou for publishing your observations. While I am ok if you won’t answer, but am interested to know if you ‘switching’ technique
involves pulsing the heater current for a set period at particular frequencies and with a modified waveform.
It is great to hear you have had one of these unit s working for 6 or so months.
thanks Doug Marker
45) DSJM’s OTHER QUESTIONS
me356 (SORRY for duplicate post – my earlier one didn’t show after several hours – then appeared immediatly after I posted this one ?)
Thankyou for having the courage to post your very interesting experiments here for us to read about.
I am delighted that you are being treated respectfully and the questions are all thus far sensible and supportive. The value of
positive support can never be underestimated.
I have questions that you may or may not be willing to answer and that is fully understood. But if you are willing to cover any aspect please do. It relates to your activation of the excess heat and any details will be welcome.
Q1) The question is do you trigger the excess heat by pulsing the heater current for set bursts at any particular frequency and with any
modified current wave form.
Q2 A) Are you able to de-active when you want (am assuming you have already said this can be done). Is that achieved by varying the
current to the heater coil rapidly downward for a period of time, or by a burst of current using a different wave-form.
Again, thanks for your openness.
Doug Marker (DSM).
BEC: Excess heat production with lithium can be started even in temperatures around 450°C, but a proper equipment is necessary.
Temperature around 700°C is more realistic.
wishfulThinking: I am preparing the fuel long enough so that it can load hydrogen very rapidly. 200°C is good temperature for loading.
With one nickel sample it could take a few cycles, with other it might take long time. I am convinced that even nickel foil might work well if prepared correctly.
Dsjm1: Partially yes, but I am convinced that even with a pure DC you should be able to get excess heat.
1. I think that this is correct.
2. There are many things related to timing. Longer the reactor is
running, a bigger possibility for reaction with other materials.
Bigger possibility for formation of unwanted compounds (especially
with lithium). The fuel and hydrogen atmosphere can be contaminated.
4. It depends on a design of the reactor.
Dsjm1: Q2 A) Yes. No. No.
iamdrsvp: No, it isn’t. Power of the heater is unchanged, but for sure changing the temperature rapidly can be also reason for triggering excess heat.
Such changes are unfortunately affecting many things at the same time, so if one is not in a good range, it will not work.
1. It is possible.
2. Hydrogenation process took about 1 hour in my latest experiment.
3. Yes, especially if there was a fuel in the chamber.
4. Having good vacuum pump to pump everything out is desirable. I
recommend a vacuum pump that can reach at least 10 pascals.
Today I was able to get excess heat again with COP near 2, then reactor failed due to a bad sealing that started to melt. Reactor was
much bigger than previous time thus produced energy was in range of 1kW. This time I was able to trigger excess heat from 350°C external, then temperature increased to ~700°C external just in 4 seconds. Internal temperature was higher.
What is very interesting that I have verified that lithium can be placed nearly anywhere in the fuel chamber (not in contact with
nickel) and still it is working and affects whole fuel batch. This is what I have observed more times.
What is also interesting that excess heat was not coming from part of the reactor that was hottest previously. Rather areas that were more clean from oxides were glowing significantly more. In simple words – few areas of the fuel were hotter (100°C difference)
than area that logically should be more hot due to joule heating hot spot. So the excess heat was not dispersed uniformly along the fuel.
Today I think that sort of SSM was achieved, altough lasting just a few seconds. During this period power was zero yet temperature was rather constant – then suddenly decreased because of reactor failure.
I was testing also a new radiation detector Si-14B and I must admit that beta radiation was elevated by 2-3 times. Development was rather not dependent on the excess heat production, but I have to investigate
Mats002: I can promise that I will share all the information needed for successfull replication in very near future.
Hank Mills: Yes, you are right. With pure Ni-H system higher pressure can give you a higher COP. But also in case of Ni-H-Li high pressure can be benefit if you want to reach very high temperatures.
There are data available from approx. 1920 that are describing anomalous excess heat production with all the details. It is hard to
believe we are still using combustion motors.
Don’t be afraid. There are at least 10 companies that are working hard on their reactors and already achieved very good results.
The only question is, who will be the first one?
There are easy and inexpensive ways how to produce atomic hydrogen without any catalyst and even to convert and hold it for required time in this state.
thank you very much for your comments! I am very glad that you are visiting this forum and giving us your knowledge.
It will be pleasure to discuss with you in any way.
Regarding my experiments, I have received all necessary materials. Now I have to construct new reactors and we will see.
One reactor will be 5kW prototype and second one will be utilizing plasma discharge in a non-arcing mode with very high H1 production.
Hopefully tommorow new series of tests will start. At least one photo from the heater testing in the attachment – constant 1500°C is no problem there.
I am really satisfied with the current development. With this reactor there is potential for COP 5-10. We will see soon!
But paralelly plasma reactor is in preparation as well. Greetings, me356!
Reactor A melted, excess heat was present, fuel chamber boiled, hydrogen catched fire. Fail..
Reactor B (utilizing plasma) is made mainly from quartz tube. So the plasma is visible and it is glowing very nicely. This is not a
replication, but very different kind of reactor.
This reactor was not loaded with any Lithium, only trace of Nickel and mainly Tungsten. After tuning ionization parameters I have found something interesting. Abnormal temperature spikes occured from time to time. So I have tried to set optimal conditions. After a while of fine-tuning, temperature shooted so high that COP 2 was achieved. It was rather coincidence that I have proceeded in this way..
Because temperature increased so high (just in 1 second) I have immediately turned off the stimulation as I was afraid. I am sure that the COP would increase to at least 4. I have verified detectors, everything was in normal level. When turned off, temperature dropped immediately, but not completely and excess heat was still present (with logarithmic declination) for at least 10 minutes until returned to its original level (no excess heat).
