Brilliant Light Power’s Initial Commercial Launch to be a “Thermal” SunCell

The following post has been submitted by Dr. Mike

Brilliant Light Power’s Initial Commercial Launch to be a “Thermal” SunCell

5/21/2017

According to Brilliant Light Power’s website:  https://brilliantlightpower.com/ , their initial commercial launch will now be a “thermal” SunCell with the electrical SunCell based on concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells to follow sometime later.  (Their new plan can be found in the “MONTHLY BRIEFING” section as “May 2017” here: http://brilliantlightpower.com/wp-content/uploads/presentations/May-2017-Briefing-Presentation.pdf.)
Many that have reviewed Brilliant Light Power’s plan for their SunCell development were asking why they didn’t first develop a device that just produces heat.  Although I haven’t seen their plan for connecting the SunCell to a heat exchanger or boiler system, an initial system that delivers heat rather than electricity using CPV cells should eliminate most if not all of the illumination uniformity problems that could adversely affect the output of the CPV cells.  Also, even at 3000ºK the illumination intensity would have been more than 1.5 times higher than the rating of most existing multi-junction CPV cells. Designing, fabricating, and verifying the reliability of CPV cells with a higher intensity rating may have delayed the commercial introduction of an electrical SunCell.
The engineering issues in building the prototype thermal SunCell should be mostly involved with automating the operation of the SunCell by adding sensors and control systems and incorporating a heat exchanger into the design.  However, there may be an issue with the thickness of the graphite blackbody radiator that limits high temperature operation (assuming my calculations are correct).  Although graphite would be considered a fairly good heat conductor at room temperature, its thermal conductivity falls to about 30W/m/ºK (0.3W/cm/ºK) at temperatures in the 3000ºK-3500ºK range.  The temperature difference from the inner to outer surface of the graphite sphere would depend on the thickness of the graphite, which does not appear to be specified on BLP’s website.  From a picture of the graphite sphere on the BLP website it appears that the flange on each half of the graphite sphere is about ½ inches (~1.2cm) thick.  For my initial calculation I will assume that the graphite sphere thickness is about ½ of the flange thickness (0.6cm). The temperature difference between the inside surface of the graphite sphere and the outer surface can be calculated as:

Delta T = P / A * RI / RO * (RO – RI) / κ

Where:

Delta T = the inner to outer temperature difference of the graphite sphere

                      P = the radiative outer power at 3000ºK (330000W)

A = Area of the 6” (15.24cm) diameter sphere (729.7cm2)

RO = outer graphite sphere radius (7.62 cm)

RI = inner graphite sphere radius (7.02cm)

and κ = thermal conductivity of graphite at ~3000ºK (0.3W/cm/ºK)

Delta T = 330000 / 729.7 * 7.02 / 7.62 * (7.62 – 7.02) / 0.3 = 982ºK

To achieve an outer temperature of 3000ºK the inner temperature would have to be 3982ºK (very near the 4000ºK sublimation temperature for graphite) to get sufficient heat flow across the 0.6cm thickness of the graphite sphere.  It seems likely that the thickness of the graphite sphere will be less than 0.6cm to prevent sublimation of the inner graphite surface.  If the graphite thickness is only 0.5 cm thick, the inner graphite sphere temperature would only need to be 3807ºK to support the 330000W heat flow out of a 3000ºK 6-inch diameter graphite blackbody radiator.  This might be enough temperature margin for operating the graphite blackbody radiator at an outer temperature of 3000ºK without concerns about the inner surface subliming.  BLP also has plans for raising the outer graphite blackbody radiator temperature to 3500ºK which would have a radiative output heat flow of about 620000W.  Assuming my calculations are correct, the thickness of the graphite would have to be reduced to about 0.1cm (1mm) to keep the inner surface temperature below 3800ºK.  While the a graphite thickness of 0.5cm seems doable, it seems that it would be difficult to build a structurally sound graphite sphere that is only 1mm thick even if an effort is made to balance the pressures internal and external to the graphite sphere.  It appears that it may be very difficult to achieve a 3500ºK outer temperature on a 6-inch diameter graphite blackbody radiator.

One simple solution to achieve the ~620000W thermal output in a Thermal SunCell would be to increase the size of the graphite blackbody radiator and perhaps even reduce the blackbody temperature.  For example, if the graphite sphere size were increased to 10 inches in diameter (25.4cm) then a radiative output power of ~700000W could be achieved at an operating temperature of just 2800ºK.  The graphite thickness could be 0.8cm thick with the inner sphere temperature kept just a little below 3800ºK; or by reducing the graphite thickness to 0.5cm, the inner surface temperature would only be about 3400ºK (very good margin to prevent sublimation of the graphite). The only problem with this approach to achieving higher thermal output is that this solution would not work for the electrical SunCell without greatly increasing the size (and cost) of the CPV array.

Although there still remain some engineering issues to be resolved on a “thermal” SunCell, it certainly appears that Brilliant Light Power will be able to get a Thermal SunCell to the market much faster than would be possible with an electrical version using CPV cells.  This device should be a direct competitor with all LENR technologies.

 

Dr. Mike

  • Piper

    How would an operating pressure of 1000 kPa at 3000ºK alter the graphite sublimation issue–4350 kPa at a 3500ºK?

  • Anon2012_2014

    “Although there still remain some engineering issues to be resolved on a “thermal” SunCell, it certainly appears that Brilliant Light Power will be able to get a Thermal SunCell to the market much faster than would be possible with an electrical version using CPV cells. ”

    Disagree. There is no information in the briefing about timing to market. There is no open demo at all. We don’t even know if the “500 kW” plasma is a sequence of nanosecond sparks of much lower average power. Instead, we (and BLP) have a lot of hope that it works and that the output is significant. I’ve been following BLP for 5 years and I have no more information other than knowledge that their public designs are much different than the designs 5 years ago. I wish them luck but I believe they remain speculative until they actually do a public demo.

