EM Drive: The Race To Rediscover, Redevelop, and Rename Thomas Townsend Brown’s Electrogravitic Technologies (Henry Black)

The following post has been submitted by Henry Black

EM Drive: The Race To Rediscover, Redevelop, and Rename Thomas Townsend Brown’s Electrogravitic Technologies

Author’s preface: Townsend Brown’s Electrogravitic technology, which manipulated the aether filled medium of our physical reality to produce thrust, is being re-developed under a variety of names – including the EM Drive. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of asymmetrical capacitor based “Q-Thrusters” could push the reality of the aether – also called the electron positron sea or zero point energy field by modern researchers who fear the scorn of their colleagues – into the mainstream. This would allow us to understand all the forces of nature and how to engineer them to perform any task we desire. Since the atom is constructed by patterns of aether, this same understanding would reveal exactly how to transmute or isotope shift elements to produce powerful cold fusion reactions. Of course the understanding of LENR would be only the tip of the iceburg. An understanding of the aether sets humanity free to progress into an interstellar space faring species that rises above petty wars and conflicts that result in environmental destruction, poverty, and human suffering.

Long before the current day buzz over the EM Drive, extending back before the UFO incidents of the forties, and overlapping the era of arguably the most notable scientist of all time, Nikola Tesla, Thomas Townsend Brown discovered a remarkable yet practically engineerable connection between electricity and gravitation. His apparatus, sometimes called “gravitators” produced a variety of phenomena: one of the strongest to manifest and the easiest to identify was known as electric or “ionic” wind. Many of his detractors claimed this mundane effect represented the totality of his discovery. Nevertheless, after decades of effort with multiple partners and teams, he was able to prove that in a hard vacuum, submerged in insulating oil, and configured in a variety of manners, his asymmetric high voltage capacitors produced completely anomalous thrust.

After all these years, his work is still fiercely debated. High tech labs staffed by top professionals have verified that even in the most unoptimized, primitive versions of his devices, a thrust remains at high vacuum. Moreover, multiple researchers have confirmed the B2 stealth bomber utilizes multiple elements of Townsend Brown’s gravity manipulating thrusters.  In the B2, the electrically charged leading edge, the high voltage electron generating flame jets, the high capacity dielectric skin of the vehicle, and the asymmetric geometry of the resulting electric field gradient makes it a dead ringer for an electrogravitic craft with a secondary propulsion system.

But this should not be surprising to anyone who has read the Project Winterhaven document from the 1950’s in which Townsend Brown detailed the requirements for a proposed project to develop a similar craft. Other documents from that era by other organizations reveal that the aviation industry was highly interested in mastering gravity for aviation and military applications.

After a period during the late fifties and early sixties in which Townsend Brown’s work went mostly dark and classified, he emerged again only to redirect his focus on petravoltaics – the study of electrical phenomena in certain rocks. At first this may sound odd; such a sudden shift from aviation to one much more “geologic” seems almost bizarre. However, if someone takes the time to look at his notebooks the connection will be revealed. This brilliant theorist and engineer theorized that both the thrust from his electrogravitic devices and the anomalous voltages detected from certain types of rock were both a result of the flow of aether – the primordial substance that fills all space and composes all matter. According to the notebooks written well after his years performing more secretive aviation work, his “gravitators” manipulated the flow of aether. By modifying the movement of the aether, such as perhaps expelling these particles in one direction, he conjectured a gravitational force could be produced in addition to the modification of inertia and other constants. He speculated that rocks composed of minerals with high dielectric potential (such as quartz, granites, or manmade materials such as barium titanate among others) somehow blocked a tiny portion of the aether flux through the earth.

On the large scale, the planet as a whole blocked a large enough portion of the overall flow to produce the macro effect that holds us to the surface. This might be due to higher aether “pressure” outside the Earth pushing downwards towards a zone of lower pressure. On the small scale, the aether flowing through rocks was speculated to knock the occasional electron out of orbit, producing an electrical potential. He measured these potentials (voltages) in various environments including those that were shielded, at high altitude, underground in vaults, and at different times of the day. Although a constant potential was usually present, it would both have “noise” and spike, or drop in relation to the rock’s alignment to other bodies in the solar system.

Today, in the lingo of accepted theoretical physics, the particles that compose the aether are often called electron-positron pairs or “virtual particles.” Many other terms are used as well, but the actual word “aether” is avoided as if it were a magical word that could conjure demonic spawn from the depths of hell.

