Battery Researchers Mystified by New Goodenough Paper on Solid State Battery (“It’s Kind of Like Cold Fusion”)

Thanks to readers who brought my attention to an interesting development in the world of battery research and development.

On February 28th, 2017, the University of Texas at Austin published a press release announcing that a team led by John Goodenough, professor in the Cockrell School of Engineering had made a breakthrough by developing “first all-solid-state battery cells that could lead to safer, faster-charging, longer-lasting rechargeable batteries for handheld mobile devices, electric cars and stationary energy storage.”

John Goodenough is a 94 year-old solid state physicist who is considered to be the one of the key researchers behind the development of the lithium-ion battery.

More from the press release:

“Today’s lithium-ion batteries use liquid electrolytes to transport the lithium ions between the anode (the negative side of the battery) and the cathode (the positive side of the battery). If a battery cell is charged too quickly, it can cause dendrites or “metal whiskers” to form and cross through the liquid electrolytes, causing a short circuit that can lead to explosions and fires. Instead of liquid electrolytes, the researchers rely on glass electrolytes that enable the use of an alkali-metal anode without the formation of dendrites.

“The use of an alkali-metal anode (lithium, sodium or potassium) — which isn’t possible with conventional batteries — increases the energy density of a cathode and delivers a long cycle life. In experiments, the researchers’ cells have demonstrated more than 1,200 cycles with low cell resistance.

“Additionally, because the solid-glass electrolytes can operate, or have high conductivity, at -20 degrees Celsius, this type of battery in a car could perform well in subzero degree weather. This is the first all-solid-state battery cell that can operate under 60 degree Celsius.”

The team published a paper, (lead author Maria Helena Braga) titled “Alternative strategy for a safe rechargeable battery” can be read in the journal Engineering and Environmental Science here.

There has been an interesting response among battery researcher to the published research. An article published on the Quarz website reports how some researchers are somewhat incredulous about what Goodenough’s paper reports. Here are some excerpts and comments:

“It’s what is not stated in the paper that has some of the battery community stumped. How is Goodenough’s new invention storing any energy at all? The known rules of physics state that, to derive energy, differing material must produce differing eletro-chemical reactions in the two opposing electrodes. That difference produces voltage, allowing energy to be stored. But Goodenough’s battery has pure metallic lithium or sodium on both sides. Therefore, the voltage should be zero, with no energy produced, battery researchers told Quartz . . .

“‘If anyone but Goodenough published this, I would be, well, it’s hard to find a polite word,’ Daniel Steingart, a professor at Princeton, told Quartz . . .

“He’s technically made a perpetual motion machine,” said Venkat Viswanathan, a professor at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania . . .

“’It’s kind of like cold fusion. Here is an experiment that is unbelievable,’said Dalhousie University’s Jeff Dahn, a leading researcher whose Canadian laboratory is on a contract with Tesla. ‘There could be a small possibility that it is right.'”

Daniel Steingart has written an essay in which he speculates that air might have somehow leaked into the battery, making this a lithium air battery, but this idea has been rejected by Braga, who has been responding to questions via email.

So it’s an interesting development. Battery technology had been notoriously hard to improve significantly, which has proven to be something of a holdup for more speedy deployment of electric vehicles and other applications where improved energy storage and energy density is needed. If this really is the major breakthrough the researchers claim, it could turn out to be very important.

  • Andreas Moraitis

    A ten times higher energy density might allow the use of sodium in standard batteries. Since sodium is about 3.3 times heavier than lithium (the molar masses compared), the possible energy density is correspondingly lower. Nevertheless, the proposed technology could allow Na batteries that are still significantly better than today’s Li batteries. That would solve another problem since Na is both more abundant and cheaper than Li.

  • Ophelia Rump

    I wish these experts were educated enough in the appreciation of how obviously narrow and rigid they they have become when they say things like “‘If anyone but Goodenough published this, I would be, well, it’s hard to find a polite word,’

    In other words a thousand brilliant discoveries and their discoverers may get the old heave ho out the door, Only the anointed need apply, but even the anointed need to be ready for the stink eye.