  • Anon2012_2014

    “Although there still remain some engineering issues to be resolved on a “thermal” SunCell, it certainly appears that Brilliant Light Power will be able to get a Thermal SunCell to the market much faster than would be possible with an electrical version using CPV cells. ”

    Disagree. There is no information in the briefing about timing to market. There is no open demo at all. We don’t even know if the “500 kW” plasma is a sequence of nanosecond sparks of much lower average power. Instead, we (and BLP) have a lot of hope that it works and that the output is significant. I’ve been following BLP for 5 years and I have no more information other than knowledge that their public designs are much different than the designs 5 years ago. I wish them luck but I believe they remain speculative until they actually do a public demo.

    • Dr. Mike

      BLP has kept changing plans over the last many years. However, they did have a plan to build a prototype SunCell by the middle of this year (we are nearly there) using a single junction cell that wouldn’t put out much power, but would demonstrate proof of concept. I still believe they can deal with the inherent non-uniformity in the output illumination intensity (probably mostly due to the center flange) by converting the output to heat rather than electricity using CPV cells. I also didn’t see a time line for the Thermal SunCell, but I will be disappointed if BLP does not have a prototypes running by late this year.

      • Anon2012_2014

        OK let’s let the clock run and see what happens by December with BLP.

    • hhiram

      Agreed. Design iterations are understandable, but we still have no conclusive demonstration of over-unity results after 15+ years of tinkering and promises.

      BLP/Mills has the same fundamental problem as Leonardo/Rossi: they think they need to create a market-ready product on a shoestring budget. It’s silly. Just create an actual working prototype that achieves clear and incontrovertible over-unity LENR, and a hundred companies will beat a.path to your door to give you billions of investment dollars, which you can *then* use to hire a real team and make a real product.

      So why not? Sadly, the obvious answer is that they are not actually able to make such a prototype…

  • Axil Axil

    Regarding:
    “Also, even at 3000ºK the illumination intensity would have been more than 1.5 times higher than the rating of most existing multi-junction CPV cells. Designing, fabricating, and verifying the reliability of CPV cells with a higher intensity rating may have delayed the commercial introduction of an electrical SunCell.”

    The solution to this issue is to make the surface area of the sphere that holds the solar cells 1.5 times greater and add proportionally more solar cells using the expanded area.

    This is how the inverse square law can be used to reduce the intensity of the light that falls on the solar cells to optimize the energy conversion profile of those cells.

    This issue is so simple to solve that I must be missing something???

    • Dr. Mike

      You are not missing anything. The cost of the CPV array is such a big fraction of the total system cost that BLP was trying to minimize the cost of the CPV array by making it as small as possible. My guess is that if they had trouble acquiring CPV cells that were usable to about 200W/cm2, their fallback plan would be to increase the size of the array to reduce the illumination power density to something like 100-120W/cm2 even if this increased the cost of the array by 50% or more.

  • Axil Axil

    Regarding:
    “Also, even at 3000ºK the illumination intensity would have been more than 1.5 times higher than the rating of most existing multi-junction CPV cells. Designing, fabricating, and verifying the reliability of CPV cells with a higher intensity rating may have delayed the commercial introduction of an electrical SunCell.”

    The solution to this issue is to make the surface area of the sphere that holds the solar cells 1.5 times greater and add proportionally more solar cells using the expanded area.

    This is how the inverse square law can be used to reduce the intensity of the light that falls on the solar cells to optimize the energy conversion profile of those cells.

    This issue is so simple to solve that I must be missing something???

    • Dr. Mike

      You are not missing anything. The cost of the CPV array is such a big fraction of the total system cost that BLP was trying to minimize the cost of the CPV array by making it as small as possible. My guess is that if they had trouble acquiring CPV cells that were usable to about 200W/cm2, their fallback plan would be to increase the size of the array to reduce the illumination power density to something like 100-120W/cm2 even if this increased the cost of the array by 50% or more.

      • hhiram

        No offense, but the idea that this design should be constrained by the cost of PV cells is pretty crazy. They simply aren’t that expensive relative to the value of a basically self-sustaining magical energy device.

        • Omega Z

          It is not that simple. I posted about this a year ago that even if Mills has what he claims, harnessing that energy will be problematic.

          Imagine a basketball sized sphere even at 30% efficient will have limited surface area and limited energy conversion. Doubling the size of the sphere increases the surface area, but as you move farther from the light source you collect less energy. You lose the intensity.

          Probably PV cells will need a complete rethink and in addition there will be a lot of heat to disapate. Possibly, they’ll overcome this hurdle in a year. Or 10. Regardless, they probably wont be your daddies PV cells.

          • Dr. Mike

            CPV cells are available that will convert up to 40% of the illumination up to intensities of 100-120W/cm2. However, The proposed CPV array of the SunCell would probably be able to convert 10-15% of the generated energy into electricity, leaving 85-90% of the energy to be lost in cooling the CPV cells (as explained in my 1/31/2017 post). I think that BLP should be able to come up with a system that produces a high fraction of the generated energy if they come up with a good design for capturing the heat from the SunCell.

        • Dr. Mike

          I agree. I don’t understand why BLP was pushing the technology of the CPV cells in the original design. My assumption is that it was to make the system look less expensive on paper, but that is only my guess.