The concept of an “electron sea” of particles that compose our universe and whose properties define all physical laws is not universally rejected; however, most physicists are extremely cautious about the wording they use.  Despite the fact these modern theories are simply not so original twists on the Maxwellian concept of the aether, the tremendous effort to maintain a deep gulf between the new and old is almost ludicrous – laughable in some instances, nauseating at other times, and often downright infuriating. The frustration becomes especially intense when ideas that tip toe towards the existence of an aether – like pilot wave theory – are rejected with prejudice by pseudo skeptical naysayers. Likewise, the almost total neglect of Don L Hotson’s brilliant composition on the “electron-positron sea” theory of the aether (published by Infinite Energy magazine – see http://blog.hasslberger.com/docs/HotsonIE86.pdf) is beyond confounding to those who understand its simplicity compared to quantum theory.

For many decades, strange objects have been seen flying in our skies. Although in a universe where Earth-sized planets have been discovered by the Kepler Space Telescope to be almost as plentiful as loose popcorn on the floor of a crowded movie theater, there is little doubt that the answer to the Fermi Non-Paradox is that our planet most likely has been visited in the past by extraterrestrial space craft and this visitation likely extends to modern day. The truth is that there could be thousands of totally hypothetical artificial space habitats, each several miles in diameter, in our outer solar system: yet even with the Hubble Space Telescope or the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope mankind would have no way to detect them!

Life is probably everywhere in our universe. Furthermore, with the remarkable convergence of technologies being developed right now by humanity including advanced genetic engineering methods such as CRISPR, LENR, 3D printing, the production of meta materials, and exotic space propulsion technologies, a single technological species with the willpower to do so could spread from their world of origin outwards across the cosmos. Just because human beings as a species tend to fight more often than cooperate, doesn’t mean all extraterrestrial races share the same bad habit. The potential capability of interstellar space travel does not mean that most unknown craft spotted in our skies are extraterrestrial in origin. Most likely, most those that cannot be explained as hoaxes, misidentifications, and natural phenomena are advanced manmade craft utilizing techniques to manipulate the most basic forces such as gravity, mass, and inertia.

A documentary entitled, “Zero Point: The Story of Mark McCandlish and the Fluxliner” can be watched online that describes an alleged “Alien Reproduction Vehicle.” The yet-to-be-empirically-proven-to-exist craft was said to utilize technology derived from extraterrestrial space craft – which interestingly used concepts of both Nikola Tesla’s high voltage coils and Townsend Brown’s gravity modifying capacitors.

Regardless if the claims about the Fluxliner are legitimate or not (the author finds them plausible and deserving of further research), I believe it is almost an absolute certainty that craft based at least partially on the Townsend Brown effect already exist – some of them possibly using technology derived from extraterrestrial sources.

This makes the current semi-open multi-national push to further develop the EM Drive all the more interesting. Also known as the Cannae Drive among other names, these Q-Thrusters utilize conical (asymmetrical) metallic cavities that are fed with frequencies of microwave radiation that are precisely matched to the harmonics or resonance frequencies of the device. If tuned properly – often the frequency must be continually adjusted to contemplate for structural deformations caused by internal pressures or heating of the metal – the entire device will experience a thrust in one direction. The higher the Q factor, roughly related to the number of times the microwaves bounce around the cavity or resonate before being thermalized into heat, the greater the thrust becomes.   Some evidence from test reports already indicate that using super conducting materials may enhance the effect dramatically, increasing the Q factor from the thousands into the millions. In addition, the effect may be non-linear in that at higher power the thrust increases at a higher rate than would be expected.

Many parties are now working on the EM Drive (most do so quietly); several speculative theories about the theoretical principles of the EM Drive have been written (with highly varying ideas); quite a few interesting claims are also bouncing around (both openly and confidentially among interconnected think tanks). The word going around is that some groups are getting very good results: going from millinewtons of thrust per kilowatt to much higher values.

As usual, probably for various reasons, those getting the best results are saying the least publicly. If NASA’s computer simulations are anywhere near correct, a thousand Newtons of force per kilowatt, or more, may be possible. Obviously, the goal would be a system capable of being powered by existing technology with a potential thrust level of one to two Earth gravities (Gs). A system capable of one “G” could hover, while a system capable of two “G” (if the power requirements were not too high) could revolutionize transportation forever. Remember, a one “G” acceleration in space would both create artificial gravity (critical for the human body during space travel) and allow for travel to Mars in perhaps a week depending on the alignment of planets.