    That is not science, it is zealotry in the defense of inertia.

  • Ophelia Rump

    I wish these experts were educated enough in the appreciation of how obviously narrow and rigid they they have become when they say things like “‘If anyone but Goodenough published this, I would be, well, it’s hard to find a polite word,’

    In other words a thousand brilliant discoveries and their discoverers may get the old heave ho out the door, Only the anointed need apply, but even the anointed need to be ready for the stink eye.

    That is not science, it is zealotry in the defense of inertia.

    • Bruce__H

      Have you ever undertaken funded research in the empirical sciences?

    • Alan DeAngelis
    • hhiram

      This is too hyperbolic. This article makes an extraordinary claim. Such claims require extraordinary evidence to be taken seriously. Scientists don’t have time to read every paper that claims to have revolutionized technology with a physics-bending approach. They have to filter the wheat from the chaff.

      Reputation is a simple way to filter the deluge. Since this amazing claim comes from an eminent scientist, folks will take it seriously without requiring as much supporting evidence as they otherwise would demand if the claim were coming from a teenager working at McDonalds.

      There is nothing close-minded or zealous about any of this. It’s a totally understandable response to the information overload that we scientists have to deal with all day every day.

      • Alan DeAngelis

        The Mpemba effect was discovered by a teenager.

        • Hhiram

          Reread my post. We don’t dismiss extraordinary claims based on lack of authority, we simply require that they be supported with extraordinary evidence.

  • I wonder if this has anything to do with the Steorn battery…

  • bachcole

    As I said elsewhere, I sure hope Goodenough is good enough. (:->)

    {Good enough to deliver the goods.}

    • simon gray

      Goodenough is a heralded name in the royal navy too. Maybe an aristocratic english family name? On the thrust of the article I guess ‘kind of like cold fusion’ merely meant ‘kind of like that impossible thing, the best example of which is cold fusion’ – unfortunately!

    • Pekka Janhunen

      Good-enough for government work.

      • bachcole

        I used to hear that back in the day, and I thought that it was funny. Now, I am older and wiser, and I think that it is ugly and telling and it makes me glad that I am a libertarian, sort of. Government employees act like they have absolute job security and doing a half-ass job is just fine.

    • Jonnyb

      What we need is Rossi to employ Dr Thatlldo and get the stuff out

  • William D. Fleming

    Here’s an insightful article about Goodenough the man.

    https://alcalde.texasexes.org/2015/07/the-inventor/

    • bachcole

      I’ve seen you around. I knew that I knew you. (:->) We think alike, as in, better than everyone else. (:->)

      Seriously, if someone takes their thoughts too seriously, they don’t think very well. You seem to take your thoughts lightly, and because of that you can work through and around them and see other people’s viewpoints better. I like that.

      • William D. Fleming

        Nice to know there’s a kindred spirit out there. Thanks for your encouragement!

        • WernerM

          William,. I finally have to comment about your photo that comes up with your posts. At the small scale of my phone, my first thought is of the Quaker Oats man from the oatmeal box. 😁 The white background behind your head and the brown above makes me chuckle every time.

          • William D. Fleming

            I’m so happy to be able to provide amusement.:-) I was lying in bed and the white is a pillow. The brown is a heart-pine headboard I made from salvaged lumber. I eat generic oatmeal but when I’m at the grocery store I’ll take note.

            Now I wanna see what you look like.
            🙂

          • Matt Werner

            William, the top of my head resembles a cue ball so most pictures come out over exposed😁. I tried using my Google account to login. Doesn’t look like it’s going to pull in the picture. You are not missing much…

    • bachcole

      Goodenough seems like a most admirable person. Not many eggheads have such a good heart.

      • William D. Fleming

        For a dyslexic kid and poor student who had an unhappy childhood, I’d say he’s turned out well! Very inspirational IMO.