  • Axil Axil

    The graphite sphere problem could be eliminated by replacing it with a translucent boron nitride(BN) sphere. This would end hydrogen and silver vapor leakage, and deterioration of carbon over time. Rare earth elements are hydrino inert. Therefore, rare earth elements can be added to the hydrogen where their vapor will convert (downshift) the X-Ray and XUV light to the visible light range as is done in florescent lights. A double walled BN translucent shell can insulate the solar cell array by confining a vacuum between the shell walls removing the need for a coolant cycle and associated equipment.

    • Dr. Mike

      What power density and spectrum would the CPV cells see for this type of set-up? Do you think the efficiency of converting X-ray and XUV light to the visible spectrum would be high enough to achieve a higher system efficiency than using the graphite blackbody radiator? The CPV cells would still need some cooling unless this spectral output was just the 3 wavelengths that match the 3 band gap energies in a triple layer CPV cell.

      • Axil Axil

        See my posts above on this thread. The use of ceramics and rare earths can increase efficiencies of light frequency conversions by a huge percentage.

        This comparison is why a florescent light and LEDs can produce light at a high efficiency than an incandescent light where most of its heat result in heat production.

  • Axil Axil

    The graphite sphere problem could be eliminated by replacing it with a translucent boron nitride(BN) sphere. This would end hydrogen and silver vapor leakage, and deterioration of carbon over time. Rare earth elements are hydrino inert. Therefore, rare earth elements can be added to the hydrogen where their vapor will convert (downshift) the X-Ray and XUV light to the visible light range as is done in florescent lights. A double walled BN translucent shell can insulate the solar cell array by confining a vacuum between the shell walls removing the need for a coolant cycle and associated equipment.

    • Dr. Mike

      What power density and spectrum would the CPV cells see for this type of set-up? Do you think the efficiency of converting X-ray and XUV light to the visible spectrum would be high enough to achieve a higher system efficiency than using the graphite blackbody radiator? The CPV cells would still need some cooling unless this spectral output was just the 3 wavelengths that match the 3 band gap energies in a triple layer CPV cell.

      • Axil Axil

        See my posts above on this thread. The use of ceramics and rare earths can increase efficiencies of light frequency conversions by a huge percentage.

        This comparison is why a florescent light and LEDs can produce light at a high efficiency than an incandescent light where most of its heat result in heat production.

  • Anon2012_2014

    OK let’s let the clock run and see what happens by December with BLP.

  • Dr. Mike

    The higher pressure has to be favorable for reducing the sublimation rate at a given temperature. Since the ~4000K sublimation temperature is for a pressure of 100kPa, I would expect the sublimation temperature might be 100-300K higher at 1000kPa and maybe an additional 100K or so higher at 4350kPa. It would be good is someone could find any actual data on the effect of pressure on the sublimation temperature of graphite.

  • Samec

    Dr. Mike knows that most important parameter is CoP. Because he is silent about CoP, so there is some unresolved technical flaw in BLP tech.
    If Dr. Mike not agree with my words, please publish CoP of this BLP miracle tech.

    • Dr. Mike

      Mills claims that his device gets 200 imes the energy out of hydrogen that could be obtained by burning hydrogen. He has also stated that he can produce hydrogen by electrolysis (the reverse process of burning hydrogen) at a 85% efficiency. Therefore, the maximum theoretical COP of his SunCell is 200 * 0.85 = 170. Some energy will be needed for running the cooling pumps, water pumps, and control systems so I would estimate an overall COP of 100-150 should be attainable.

    • Dr. Mike

      Cooling pumps below should be “silver pumps”.

  • Gerard McEk

    What a brilliant idea. Dr. Mills seems difficult to pursuade to a more easy and simple approach and proving the concept practically, but finally got the light. Hopefully we see a simple test soon to prove the SunCell’s concept.

  • Gerard McEk

    What a brilliant idea. Dr. Mills seems difficult to pursuade to a more easy and simple approach and proving the concept practically, but finally got the light. Hopefully we see a simple test soon to prove the SunCell’s concept.

    • Well, there IS the aspect that he has to get the solar manufacturers on board doing development that accommodates his SunCell, and this development does not happen without someone spending time and money to pay engineers to do the work necessary. Had he gone straight to thermal the cPV folks would not have seen the potential for any return on monies spent …

  • Omega Z

    It is not that simple. I posted about this a year ago that even if Mills has what he claims, harnessing that energy will be problematic.

    Imagine a basketball sized sphere even at 30% efficient will have limited surface area and limited energy conversion. Doubling the size of the sphere increases the surface area, but as you move farther from the light source you collect less energy. You lose the intensity.

    Probably PV cells will need a complete rethink and in addition there will be a lot of heat to disapate. Possibly, they’ll overcome this hurdle in a year. Or 10. Regardless, they probably wont be your daddies PV cells.

    • Dr. Mike

      CPV cells are available that will convert up to 40% of the illumination up to intensities of 100-120W/cm2. However, The proposed CPV array of the SunCell would probably be able to convert 10-15% of the generated energy into electricity, leaving 85-90% of the energy to be lost in cooling the CPV cells (as explained in my 1/31/2017 post). I think that BLP should be able to come up with a system that produces a high fraction of the generated energy if they come up with a good design for capturing the heat from the SunCell.

  • Leonard Weinstein

    The idea of using a graphite dome at >2500K misses the point that the vapor pressure of graphite is very high even at modest temperatures. Even though it’s melting temperature is very high (higher than Tungsten) it’s vapor pressure is much higher than Tungsten at these temperatures, and sublimation is a real problem. At 3000K a recovery cycle like a halogen cycle would be needed to prevent rapid failure. A thin Tungsten dome is the best solution, and there may be treatments to increase emissivity.