The most basic EM Drive capable of such performance could open up the entire solar system for exploration, mining, and colonization. One wonders what we might find in artificial habitats, surviving on the interior of hollowed out asteroids, or swimming around in the sub-surface oceans of Europa. Or perhaps detecting human “traffic” crossing back and forth across the solar system, other civilizations may take note of us and make undeniable contact. At a minimum, humanity will finally be able to expand beyond Earth and take advantage of the vast wealth of our solar system. A fortune beyond measure; single asteroids of precious metals worth trillions of dollars.

But what if the EM Drive is fundamentally something even MORE revolutionary than a reactionless drive – which already has implications on the validity of the law of conservation of energy. If these asymmetrical Q-thrusters (which seem to be a logical variant of the basic Townsend Brown gravitator) are truly manipulating the aether, then they may allow for travel faster than most mainstream physicists (except perhaps NASA’s warp drive theorist Harold White) would consider possible. Consider this possibility: if the aether is the fluid that composes and/or fills all space through which all matter moves, then the density of this medium may be a controlling factor in all physical constants. A craft that creates a bubble in the aether, changes density of the aether, or pushes aether out of the way, may change the speed of light around itself. So, it may not be “breaking” the speed of light as defined by the average density in our region of space (which is modified slightly by gravity). Instead, it’s simply modifying the fabric of space to permit travel at a higher speed. As a cavitating underwater missile produces bubbles to attain high velocities, an evolved “gravitator” like the yet to be totally confirmed Fluxliner, B2 Bomber, or extraterrestrial space craft zipping through our solar system might be thinning out the aether around it.

The whole idea of manipulating the aether with high voltages to manipulate gravity may sound fanciful or downright silly to some individuals. However, the whole concept is indeed probably implausible unless there is some fundamental connection between the “essence” of electricity (which is something deeper than the flow of ordinary electrons in a wire) and the mechanism behind gravity. In fact, such a connection has already been speculated, tested, and reported on. For the sake of brevity, I’ll simply urge you to look at the work done on “longitudinal electromagnetic waves” or “scalar waves” (which are both a bit of a misnomer) due to the fact they represent a form of electromagnetic propagation that is non-transverse, or, simply, non-wave like. Instead of the demonstration of a length of rope being waved up and down to demonstrate a conventional transverse wave, imagine the compression and rarefactions of sound either in air or water. Longitudinal waves are more like “impulses” that propagate as variations in density of the medium. Nikola Tesla demonstrated this type of wave a hundred years ago (although his terminology was different than that used in modern times) and went on to say that there was an unlimited energy source present at every point in the universe than mankind would one day attach its machines to.

Tesla’s exotic electrical demonstrations have been replicated in modern times and even expanded upon. Yet, sadly, the more exotic claims of the man who invented x-rays, alternating current, many of the first electric motors, the first remote controlled vehicle, flat disc turbines, and a slew of other inventions that changed our world are mostly dismissed as senile ravings of a broken, nearly destitute man. The poverty experienced by perhaps the world’s most significant inventor – a true genius perhaps yet to be rivaled – should not be used to negate the significance of the discoveries and breakthroughs made in his final latter years.

The parties working on the EM Drive are perhaps being forced to re-invent the wheel in at least two ways. First, they are without a doubt (in the authors opinion) building systems with many of the same design characteristics as Townsend Brown’s electrogravitic devices. The pulsating non-constant inputs, the asymmetry of the overall device, the greater flux density on one end: the obvious result would be the production of the Bifield-Brown effect. In fact, one could argue that the design of the EM Drive could be sub-optimal. Without an interior di-electric material (except the di-electric constant of space itself) and a design that requires tediously precise engineering and frequency control to achieve resonance, the thrust produced may be less than what could be produced by a more traditional gravitator design utilizing modern materials and electronics. Engineering is all about tradeoffs, however. Therefore, it is also possible that for some performance goals, an optimized EM Drive utilizing microwave radiation may be preferable to an evolved gravitator. To know for certain, you’d either have to design and test both devices or ask those in the military-industrial-corporate complex (which would in today’s world be called the “deep state”) that may have already build flying craft utilizing these principles.

If the Fluxliner is real, if Col. Philip J. Corso’s claims about the Air Force recovering an electrogravitic ET craft at Roswell, NM are true, if Bob Lazar’s statements about his work at Area 51 are valid, if the B2 stealth bomber does more with its positive leading edge than reduce aerodynamic drag, or any of a long series of testimony’s by seemingly convincing professionals are true, then all the answers to our questions about how to produce reactionless (possibly faster than light) propulsion that cancels inertia – maybe to stop occupants from being crushed during sharp turns or hard accelerations – already exist. And this leads to the heart, soul, and center of this essay.