  • William D. Fleming

    Here’s an insightful article about Goodenough the man.

    https://alcalde.texasexes.org/2015/07/the-inventor/

    • bachcole

      I’ve seen you around. I knew that I knew you. (:->) We think alike, as in, better than everyone else. (:->)

      Seriously, if someone takes their thoughts too seriously, they don’t think very well. You seem to take your thoughts lightly, and because of that you can work through and around them and see other people’s viewpoints better. I like that.

      • William D. Fleming

        Nice to know there’s a kindred spirit out there. Thanks for your encouragement!

        • WernerM

          William,. I finally have to comment about your photo that comes up with your posts. At the small scale of my phone, my first thought is of the Quaker Oats man from the oatmeal box. 😁 The white background behind your head and the brown above makes me chuckle every time.

          • William D. Fleming

            I’m so happy to be able to provide amusement.:-) I was lying in bed and the white is a pillow. The brown is a heart-pine headboard I made from salvaged lumber. I eat generic oatmeal but when I’m at the grocery store I’ll take note.

            Now I wanna see what you look like.
            🙂

          • Matt Werner

            William, the top of my head resembles a cue ball so most pictures come out over exposed😁. I tried using my Google account to login. Doesn’t look like it’s going to pull in the picture. You are not missing much…

    • bachcole

      Goodenough seems like a most admirable person. Not many eggheads have such a good heart.

      • William D. Fleming

        For a dyslexic kid and poor student who had an unhappy childhood, I’d say he’s turned out well! Very inspirational IMO.

        • MorganMck

          If you have not, you should read David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits, and the Art of Battling Giants by Malcolm Gladwell. In it he talks about lots of dyslexic people who have achieved greatness. After reading it, I almost wished I had that disability as overcoming it seems to yield almost magical results.

          • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

            Labelling is always so obtuse and underestimating; sometimes, those who label are finally resized by the labelled.
            After 27 years, I hope now is finally the time for ‘cold fusionists’ to resize their critics!!

    • clovis ray

      Nice read bill,well written,

  • MorganMck

    This if very exciting stuff and entering the Senior Citizen ranks myself, its great to know that there is potential to still contribute at 94.

    For cars, these batteries would make all the difference. The 3x energy density would give them the required range and more importantly, the recharge time would be very close to a gasoline stop today. They also would have vastly better cycle life which coupled with DC motor simplicity would yield great value and performance.

    If the SunCell works out, these would be two breakthroughs in close succession that would be totally disruptive to the status quo.

    • cashmemorz

      I also was excited about the potential disruptive nature of LENR and such other technology until our local government found a way to nullify the potential of such tech to become disruptive.

      The government in my area, Ontario, Canada, is doing this by manipulating the costs of electricity and how the consumers pay for it. We have a Liberal party in the province run by one
      Kathleen Wynn, the Premier of Ontario, who decided to sell of the major electric power organization, Ontario Hydro to private concerns. Why exactly this sale occurred I can only surmise, was to get out of the power producing business while they could before alternate energy does disrupt the power grid system and at the same time makes the province a
      lot of money in the effort to show that the Liberal party was doing
      something to prop up other costly projects promised in the election that they won. So far so good. Then the private concern decided to revamp the grid in order to carry more power that is expected to be added by alternate power sources (APS) such as wind and photo voltaics. Again, this seems good and proper. The problem starts with the costs incurred in getting the alternate power providers to take the risk of installing their alternate power hardware and linking up to the grid. The government has promised and actually has written contracts with each such alternate power provider to be paid by the government to make
      payments for that alternate power that is two to three times what
      traditional costs were. The alternative power providers of course were only too happy to work with such guaranteed return on investment. These agreements were made before the sell off ofthe power company to privatehands. So what is happening now is the transfer of the guaranteed of ROI to private hands, on top of the refurbishment of the grid by privatehands. The result is sky high power bills. About a year ago my electricbill was close to $150 for two months for a three bedroom house with five people living in this house. Now the same house with the same number of people in it has an electric bill of $450 to $550 for two months. People in the province complained all over the place. For many
      reasons. Some people just could not handle such a huge increase in theirpower bill in just one year. So some remedies were put in place by the provincial government. One was to remove the HST (Harmonized Sales Tax) or tax on the power bill . That represents 15% of the bill. A small and for many a too small a difference. Then the premier of Ontario promised to lower the over all bill by 25% starting in July of 2017.