    • Dr. Mike

      Do you have any graphs showing the sublimation rate of graphite as a function of operating pressure? If so, would you post or reference those graphs? I think you may be right in that a thin W dome with some means of enhancing emissivity might be a reasonable replacement for the graphite blackbody radiator, even if the operating temperature has to be lowered somewhat. Do you know if tungsten is compatible with the molten silver?

      • Dr. Mike

        See figure 15 on page 10 of the following document to see the effect of pressure on the sublimation of graphite:

        http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/719722.pdf

      • Leonard Weinstein

        The vapor pressure of elements can be easily found as a simple web search. Curves or equations are shown on many sites including wikipedia. In the range of interest, the vapor pressure (in vacuum) of graphite is over 1000 times as large as for Tungsten (which is the lowest vapor pressure in that range). Calculations for both show that the graphite shell would evaporate in just a few weeks in vacuum, while Tungsten would last over 1000 times longer. Presence of gas slows the evaporation, but at realistic pressures, only a modest multiple of time. The vapor coating solar cells would be a problem very quickly unless a partition with removal of coating (halogen cycle) were used, even with Tungsten. The temperature will be limited, and the presence of a gas also loses energy by conduction, so the optimistic claims are high for a valid system.

        • US_Citizen71

          One of Axil’s recent posts on Muons got me to do a little Googling and I encountered this on the Muon wikipedia page https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon :

          “Negative muon atoms[edit]
          Negative muons can, however, form muonic atoms (previously called mu-mesic atoms), by replacing an electron in ordinary atoms. Muonic hydrogen atoms are much smaller than typical hydrogen atoms because the much larger mass of the muon gives it a much more localized ground-state wavefunction than is observed for the electron. In multi-electron atoms, when only one of the electrons is replaced by a muon, the size of the atom continues to be determined by the other electrons, and the atomic size is nearly unchanged. However, in such cases the orbital of the muon continues to be smaller and far closer to the nucleus than the atomic orbitals of the electrons.

          Muonic helium is created by substituting a muon for one of the electrons in helium-4. The muon orbits much closer to the nucleus, so muonic helium can therefore be regarded like an isotope of helium whose nucleus consists of two neutrons, two protons and a muon, with a single electron outside. Colloquially, it could be called “helium 4.1″, since the mass of the muon is slightly greater than 0.1 amu. Chemically, muonic helium, possessing an unpaired valence electron, can bond with other atoms, and behaves more like a hydrogen atom than an inert helium atom.[11][12][13]

          Muonic heavy hydrogen atoms with a negative muon may undergo nuclear fusion in the process of muon-catalyzed fusion, after the muon may leave the new atom to induce fusion in another hydrogen molecule. This process continues until the negative muon is trapped by a helium atom, and cannot leave until it decays.

          Finally, a possible fate of negative muons bound to conventional atoms is that they are captured by the weak-force by protons in nuclei in a sort of electron-capture-like process. When this happens, the proton becomes a neutron and a muon neutrino is emitted.”

          Sure sounds an awful lot like Mills’ Hydrino. Is the Sun Cell actually creating Muons and therefore generating heat via Muon catalyzed fusion?

  • Leonard Weinstein

    The idea of using a graphite dome at >2500K misses the point that the vapor pressure of graphite is very high even at modest temperatures. Even though it’s melting temperature is very high (higher than Tungsten) it’s vapor pressure is much higher than Tungsten at these temperatures, and sublimation is a real problem. At 3000K a recovery cycle like a halogen cycle would be needed to prevent rapid failure. A thin Tungsten dome is the best solution, and there may be treatments to increase emissivity.

    • Dr. Mike

      Do you have any graphs showing the sublimation rate of graphite as a function of operating pressure? If so, would you post or reference those graphs? I think you may be right in that a thin W dome with some means of enhancing emissivity might be a reasonable replacement for the graphite blackbody radiator, even if the operating temperature has to be lowered somewhat. Do you know if tungsten is compatible with the molten silver?

      • Dr. Mike

        See figure 15 on page 10 of the following document to see the effect of pressure on the sublimation of graphite:

        http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/719722.pdf

      • Leonard Weinstein

        The vapor pressure of elements can be easily found as a simple web search. Curves or equations are shown on many sites including wikipedia. In the range of interest, the vapor pressure (in vacuum) of graphite is over 1000 times as large as for Tungsten (which is the lowest vapor pressure in that range). Calculations for both show that the graphite shell would evaporate in just a few weeks in vacuum, while Tungsten would last over 1000 times longer. Presence of gas slows the evaporation, but at realistic pressures, only a modest multiple of time. The vapor coating solar cells would be a problem very quickly unless a partition with removal of coating (halogen cycle) were used, even with Tungsten. The temperature will be limited, and the presence of a gas also loses energy by conduction, so the optimistic claims are high for a valid system.

    • pangoo

      I think Mills has stated that the graphite dome has a coating of some sort. Could be to prevent sublimation.

  • Scott Beach

    Axil Axil proposed using a boron nitride sphere instead of a graphite sphere. I suggest using an inner boron nitride sphere and an outer graphite sphere, with a 1/2″ gap between the two spheres, filled with argon gas. The gas would be heated by the operation of the Suncell. The heated gas could drive a piston or a turbine to generate electricity.

  • Dr. Mike

    Mills claims that his device gets 200 imes the energy out of hydrogen that could be obtained by burning hydrogen. He has also stated that he can produce hydrogen by electrolysis (the reverse process of burning hydrogen) at a 85% efficiency. Therefore, the maximum theoretical COP of his SunCell is 200 * 0.85 = 170. Some energy will be needed for running the cooling pumps, water pumps, and control systems so I would estimate an overall COP of 100-150 should be attainable.