I can’t help but wonder if deep down – perhaps only in thoughts they’d never utter out loud due to fear of ridicule – if the current developers of the EM Drive and related reactionless drives (perhaps not truly reactionless if aether is being pushed around) are having these same thoughts. Anyone who has considered the possibility of such propulsion schemes must have come across the work of Townsend Brown at some point. But how well did they review his work? Have they compared his ideas about the aether and gravity to similar concepts discussed by Tesla, Don L. Hotson, Hal Puthoff, and a number of other researchers? What do they think about the possibility – or near certainty to some of us – that they are being cruely and unfairly forced to re-invent a technology that should have been openly disclosed to all humanity many decades ago? If they are approached by aerospace companies or governments, do they dare summon the courage to ask about the B2 Stealth bomber, the Fluxliner, or the whole subject of possible retrieved extraterrestrial space craft? And if they find out that the EM Drive is truly redundant compared to what has already been secretly built, do they rise up and demand the truth be revealed to all humanity?

I want the answers to these questions for many reasons. One in particular is that I have an idea that I’ll humbly describe as a hypothesis, but I feel very strongly about after the years of armchair reading and research I’ve conducted on these topics. My personal opinion – which makes more sense to me than anything else I can come up with – is that all the suppression of these concepts (the secrecy, the coverups, the threats, the classifications of patents, etc) has been about keeping the knowledge of the AETHER under wraps. That’s right: although other side issues may influence the various sub-groups of the “powers that be” who manage these issues, keeping the properties of the aether hidden is their number one top priority.

As far as I’m concerned, humanity can’t truly grasp, understand, engineer, and connect our technology to Tesla’s “wheelwork” of nature until the fundamental nature of the aether is revealed. This universal medium, which was conceived very early on by the first electrodynamicists such as Maxwell (before his equations were gutted and generations of scientists stigmatized the concept), is the key to unlocking every force of nature.

Modifying gravity, manipulating inertia, extracting unlimited free energy, transmuting elements, resetting the speed of light around a traveling vehicle, communicating at superluminal speeds: all this and more will be nearly as simple as designing a typical electric motor is today once we completely understand the properties of the aether. Moreover, upon doing so, we’ll likely run into countless other species who’ve also developed similar technology. These civilizations, some of which may be far different and some whom may be eerily similar in some ways to our own, may even have precious information to convey to us about our creator – the one singular GOD that spoke the aether into existence.

Thus, we’ll learn more about our spiritual nature – the fact we have eternal souls that transcend all physical reality (even the aether) which can carry each of us one day to the realm where our creator dwells. Billions of galaxies, trillions of stars, countless planets, unspeakable numbers of worlds with intelligent and sentient life that Jehovah may have contacted. A larger vast reality that could provide hope, clarity, and purpose to all mankind.


A universal building block of reality enabling supreme technology.


A universal community of infinite diversity in infinite combinations to share our existence with.

A universal, singular deity for all spirit endowed sentient life to guide and direct us towards the next life to come.

So will the EM Drive and related emerging technologies be used as a sharp sword to slice open the membrane between the greater reality we live in and the more mundane materialistic pop-culture world which is used to keep us enslaved and ignorant? If so, in the next many months or years, our universe could become a much more inspiring and hopeful place that could start the process of bringing humanity together. Not in a New World Order or a universal government, but a collection of independent completely sovereign nation states that decide together that war is a tragic waste, secrecy on these topics impedes the progress of our species, and that cooperation for the betterment of all humanity – individually and collectively – is the only rational path forward.

  • FC

    I ❤️ ECW

    Awesome posts,
    civilized community,
    intelligent comments.

    Thanks for making it happen, Frank.

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Great post! Two years ago, I was thinking that the Mitsubishi transmutation device might be working like a TT Brown capacitor and reducing the coulomb barrier by increasing gravity. http://disq.us/p/1000xor http://coldfusionnow.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Iwamura-transmutation-1.jpg

  • Richard Hill

    from wikipedia….
    Eugene Podkletnov is a Russian ceramics engineer known for his claims made in the 1990s of designing and demonstrating gravity shielding devices consisting of rotating discs constructed from ceramic superconducting materials. … a 1996 phone interview, during a 1992 experiment with a rotating superconducting disc:.