      But the way in which the government is to implement this, is to mortgage the costs of the power cost lowering plan by paying off the mortgage and interest on that mortgage by everyone, even those not on the grid. So we end up paying for power we use now somewhere down the road to the private handsholding our grid come hell or high water. For at least thirty years. For a grid that exist or, if LENR and the like are implemented, for a
      grid that has little reason to exist, other than the mortgage.

      I don’t see that this all was intentional as far as holding back LENR, but surely those advising the Ontario provincial government must have been aware of the potential of LENR, and its soon arrival into the market. So on the other hand it might have been all orchestrated purposely and only made to look like a foolish plan concocted by the government to make some quick and easy money, but in actuality was planned on purpose
      to hold back, if not LENR itself but to give those running traditional power, as in the grid, extra time to make money before LENR does take over.

      There was a report by the Canadian military as to security
      implications of LENr about two years ago. The two actions could be tied for security of the financial grid as much as the power grid.

      I suppose there are other things other than just saving money on my power bill. The overall health of the economy and the country. Or is it the industrial military complex that we have? Or just the ones making big bucks off the complex? I should be more concerned about my own interests before I get all concerned about anyone else. It is my family and my money that have to be used so that I can get ahead. When I was out of work the government did not guarantee that I would be working if they
      helped me with job finding and the like. It was, in the end, all on me. But lets say I do order a LENR device for my house, as such opportunity was given by Leonardo Corp. If I am already locked in for paying of the mortgage for the existing grid, for the next 30 years, then why would I on top of that pay to get a LENR device? That is the fly in the ointment of LENR. I may have to first wait 30 years before It is worth while in the current, actual, scenario, to get involved with procuring A LENR device.

      Edit:
      As LENR starts to get close to market other ways to slow it is to
      increase borrowing rates. This helps to prevent the economy from
      overheating as everyone who is able to, gets a LENR device and uses it to increase production at lower costs or just lower costs. So there are existing economic tools to control the system with regard to disruptions.

  • Pekka Janhunen

    Good-enough for government work.

  • Rene

    Goodenough’s new battery is well described in the abstract to his paper. No magic need apply. It’s similar to a redox reaction where the same material can have different energy levels to create ionic movement and uses alkaline anode/cathodes with a glass electrolyte to stop dendritic formation which eventually shorts out a standard LiOn battery:

    [edit: this is the abstract]

    The advent of a Li+ or Na+ glass electrolyte with a cation conductivity σi > 10−2 S cm−1 at 25 °C and a motional enthalpy ΔHm = 0.06 eV that is wet by a metallic lithium or sodium anode is used to develop a new strategy for an all-solid-state, rechargeable, metal-plating battery. During discharge, a cell plates the metal of an anode of high-energy Fermi level such as lithium or sodium onto a cathode current collector with a low-energy Fermi level; the voltage of the cell may be determined by a cathode redox center having an energy between the Fermi levels of the anode and that of the cathode current collector. This strategy is demonstrated with a solid electrolyte that not only is wet by the metallic anode, but also has a dielectric constant capable of creating a large electric-double-layer capacitance at the two electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The result is a safe, low-cost, lithium or sodium rechargeable battery of high energy density and long cycle life.

    I find the careful design and tuning of a lithium battery awe inspiring. It takes precise formulation to make LiON+ reactions vs anemic reactions:

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369702115003181

    • Gerard McEk

      Thanks Rene! I like your explanation much more than the LENR juce, which is unlikely.