  • Dr. Mike

    Cooling pumps below should be “silver pumps”.

  • Dr. Mike

    I agree. I don’t understand why BLP was pushing the technology of the CPV cells in the original design. My assumption is that it was to make the system look less expensive on paper, but that is only my guess.

  • Zephir

    The utilization of SunCell energy with solar cells was nonsense from its very beginning

    • enantiomer2000

      how so?

      • Zephir

        Solar cells would utilize only fraction of energy and they must be cooled heavily for to survive – some cooling and recuperation of waste heat would be necessary anyway. After then it’s more advantageous to utilize all energy in form of heat instead of light.

        • enantiomer2000

          So drive some kind of a steam engine? I think that Mills argument was that the process is so energetic that you can just dump the extra heat and that doesn’t matter.

          • Svein Arild Utne

            To generate
            electricity with steam engine an generator is a very expensive way of producing
            electricity. I think Mills calculate the cost of producing electricity from CPV
            will be much lower.

        • Dr. Mike

          This isn’t the case of utilizing the energy as heat vs. light; it’s utilizing the energy as heat vs. electricity. It is probably true that you will always be able to get more heat energy out of the SunCell than electricity, but there will be many applications where electricity is needed, not heat. I think an electrical version of the SunCell will find some use if it can eventually achieve something like a 20% conversion efficiency of available output energy to electricity.

      • Axil Axil

        http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/images/content/29z.jpg

        Note that at 3000K, a black body radiator will convert most of the energy it emits as infrared radiation. It is true that the SunCell reaction produce loads of energy as XUV but the carbon sphere converts most of that energy to infrared radiation thus wasting most of that light energy.

        • Dr. Mike

          The curves look a little better if you plot total energy vs wavelength rater than intensity vs. wavelength. Properly designed CPV cells should be able to convert ~40% of the available energy in the 3000K spectrum to electricity, However, in the SunCell the uniformity and the area coverage factors will probably reduce the system efficiency to 10-20%. These radiation curves are a good argument for starting with a “thermal” SunCell.

        • Dr. Mike

          If the mechanical strength of your proposed composite structure was higher than the two thin shells by themselves, it might be possible to achieve a higher thermal conductance with the composite structure. If the graphite foam adds nothing to the structural strength, then the optimum thickness of the foam graphite would be zero. If the foam does add mechanical strength, it is a material that BLP should investigate.

  • Zephir

    The utilization of SunCell energy with solar cells was nonsense from its very beginning

    • enantiomer2000

      how so?

      • Zephir

        Solar cells would utilize only fraction of energy and they must be cooled heavily for to survive – some cooling and recuperation of waste heat would be necessary anyway. After then it’s more advantageous to utilize all energy in form of heat instead of light.

        • enantiomer2000

          So drive some kind of a steam engine? I think that Mills argument was that the process is so energetic that you can just dump the extra heat and that doesn’t matter.

          • Svein Arild Utne

            To generate
            electricity with steam engine an generator is a very expensive way of producing
            electricity. I think Mills calculate the cost of producing electricity from CPV
            will be much lower.

        • Dr. Mike

          This isn’t the case of utilizing the energy as heat vs. light; it’s utilizing the energy as heat vs. electricity. It is probably true that you will always be able to get more heat energy out of the SunCell than electricity, but there will be many applications where electricity is needed, not heat. I think an electrical version of the SunCell will find some use if it can eventually achieve something like a 20% conversion efficiency of available output energy to electricity.

  • Piper

    There appears to exist a grade of graphite with a curve which tends to flatten near 1800ºC, suggesting a bottom possibly exceeding the thermal conductivity quote of 30W/m/ºK (0.3W/cm/ºK) at 3000ºK. See p. 28:

    http://poco.com/Portals/0/Literature/Semiconductor/IND-109441-0115.pdf

    • Dr. Mike

      I was not able to open your link, but any increase in the thermal conductivity at high temperatures will reduce the inner to outer temperature difference of the graphite blackbody radiator. Do you know the sublimation properties of this particular graphite?

  • Piper

    There appears to exist a grade of graphite with a curve which tends to flatten near 1800ºC, suggesting a bottom possibly exceeding the thermal conductivity quote of 30W/m/ºK (0.3W/cm/ºK) at 3000ºK. See p. 28:

    http://poco.com/Portals/0/Literature/Semiconductor/IND-109441-0115.pdf

    • Dr. Mike

      I was not able to open your link, but any increase in the thermal conductivity at high temperatures will reduce the inner to outer temperature difference of the graphite blackbody radiator. Do you know the sublimation properties of this particular graphite?

      • Piper

        Perhaps ORNL or POCO will share?

        POCO has a Thermal Management grade of graphite material, engineered as a porous foam of aligned webbing structures resulting in much higher thermal conductivity depending upon orientation.

        The graphite foam originated with James W. Klett of ORNL; and, is licensed exclusively to Poco Graphite in Decatur, Texas.

        It occurs that if such a carbon foam were created as a core to be laminate bonded between two thin spherical shells of solid graphite, the composite might allow both the high thermal conductivity and the needed mechanical strength.

        http://www.autospeed.com/cms/article.html?&title=Graphite-Foam&A=1339

        http://www-physics.lbl.gov/~gilg/ATLASUpgradeRandD/HighKFoam/POCO.pdf

        http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/057/vol3/001/ecp57vol3_001.pdf

        • Dr. Mike

          If the mechanical strength of your proposed composite structure was higher than the two thin shells by themselves, it might be possible to achieve a higher thermal conductance with the composite structure. If the graphite foam adds nothing to the structural strength, then the optimum thickness of the foam graphite would be zero. If the foam does add mechanical strength, it is a material that BLP should investigate.