Before I have started with tuning, I have found that there was high energetic neutron burst. So my focus stayed on the detector all the
time and fortunately I was unable to detect anything more.
Excess heat was triggered at 350°C.
Power level during the test was constant. Reactor glowed enormously (purple to white color). Plasma was in 3/4 of the fuel chamber, even
where anode/kathode was not present which was quite interesting.
Really satisfied! This experiment is probably moving the research to another level as the development and production can be simplified
For today I have turned everything off – I have to check what happened.
54) Gerard McEk’s Post To Me356
me356 : It is all nice you write this for us, but can you also specify what you did: How were the reactors and fuel made, how did you act with temperature, pressure etc. during activation of the LENR reaction? By just announcing the results, you acting just like Rossi.
Please enlighten us! Tell us more, show vidio’s, proove you have done this. Only by doing that we may make progress. BTW the tungsten H2 reactor was first described by Irving Langmuir around 1911 and he found excess heat as well. I have also thought that would probably be the simplest test to prove LENR. Nice you picked this up!
55) Response to Gerard by Me356
I believe that all LENR reactors are working with the same or very similar principles. Only ways how to achieve it are different, because there are many options how to do so.
From my point of view, theory of operation is very simple. For example I really don’t think that black holes are involved there. Only a special conditions must be met. Once you know what you want to achieve, you can get excess heat anytime with many reactor types.
If you dont know, you can try years without a single result. If you know, it will look so bizarre you will not believe it can work.
I am controlling H1 production directly which in case of E-Cat is very hard. If I am right, it is possible to “set” COP where one wish to be.
As I have promised, I will share all my results. Please be patient. Do not waste time with Parkhomov replications, it might work, but only in a very special cases.
Yes, I know exactly results of 183W + p.
My update: I have tested plasma based reactor for longer period of time.. Results are clear. Unfortunately the power that is under the lid is so strong I will probably not continue in this area. Reactor is emmiting neutrons a few days after the test!
With lithium COP might be exceptionally higher. Very rough estimate is COP of 10-50. But I am not skilled enough to be absolutely sure about safety which is reason why I will continue with reactors that are more safe. Emmissions (RF, electrons and UV) during the test were so strong that my control circuit was absolutely crazy even that it was 3 meters away – it is unusable.
Now I am playing with dangerous things that are clearly working.
I am afraid, but LENR is not safe as it looked initially. You can make a nuclear reactor with all the things you really don’t want.
Fortunately it can’t get out of control so easily. If power output is limited, you are safe. But there will be probably always some kind of potentionally harmfull radiation. Fuel and fuel chamber must be very clean from impurities to not get unwanted products.
Now I understand perfectly why Rossi is working on the e-cat so long. You have something that is working, you have a prototypes and you are nearly ready for mass production. Then you will find something amazing, that can increase the excess heat significantly so that
previous work is not important anymore. But there are again many difficulties and unknown things that it can take a few years to get a
fully working prototype based on the new discoveries, but it is surely worth. You can continue endlessly, because LENR is opening doors of something completely unknown and much more. not just energy conversion. It is possible that in 10 years, everything will be
Interesting observation today – To start the secondary reaction (Cat), Lithium should be in contact with Nickel or in “a direct visibility”. If there is some material, that will block products of the Mouse process, it will not work or it can be significantly throttled.
axil: I think that there must be a direct channel. Diameter might be probably very small if we can change direction of the products (e,g, by magnetic field). I believe that it can pass a certain materials. Mica window could work. But without verifying we can just guess.
But from my experiments, it looks like it is not that easy. Lithium is also affecting the transition metal (Nickel) and at least from what I have saw, the heat is not comming just from lithium itself, but also from the nickel. Next interesting thing is how lithium is behaving in the reactor if it is in a bulk form (in some cases). When it is inside nickel (covered from each side) it does not react chemically with nickel nearly at all. At least if nickel is prepared well.
It is looking as if it is levitating inside and after excess heat it looks like a dried-fruit. So only peripheral surface will stay there (probably contamimants). Even alumina tube is not touched by lithium at all which is very good. No traces of vaporized lithium are found (at least optically) which mean the reaction was complete and extremely fast.
I have prepared samples for close examination.
Yes, resistance of the fuel is dropping always in the latest experiments while Ni-H reaction is active. But exact reason for this
is not known yet. I can increase/decrease the resistance on will (mostly in range of 10 – 40% of the original value).
Hank Mills: To make it work, you will need Lithium in vicinity or in a direct contact with Nickel. If LiAlH4 is used only for supplying hydrogen, you can use whatever else, but the reaction will be just Ni-H. Yes, removing aluminium will make the reaction stronger.
What I really recommend is to use your intuition and not try to use replication guides as guaranteed and correct ways. For example there are descriptions what replicator did during initial phases, but there is not too much explanation why. What exactly happened and why is it needed? Conditions when excess heat is occuring are not documented nearly at all, nobody is asking what happened inside and why.
When you will find the answers, you will learn the value of such knowledge.
Replicators are spending a lot of time with things that are not necessary, waiting hours – days for “something”. Known recipes are
incorrect. You have to control the process, not that process is controlling you.
Charlie Tapp: Yes, one heating coil can indirectly work as stimulation too. Mouse and cat are two internal processes and can be completely independent. But you have to feed cat with mouses. You have to look at this from very different point of view. First it
is important to find where the excess energy is coming from. When you will find source of the energy, you will also find how to use
this energy. All questions will be answered by this finding.
Regarding plasma there are more reasons why to use it. There are more utilizations. For example arcing can be used in very different way than a glow discharge. Both can boost the effect, but you can also replace it with other phenomenons. LENR can be stimulated in many ways.