    • Rex

      Podkletnov hasn’t managed to replicate that experiment in two decades, and neither have plenty of top labs despite many attempts. The effect seen was almost certainly experimental error. I’ve read interviews where he even states that himself.

    • Chapman

      I am torn between the desire to engage in a discussion regarding the basic faults of QM and The Standard Model, versus respecting the fact that this article, and therefore this thread generally, was focused on the specific issue of the physics of the EM Drive.

      As is stated in the article, the potential reality of the EM Drive requires a reconsideration of a good chunk of current scientific dogma. I find it difficult to separate the two topics, and I can not figure out how to discuss one without going off on a diatribe about the other.

      Should this thread evolve, on its own, into a deeper look at the PHYSICS, then I will heartily follow the lead of others and join in. But for now I will show restraint, and not influence the intellectual arc of this discussion.

      • Chapman

        I stand corrected. I have fully delved into the working principals of the EM Drive, thanks to RADVAR, and I have to tell you, I see NO conflict between the EM Drive and ANY of the prevailing scientific doctrines. I am a firm believer that there is a problem with the Standard Model and QM, but the EM Drive requires no rethinking in order to support it’s function.

        The EM Drive is as VALID in a QM universe as it is in one with an Aether. Photon’s, weather waves OR particles, will behave the same way within the thrust chamber, and impart the identical thrust vector.

        So I applaud the EM Drive as a device (it is ingenious), but I can not claim it is proof that modern science has anything figured wrong…

    • Zephir

      New EMdrive theory https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316650291_Testing_quantised_inertia_on_emdrives_with_dielectrics

      The general line of reasoning of EMDrive thrust of MiHsC is as follows: The deceleration of microwaves can be calculated like the c2 /diameter of universe. The cavity itself is accelerated in extent which is smaller by ratio of total mass of microwaves and total mass of cavity. The microwaves in the cavity have a mass (given m=E/c2 ) of 10-20 kg (roughly), whereas the cavity may be 10 kg, so the acceleration of the cavity to conserve momentum can be 10-21 times smaller, which is about 10-3 m/s2, implying an accelerating force (F=ma) in the range of few microNewtons.

      The mass of photons within cavity can be estimated from time, during which the photons dissipate in EMDrive, which can be calculated like the T = distance of photons / speed of light = Qfactor x CavityLength / c. During it the mass corresponding the E_input/c2 gets dissipated: m = Input_pPower x T / c2. The results are given bellow and they’re in good agreement with the above model:

      comparison of MiHsC with EMDrive experimental data https://i.imgur.com/8L492f5.jpg

  • georgehants

    Thank you Frank and of course Henry Black, one chooses there path to enlightenment. (or not)
    First hint of ‘life after death’ in biggest ever scientific study

    • FC

      Thanks for the link, George. Very interesting.
      You may enjoy reading about Anita Moorjani, or watching her interviews:
      It’s another inexplicable case of complete awareness during a several hours long coma.

      • georgehants

        FC, many thanks, the TRUTH is out there but in most cases we only have the blind or the selfish leading the blind.

  • Zephir
  • Rex

    Hoagland is a quack who believes there are glass castles on the moon and a face on Mars.

  • Henry Black


    In the 1920’s Thomas Townsend Brown was producing thrust levels per kilowatt (at high voltages and low amperages) equal to these. Then, over the next couple decades, he demonstrated very heavy metal discs tethered to poles flying at high speed. He also performed many of the tests under oil or in atmosphere to prove not all of the effect was ionic wind. We’ve had high powered asymmetrical capacitor thrustors like the EM Drive for a long time. If the military industrial complex had not classified them, we would be seeing them today in our airports.

    The EM Drive is just a new twist on the same effect.

  • Josh G

    Nice article with much food for thought. I have also read a great deal about the aether and so-called anti-gravity technology such as that of T.T. Brown or Podketnov. What I have finally come to understand is that the name “anti-gravity” (or “gravity-shielding”) is a misnomer. The force we experience as gravity is the composite of two separate forces: one is the force of gravity, which is an acceleration, and the other is the force of what Miles Mathis calls the “charge field.”

    In his theory, the “charge field” takes the place of the so-called “ether,” and whereas the ether has been theorized as a quasi-mystic source of virtual particles and virtual energy, the charge field is composed of real photons that have real presence, mass, and movement in the universe. Charge photons are constantly being pumped through matter and emitted. On the Earth, this emission runs basically from the center and surface of the earth upwards, generating a force up, which runs counter the force down of gravity. Newton’s famous gravity equation is in fact already a unified field equation that calculates the compound force created by these “up” and “down” (or really, “out” and “in”) forces.