  • Axil Axil

    https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/677bfc681c2b639499f2923d8862ecc0f53f773ed8edeb108940f647b06cc622.jpg https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/291520470e2c9b27a4ec9ee5182a896da96973df0699802df1da9439fd8bc39b.jpg https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/089a5b1a53c68fe777a9c097b7245d3f9c2b5f2bda7a511fb99d67d236ea7bb6.jpg

    In the case of the translucent ceramic tubes, there will be loss in transmission and scattering. The blue light that is scattered will have to pass through more alumina than light not-scattered. Light passing through the individual crystallites is reflected (a scattering) by the orientation of the crystallite, but is transmitted with a loss of only a few %. Most of the attenuation in the ceramic is from scattering such that on average, to make its way out of the ceramic, it has to go through many more of the crystallites than necessary by virtue of its thickness. I have alumina substrates (flat, about 1mm thick). You can apply a laser to one substrate, look at the spot size on the incident side and the spot size on the exit side. Then add additional substrates to the stack and watch the spot diameter grow from the scattering. The laser spot, even expanded in size, makes its way through 5 mm of the ceramic substrates with significant intensity remaining.

    These pictures show the 3mm white LED, the tube in daylight against a pale background, and the same thing in shadow against a dark background.

    This demonstrates that translucent high temperature ceramics can filter various light frequency to let the low frequencies through and reflect the higher XUV frequencies.

    In the design of the SunCell, various solid(ceramics) and gas(rare earths) based elements can use optical mechanisms to convert light to the optimum frequencies that are compatible with solar cell electrical conversion. The use of carbon is simplistic as a black body radiator.

    • Dr. Mike

      I’m not sure I totally understand your proposed system for getting energy out of a SunCell. However, there are a couple of issues that I believe would limit the system efficiency to less than the approach BLP is attempting using the initial conversion of x-ray and XUV energy into blackbody radiation. It would be possible to design CPV cells that operate in the visible spectrum range to maybe 60-70% which represents a gain of 1.5-1.75 over the proposed 40% efficiency for converting the 3000K blackbody spectrum to electricity. The efficiency of conversion of the x-ray and XUV energy to visible wavelengths times the transmission efficiency of the translucent ceramic would have to be 57%-67% to get a net system gain over BLP’s approach. Do you think these conversion efficiencies could be achieved? Also, would the translucent ceramics reflect the x-ray and XUV energy or would it absorb this energy converting it to heat?

  • Axil Axil

    https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/677bfc681c2b639499f2923d8862ecc0f53f773ed8edeb108940f647b06cc622.jpg https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/291520470e2c9b27a4ec9ee5182a896da96973df0699802df1da9439fd8bc39b.jpg https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/089a5b1a53c68fe777a9c097b7245d3f9c2b5f2bda7a511fb99d67d236ea7bb6.jpg

    In the case of the translucent ceramic tubes, there will be loss in transmission and scattering. The blue light that is scattered will have to pass through more alumina than light not-scattered. Light passing through the individual crystallites is reflected (a scattering) by the orientation of the crystallite, but is transmitted with a loss of only a few %. Most of the attenuation in the ceramic is from scattering such that on average, to make its way out of the ceramic, it has to go through many more of the crystallites than necessary by virtue of its thickness. I have alumina substrates (flat, about 1mm thick). You can apply a laser to one substrate, look at the spot size on the incident side and the spot size on the exit side. Then add additional substrates to the stack and watch the spot diameter grow from the scattering. The laser spot, even expanded in size, makes its way through 5 mm of the ceramic substrates with significant intensity remaining.

    These pictures show the 3mm white LED, the tube in daylight against a pale background, and the same thing in shadow against a dark background.

    This demonstrates that translucent high temperature ceramics can filter various light frequency to let the low frequencies through and reflect the higher XUV frequencies.

    Using light frequency transmission and reflection minimises the production of heat thus minimizing the heat stress on the materials in the SunCell’s structure.

    In the design of the SunCell, various solid(ceramics) and gas(rare earths) based elements can use optical mechanisms to convert light to avoid heat production and to the optimize frequencies that are compatible with solar cell electrical conversion. The use of carbon is simplistic as a black body radiator that produce unwanted heat that provides an uncontrolled light frequency conversion mechanism.

    • Dr. Mike

      I’m not sure I totally understand your proposed system for getting energy out of a SunCell. However, there are a couple of issues that I believe would limit the system efficiency to less than the approach BLP is attempting using the initial conversion of x-ray and XUV energy into blackbody radiation. It would be possible to design CPV cells that operate in the visible spectrum range to maybe 60-70% which represents a gain of 1.5-1.75 over the proposed 40% efficiency for converting the 3000K blackbody spectrum to electricity. The efficiency of conversion of the x-ray and XUV energy to visible wavelengths times the transmission efficiency of the translucent ceramic would have to be 57%-67% to get a net system gain over BLP’s approach. Do you think these conversion efficiencies could be achieved? Also, would the translucent ceramics reflect the x-ray and XUV energy or would it absorb this energy converting it to heat?

  • Axil Axil

    http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/images/content/29z.jpg

    Note that at 3000K, a black body radiator will convert most of the energy it emits as infrared radiation. It is true that the SunCell reaction produce loads of energy as XUV but the carbon sphere converts most of that energy to infrared radiation thus wasting most of that light energy.