    • theBuckWheat

      Conventional automobile batteries use lead plates for both anode and cathode. Charging causes the positive plate to be coated with lead dioxide, but it is still a lead plate.

  • Glen

    Could Ni2Na02 be the secret sauce?

  • Glen

    Could Ni2Na02 be the secret sauce?

  • Jonnyb

    What we need is Rossi to employ Dr Thatlldo and get the stuff out

  • we want LENR Fusione Fredda

    Labelling is always so obtuse and underestimating; sometimes, those who label are finally resized by the labelled.
    After 27 years, I hope now is finally the time for ‘cold fusionists’!!

  • theBuckWheat

    I chafe when insiders say that they only believe this because of the reputation of the author and that were it anyone else the concept would be dismissed almost out of hand and then with impolite language. They are telling me that the who is more important than the what. That is not science that is politics and cronyism. The device in the paper will either be reproducible by a third party or it will not.

    • cashmemorz

      Scientifically oriented people are still people, not walking dispassionate science machines. That is why nepotism exists and why reputation matters. If a person has done similarly, even if not as spectacular as claimed in the point of this thread, then future expectations are based on past performance. Reputation. If that is never taken into account then anything anyone does is considered in purely logical manner. We, people can be logical but, also trusting but still check out what is being trusted. Remember that is exactly why cold fusion, AKA LENR, has had a hard time vis a vis mainstream science.

      • sam

        Hi Cashmemorz
        I was wondering if you think it
        would be worthwhile to try and
        get an Ontario University to assist Bob Grenyer and MFMP.
        Or would they be reputation
        worriers as well.
        I think they would have nothing
        to lose and maybe lots to gain.

        From a fellow Ontarian

        • cashmemorz

          Worth a try. Myself am out of touch with U of T. So I wouldn’t be able to do much from a cold start. it would take some digging around to get someone to just talk about LENR. Something to consider. If I get to understand how that community looks on things a little out of left field then I might do something further. The first thing I will do is talk to a few professionals that I personally know in other fields just to get a general feel of how others look on things like LENR and go from there. An interesting challenge. Anything might happen. Maybe something even positive. If so I will be back here.

          One point that may get this going is by broaching the subject about what I have noticed what the premier, Kathleen Wynn has managed to force Ontarians into long term, 30 years forced payment of electrical bills by mortgaging the cost of monthly increases over those next 30 years. This would or will force Ontarians to pay into the power grid even if one wanted to go with LENR instead. That would make LENR an extra cost on top of old grid power. That might get someone interested in talking.

  • theBuckWheat

    I chafe when insiders say that they only believe this because of the reputation of the author and that were it anyone else the concept would be dismissed almost out of hand and then with impolite language. They are telling me that the who is more important than the what. That is not science that is politics and cronyism. The device in the paper will either be reproducible by a third party or it will not.

    • cashmemorz

      Scientifically oriented people are still people, not walking dispassionate science machines. That is why nepotism exists and why reputation matters. If a person has done similarly, even if not as spectacular as claimed in the point of this thread, then future expectations are based on past performance. Reputation. If that is never taken into account then anything anyone does is considered in purely logical manner. We, people can be logical but, also trusting but still check out what is being trusted. Remember that is exactly why cold fusion, AKA LENR, has had a hard time vis a vis mainstream science.

      • sam

        Hi Cashmemorz
        I was wondering if you think it
        would be worthwhile to try and
        get an Ontario University to assist Bob Grenyer and MFMP.
        Or would they be reputation
        worriers as well.
        I think they would have nothing
        to lose and maybe lots to gain.

        From a fellow Ontarian

        • cashmemorz

          Worth a try. Myself am out of touch with U of T. So I wouldn’t be able to do much from a cold start. it would take some digging around to get someone to just talk about LENR. Something to consider. If I get to understand how that community looks on things a little out of left field then I might do something further. The first thing I will do is talk to a few professionals that I personally know in other fields just to get a general feel of how others look on things like LENR and go from there. An interesting challenge. Anything might happen. Maybe something even positive. If so I will be back here.