    If you were to replace “the charge field” everywhere you write “the aether,” then I agree with almost everything here, especially the notion that keeping the properties of the charge field hidden is “their” number one top priority. (I am not convinced though that “flying saucer” technology is alien in origin, but I would not rule it out.)

    Mathis’s insights into the charge field has many, many implications with respect anti-gravity, the EM-Drive, electro-gravitics, gravity shielding, etc, not to mention LENR itself. Here are some relevant papers on these topics:

    On how the charge field generates lift:


    (And related: http://milesmathis.com/heat2.pdf)

    On the unified field created created by gravity and charge:


    On so-called “gravity shielding”:


    On the Cavendish experiment:


    On how so-called dark matter/energy is simply the charge field:


    Here are two papers of his on how his theory relates to the aether:



    And my paper on Mathisian Physics and LENR:


  • Kevmo

    I love seeing renewed interest in Thomas Townsend Brown. In the early 1950’s he demonstrated his devices to an Air Force General and subsequently the entire field of electrogravitics was classified.

    Several years later, Brown was a signatory member of NICAP, which studied the UFO phenomena. What most people don’t realize is that almost everyone on the NICAP board was either a CIA agent, CIA or DIA asset.

    My theory is that Brown’s work was brought to (very expensive) fruition and that he was placed on NICAP to make sure that no one else could follow the trail of technological breadcrumbs.

    We should start to see some of this technology trickle down into mainstream use now that the military has had a 60 year head start.

    • Chapman

      I understand about conservation of momentum. I see it repeatedly cited as the proof that the EM Drive is impossible. It seems many who have denounced the drive mechanics do so solely as a knee jerk reaction based upon this single axiomatic principal. But does it really apply? What are the boundaries of the closed system being examined?

      I do not really care, in this regard, whether you believe that space is an Aether, a field, a void, or nothing at all. The fact is that it is a participant, and the boundaries of IT extend far beyond the thruster body.

      The moment a photon is emitted, it is disconnected from the source. There is no residual force or compression or interaction with the particle that emitted it. THAT photon “propagates” against a backdrop that is not moving WITH the source. That single photon moves at a speed that is constrained by the space it is moving through. That is WHY there is a constant speed of light. You dropped off the kids, now they are on their own! That “space” within the thruster IS connected to the “Space” outside. SPACE bridges the in to the out, so to speak.

      There IS conservation of momentum, because the momentum is always within the system. They just fail to see how big the system is. Electrons in a battery have the momentum first. The electrons move to a wire, then on to the Magnetron. Momentum is transferred from the electrons, to a magnetic field, to emitted microwave photons. Those photons couple with space, and transit the span between emitter and wall while riding that space like the moving sidewalk between the A and B concourse at the Phoenix Airport. The total momentum from MANY of these individual reflection events is transferred to the walls of the thrust chamber (asymmetrically). The BALANCED portion of that total momentum is thermalized back to random momentum in the molecules of the thruster body as heat, while the IMBALANCED portion of that momentum creates a vectored momentum, and subsequent lateral motion of the thruster AGAINST, and RELATIVE TO that same static SPACE the photon was coupled to in transit.

      As Engineer reminded me, the Photons in question adjust for the loss of ENERGY not by a change in velocity, nor a change in “mass”, but by a drop of frequency. So, working photons experience a sequential redshifting as they exhaust themselves in the labor of this momentum bucket brigade.

      It is the refusal to accept that SPACE is an integral mechanical part of the system in question that leaves some claiming that the 2nd law is violated.

      Not only does SR not prohibit the EM Drive function, it damn well DEMANDS it! It relates to the very NATURE and CAUSE of the constancy of the Speed of Light.

  • interstellar hobo

    Biefield-Brown effect is understood and has nothing to do with emdrive. Emdrive seems to work in vacuum. Townsend Brown lifters do NOT work in vacuum.

  • Rene

    The latest careful testing, using a null test where power is applied and no microwaves are emitted, showed thrust. It’s turning out to be interaction of the power cables and residual or geomagnetic magnetism. All the thrust measurements are in the noise of that mundane effect. This elegant bit of null testing suggests that the thrust measurements are inconclusive. It also shows that shielding is required to remove that ancillary interaction. Until far more thrust can be demonstrated above the new noise floor, the em-drive is not proven to do anything.


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