    • Dr. Mike

      The curves look a little better if you plot total energy vs wavelength rater than intensity vs. wavelength. Properly designed CPV cells should be able to convert ~40% of the available energy in the 3000K spectrum to electricity, However, in the SunCell the uniformity and the area coverage factors will probably reduce the system efficiency to 10-20%. These radiation curves are a good argument for starting with a “thermal” SunCell.

      • ElaisaKasan

        Would a metallic sphere between the graphite and CPV array address the illumination uniformity issue? Of course they would also need to be much larger.

  • georgehants

    All the World needs to know is, does it work and how, then thousands of scientists could have, for years been Researching the best way to utilize the effect.
    But not in this crazy capitalistic system where only greed is rewarded.

    • Dr. Mike

      Can I assume that you would be the one funding the thousands of scientists that might have been working of this high risk, potentially high reward technology?

      • georgehants

        Dr Mike, it would seem you are unaware of other methods of funding a caring and sharing society, a little Research may help you.

        • cashmemorz

          Crowd funding may work if enough see the urgency. But would Andrea Rossi be receptive to that source? Rossi seems to be afraid of everyone who is interested in helping him in case it is a wolf in sheep’s clothing. His paranoia would have to be worked on first. Brilliant Light and Power is willing to go with standard investors and stock exchange as they are doing.

          • georgehants

            cashmemorz, leading to the delay I point out above.

          • Albert D. Kallal

            But what is stopping you folks from caring and sharing and funding LENR? One little guy in some apartment is ZERO compared to the 120+ billion of resources pledged in Paris at the last climate summit. I mean how long does it take one person to build a house on their own? 10 years or more. However if you have 120 billion of tax dollars, then you can biuld that house in 1 week!. So what system you talking about in regards to caring and sharing? Are you talking about a system based on acts of sharing or a system by force and by gunpoint to force share those resources? What example in history are you talking about? You talk about some better way, but have ZERO examples of that better way. What better way you talking about – do you have a example?

        • Axil Axil

          http://www.pveducation.org/sites/default/files/PVCDROM/Properties-of-Sunlight/Images/LOGSP.GIF

          The area under the curve describes the power that is produced by the 3000K carbon radiator. It looks to me that the power produced in the visible range is just 10% or less of the power available in the light spectrum produced by the SunCell. That visible range is subject to another percentage reduction based on the efficiency of the solar cells. As an estimate, 5% or less of the optical power produced by the SunCell is converted to electricity.

          • Dr. Mike

            Triple junction CPV cells really can convert 40% of the total available energy to electricity in solar concentrations of 500-1000. A slight tweak of the concentrator solar cells probably will make them up to 45% efficient in a 3000K spectrum since there are less high energy photons in this spectrum as compared to the solar spectrum (~6000K spectrum). Solar cells (or any photovoltaic cells) do not just convert the visible spectrum into electricity, they convert all photons with energy greater than the semiconductor bandgap energy into electricity. In one type of triple junction cell, an InGaP layer will convert photons with wavelengths of ~300nm to ~700nm, a GaAs layer will convert photons with wavelengths of ~700nm to ~1000nm, and an InGaAs layer will convert photons with wavelengths of ~1000nm to ~1400nm. All photons with wavelengths of >1400nm will pass through the device or be reflected by the backside contact of the device and pass out of the front side of the device. If CPV cells could be placed on a sphere with 100% area coverage of the sphere with no spacing between the cells, and the cells saw a uniform 100W/cm2 illumination intensity, they really could convert 40% of the available energy into electricity. Furthermore, all photons with wavelengths greater than 1400nm can be reflected back to the source, reducing the amount of hydrogen needed to fuel the SunCell. For the current SunCell design, the CPV array will only be ~a 3/4 sphere with only about 59% of that area covered with cells. An operating temperature of 80C will reduce the output by 4-5%, and illumination uniformity issues will reduce the output by another 25-50%. My estimation would give an electrical output of 10-15% of the ~330000W that will be output by the 3000K blackbody radiator.

          • Axil Axil

            A turbo generator will produce 90% efficiency. See above posts.

          • Dr. Mike

            This is a good argument for going thermal rather than electrical for the initial SunCell. There still would remain the question as to what the efficiency would be to extract heat from the SunCell. These 2 numbers multiplied together would give the overall efficiency of conversion to electricity.

          • Veblin

            Futurist Dr. Randell Mills Talks SunCell, Off-Grid Power, And The Future Of Job Creation
            05/31/2017 09:42 am ET
            http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/futurist-dr-randell-mills-talks-suncell-off-grid_us_592ec431e4b07c4c73138706

          • artefact

            “We have a multi-pronged approach. We’re introducing state-of-the-art theory, science, and technology that astonishes experts with quantifiable and verifiable results in multiple scientific and technological fields, and we are building a machine with a story behind it that blows everyone else away. Within a couple months we should be ready for to show its commercial potential. “

          • Axil Axil

            How about graphite and stainless steel?

        • Dr. Mike

          Write a post on how you think “blue sky” research should be funded. I will make a comment to your post if I think your method will improve the pace of technology development.

      • LilyLover

        With democratized credit-creation right, average persons could create twice the value of their homes in freely extendable credit to those scientists. Right now, only the bankers friends get to leverage credit into bilions based on millions in assets, thereby sending the masses into deeper than possible national average debt. Heck, with democratized credit, scientist would themselves create and fund their own ventures, no outside help needed.
        To go even further, every scientific endeavor must lend into existence, needed capital and jobs that are deemed useful to humanity. Credit creation through inflation and interest manipulation only serves parasites and festers anti-efficiency. Working upon society-improvement projects needs to become the mechanism of money creation for future to come. Imagine how much more we could accelerate science if the professors are freed from begging for grant money for research for war.