          One point that may get this going is by broaching the subject about what I have noticed what the premier, Kathleen Wynn has managed to force Ontarians into long term, 30 years forced payment of electrical bills by mortgaging the cost of monthly increases over those next 30 years. This would or will force Ontarians to pay into the power grid even if one wanted to go with LENR instead. That would make LENR an extra cost on top of old grid power. That might get someone interested in talking.

    • bkrharold2030

      One of the men who made this rude remark, has a contract to provide batteries to Tesla. Sour grapes much? The others probably have their own agendas, totally unrelated to any legitimate scientific objection.

    • Wholewitt

      Isn’t it normal for experts to be skeptical of something new that leapfrogs current technology? This happens all the time. They are allowing that Goodenough has proved himself previously so he may have done it again. However the proof is commercialization and many inventions never get to that because they have some problem that negates their improvement (cost may be one case). How many new engines have been invented but never produced? I hope this is a real battery, it will be good enough for many applications (pun intended).

  • sam
  • Alan DeAngelis

    The Mpemba effect was discovered by a teenager.

    • Hhiram

      Reread my post. We don’t dismiss extraordinary claims based on lack of authority, we simply require that they be supported with extraordinary evidence.

  • jimbo92107

    Wow, I just read the paper on this new battery technology. Notwithstanding my abysmal ignorance of the math, the approach makes sense. He has eliminated the dendrite problem by creating a glass “electrolyte” doped with atoms of the chosen anode. This means that he can achieve ion migration THROUGH THE GLASS without a wet electrolyte! The lithium or sodium atoms push their brothers through the glass in the either the charge or discharge direction, all in a solid state. Dendrites are prevented because they have nowhere to grow, as the anode/electrolyte/cathode layers are all solids, pressed together in an air-tight package.

    Yup, that’s what genius looks like.

  • Veblin
  • Veblin
  • Zephir

    The research of batteries isn’t “kind of cold fusion” – but it actually competes the cold fusion, i.e. the concept of production of energy at place. The production of energy on demand would eliminate the need of grid and the need of batteries instead.

  • Zephir

    The research of batteries isn’t “kind of cold fusion” – but it actually competes the cold fusion, i.e. the concept of production of energy at place. The production of energy on demand would eliminate the need of grid and the need of batteries instead.

    • No, we will always need to store energy, at least we will for a long time to come.

    • My invention, the VAPER-ARC Reactor, is an Acoustic Energy Harvesting Device This acoustic energy harvester utilizes a unique non-linear resonator
      array to produce fifth order pressure wave amplification that stimulates
      the bulk modulus of third order amplifying mono-crystalline
      piezoelectric chips and poly-crystalline piezoelectric ceramics that
      translate the acoustic power through a gain medium into high frequency
      high voltage electric discharge conditioned through multiple
      multi-phased coupled inductors to tailor the frequency, phase and
      strength of the electrical charges that
      are then transformed from higher voltage, lower amperage electrical
      discharges into lower voltage, higher amperage electricity via step-down
      transformers and in some cases stepped up to higher voltage, higher
      amperage electricity via triple resonance Tesla transformers, this
      conditioned electricity can be stored or conveyed for immediate use
      including the operation of the first electrically powered acoustic
      driver rendering this acoustic energy harvester self-sustaining.
      http://www.timothyjsipp.com

  • Zephir

    The research of batteries, renewables and another substitutes of actual energy sources just delays their streamlined research and dilutes the research capacity for it. If you want get married, just date a women instead of cat or dog, if you want to have cold fusion just start to work on it. It’s as simple as it is.

    • Current nuclear fusion work relates to
      using much larger composite fermions like Deuterium and Helium to
      generate electricity by generating heat that generates steam to drive
      turbines that generate electricity. By understanding the actual process
      of piezoelectricity we may have discovered solid state cold fusion at
      much lower energy levels. Current theory states that electrons are
      elemental fermions, a class of leptons that follow the Pauli Exclusion
      Principle. Even though electrons are half integer spin “elemental”
      fermions with negative charge, they can be precipitated by compositing
      their three quasi-particle wave functions in a quantum oscillator
      crystal lattice to mass produce electrons which by definition have
      individual thermodynamic relationships with the quantum reservoir but
      retain the spin, charge, and orbit of the previously produced electrons.

      http://www.vaperpower.com/

  • sam
  • sam
  • I am an inventor who knows well the objections to rocking the boat. But it has been rocked and soon the world will know what the National Labs already know about my invention, the VAPER-ARC Reactor.

    Crystalline Quantum Oscillators: The Boson’s Mate in a Sea Of Fermions: Elemental Composition

    Timothy J.
    Sipp
    07/27/16

    The VAPER-ARC Reactor doesn’t violate
    the laws of thermodynamics because according to the Pauli Exclusion
    Principle and Fermi-Dirac Statistics for fermions each electron formed
    in the electron orbital vacancy in the crystal lattice has a separate
    thermodynamic relationship with the quantum oscillating reservoir. The
    Fermi energy of the electron is an order of magnitude higher than the
    thermodynamic energy and doesn’t become equivalent until reaching the
    Fermi temperature which is two orders of magnitude higher than room
    temperature. The three quantum vortices in the valence band are
    associated with each of the three quasi-particle wave functions that
    comprise the composite fermion defined by these spinon, holon, and
    orbiton wave functions. The product is an electron to replace the
    previous electron at the most desired energy level within the quantum
    oscillator crystal lattice.

    The valence band inside single crystal
    Aluminum-Nitride piezoelectric chips act as quantum condensers providing
    the ideal boundary conditions to stimulate wave-function resonance of
    the quasi-particles that comprise electrons: the holon, spinon and
    orbiton. The valence band in the crystal lattice structure releases the
    existing free electron when stress is applied. A free electron reappears
    in the crystal lattice structure when the pressure is released and the
    crystal retakes its original shape. The question remains, how does the
    release of pressure on the crystal replace the released electron in its
    crystal lattice structure. Immediately after the electron vacates the
    valence orbital another uncondensed electron condenses from the harmonic
    resonance of the three wave functions represented by the three
    remaining quantum vortices.

    You could also imagine water dripping
    slowly from a vertically suspended chilled sponge on a humid day. There
    is water in the sponge and it is flowing slowly towards the bottom due
    to gravity, viscosity, and the Bernoulli and the Coanda effects. The
    water isn’t visible until it hits a critical point where it gathers due
    to gravity and cohesion at the corner of the sponge (Condenser ) and the
    forces of gravity and cohesion form a drop that shears from the rest of
    the water and the sponge and is now its own thermodynamic system with
    mass and energy. Leaving the sponge in a new state of non-equilibrium, a
    quantum vacuum driving the precipitation of an electron from the sea of
    fermions in the quantum field.

    In the VAPER-ARC Reactor the
    oscillating gas stimulates the bulk modulus of the piezoelectric
    crystal. The Crystal will compress and expand sympathetically as the
    frequency and pressure vary in the gas. Each cycle of vibration the
    crystal emits free electrons from the bonds in the lattice. Each cycle
    of vibration after the electron is pushed out of the lattice there is a
    negative quantum pressure localized within the orbital for that
    electron. The release of localized deformation allows the crystal
    lattice to go back to normal maximizing the negative quantum pressure.
    Like a catalyst often provides context and construct to make a process
    more efficient these quantum oscillators have the natural resonant
    frequencies conducive to harnessing the wave functions of the
    quasi-particles that make electrons .

    Again, the valence bands of the
    aluminum-nitride crystal are the breeding grounds for electrons.
    Electrons are condensed matter formed by the superposition of the three
    quasi-particles that make up electrons; the holon that presents charge,
    the spinon that presents spin and the orbiton that presents path. As
    pressure fluctuations in the gas stimulate pressure fluctuations in the
    crystal there is a collective excitation of bosons within the crystal as
    the waves propagate forcing free electrons (fermions) out of the
    crystal creating a negative quantum pressure attracting the fermions
    necessary to make another electron in the valence band. This is
    semi-conductor electrons and holes science & technology taken to a
    new level of power.

    Current nuclear fusion work relates to
    using much larger composite fermions like Deuterium and Helium to
    generate electricity by generating heat that generates steam to drive
    turbines that generate electricity. By understanding the actual process
    of piezoelectricity we may have discovered solid state cold fusion at
    much lower energy levels. Current theory states that electrons are
    elemental fermions, a class of leptons that follow the Pauli Exclusion
    Principle. Even though electrons are half integer spin “elemental”
    fermions with negative charge, they can be precipitated by compositing
    their three quasi-particle wave functions in a quantum oscillator
    crystal lattice to mass produce electrons which by definition have
    individual thermodynamic relationships with the quantum reservoir but
    retain the spin, charge, and orbit of the previously produced electrons.

    Again, the VAPER-ARC Reactor’s 6th
    Order non-linear passively-mechanically amplified high amplitude sound
    waves are stimulating the bulk modulus of the crystals that act as
    quantum energy condensers and pumps providing a supply of electrons for
    the useful lifetime of the crystals (4% loss of energy conversion
    efficiency every 10 years). The high frequency high voltage static
    electric discharge is then conditioned through multi-phased coupled
    inductors and transformers for immediate use or storage. Large sensor
    based systems experience line noise and electron drift that can set up
    resonance and harmonic currents. We have designed a system that
    capitalizes on these phenomenon instead of mitigating them. We are
    “fusing” the fermion wave-functions of an electron into an electron in
    the quantum wells of the aluminum-nitride crystals that are driven and
    pumped by the passively mechanically amplified acoustic waves.

    This is mass manufacture of electrons
    analogous to injection molding in macroscopic manufacturing. Many
    questions remain: first, is the hysteresis of the set of three quantum
    vortices the “mold” dictating the spin, charge, and path of subsequent
    electrons? Second, can these manufactured electrons become entangled
    with others in a super-lattice and change signs and spin? What does that
    look like? Three, can we make adaptive heterogeneous complex
    crystalline mono-block systems with power generation, heat management
    and logic structures? The answers to these questions represent the
    beginning of a new era in understanding ourselves, the energy we use and
    the cosmos to which we belong.

    The direct link to your VSL is this I
    think: If the universe is expanding as light slows down forcing the
    quantum vacuum to shed energy in the form of condensed matter that is
    expanding away from itself, is there a predicted local quantum pressure
    that could explain the rate of mass manufacture of electrons in large
    mono-crystalline piezoelectric chips. In essence, could my machine
    present the needed verifiable quantitative measurements of quantum
    energy being condensed to support the VSL?

    I just watched your documentary
    “Einstein’s Biggest Blunder” and I realized that by generating such vast
    localized power that we would indeed be bending space-time while
    increasing the energy density at high frequencies. The higher energy
    density in the direction of motion and the lower energy density behind
    the vehicle would necessarily alter the local speed of light with
    reference to the warp bubble and space-time itself, but what about
    inside the warp bubble? Are we fundamentally turning a vehicle into a
    massive high energy fermion and quantum tunneling through space-time?

    If so, is gravity really the driving
    force behind cosmological movement or is the electric universe and VSL
    responsible? Is mass a quantum illusion and gravity an artifact of
    temporal interaction? Does the Higgs Field endow Time instead of Mass?
    Is condensed matter physics barking up the wrong tree?

  • What is amazing about the Goodenough battery is the energy density claimed, 8500 Wh/kg of Lithium anode, which is 30 times that of current Li-ion batteries. Even if we can realise one third of that, it would be awesome and good enough to power airplanes, not just automobiles (may be space planes)