        • psi2u2

          Very nice. Can we do this? What is standing in our way?

          • radvar

            Read “The Power Paradox”

          • psi2u2
          • LilyLover

            Borders define groups have militaries enable parasitism on others’ population managed by unrepresentative leaders staying in power through applied intimidation by legal thugs shouting jingoistic appeal to past-patriotism protecting modern money mechanics via apriori positional advantages enshrined by fallacious propagandist antieducational disinformation for privatizing the profits and socializing the losses keeping the masses in grinding drudgery and Ivory Tower Elites busy plotting the misery.
            With opinion factor and voting value of a person 1.00, of civil servants 1.00, of a president 0.99, of a senator 0.95, of a congressman 0.90, of a militaryman 0.50, of a cop 0.25 their place is set in society for your word vs my word situation. Lack of audiovisual live stream and on demand reproduction establishes intent to murder of the legal thu,gs with government approved/contracted guns. Deployment of true democracy with all voting issues handled by the best mathematicians that even the Wall-St banking doesn’t have. Credit creation right proportional to previous year’s productivity and adherence to mathematical formulas based on repayment of that issued credit; not a hidden bankist issued rent-su,ckability score. Just as military works for all people, patent office shall work for all people without any barriers to entry or false pride of “being a self sufficient entity run with revenue generated from its own activities and therefore a net positive to the government”.
            What should government-err-servment do? Things that everybody wants to do and things that nobody wants to do – public right to dilute money belongs to public domain, public responsibility to pick up trash is a public domain duty.
            Today government gives away banking charters (fun job and public misappropriation to their private friends) and nobody cares about potholes and trash on the public roads. Inflated IPOs are paid through savings of the masses and their bankruptcies are passed on to the masses as well. Divide the spoils among the conquerers of the masses to keep the masses poverished by keeping yourself agressively empowered must end.
            For every person born, assign them a capital creation right of 400k per 10 years to be first usable at 21. No rentism or interest ever. A 20 year old can start off with a house of 800k and spend 400k per 10 years till they die. They can invest whatever and however but cannot ever borrow more than personal 10 year limit. They can trade as they please. Accumulated unconsumed capital becomes the measure of social status and guarantee of happy stable life, unlike paycheck to paycheck indignity and fearful uncertainty. Maximize robotics. 95% global joblessness. Only thing to do in life is spend five minutes per day voting for continuously updating “our generation our constitution”. After that – travel, debate philosophies, watch TV, search for God – all upto you.
            We can start with true democracies. Will publish soon. Work in progress.

          • LilyLover

            Thank you for the timely question. I paused and reevaluated – am I doing what I know I must?

            Yes we can do this. The quick rambling summarizes what’s standing in the way.

  • georgehants

    All the World needs to know is, does it work and how, then thousands of scientists could have, for years been Researching the best way to utilize the effect.
    But not in this crazy capitalistic system where only greed is rewarded.

    • MorganMck

      Why don’t you just move to Venezuela and live your dream.

      • georgehants

        MorganMck, the “dream” is already here, it is called MFMP et al.

    • Dr. Mike

      Can I assume that you would be the one funding the thousands of scientists that might have been working of this high risk, potentially high reward technology?

      • georgehants

        Dr Mike, it would seem you are unaware of other methods of funding a caring and sharing society, a little Research may help you.

        • cashmemorz

          Crowd funding may work if enough see the urgency. But would Andrea Rossi be receptive to that source? Rossi seems to be afraid of everyone who is interested in helping him in case it is a wolf in sheep’s clothing. His paranoia would have to be worked on first. Brilliant Light and Power is willing to go with standard investors and stock exchange as they are doing.

          • georgehants

            cashmemorz, leading to the delay I point out above and the comedy act from Rossi.

          • Albert D. Kallal

            But what is stopping you folks from caring and sharing and funding LENR? One little guy in some apartment is ZERO compared to the 120+ billion of resources pledged in Paris at the last climate summit. I mean how long does it take one person to build a house on their own? 10 years or more. However if you have 120 billion of tax dollars, then you can biuld that house in 1 week!. So what system you talking about in regards to caring and sharing? Are you talking about a system based on acts of sharing or a system by force and by gunpoint to force share those resources? What example in history are you talking about? You talk about some better way, but have ZERO examples of that better way. What better way you talking about – do you have a example?

        • Dr. Mike

          Write a post on how you think “blue sky” research should be funded. I will make a comment to your post if I think your method will improve the pace of technology development.

      • LilyLover

        With democratized credit-creation right, average persons could create twice the value of their homes in freely extendable credit to those scientists. Right now, only the bankers friends get to leverage credit into bilions based on millions in assets, thereby sending the masses into deeper than possible national average debt. Heck, with democratized credit, scientist would themselves create and fund their own ventures, no outside help needed.
        To go even further, every scientific endeavor must lend into existence, needed capital and jobs that are deemed useful to humanity. Credit creation through inflation and interest manipulation only serves parasites and festers anti-efficiency. Working upon society-improvement projects needs to become the mechanism of money creation for future to come. Imagine how much more we could accelerate science if the professors are freed from begging for grant money for research for war.

        • psi2u2

          Very nice. Can we do this? What is standing in our way?

          • LilyLover

            Borders define groups have militaries enable parasitism on others’ population managed by unrepresentative leaders staying in power through applied intimidation by legal thugs shouting jingoistic appeal to past-patriotism protecting modern money mechanics via apriori positional advantages enshrined by fallacious propagandist antieducational disinformation for privatizing the profits and socializing the losses keeping the masses in grinding drudgery and Ivory Tower Elites busy plotting the misery.
            With opinion factor and voting value of a person 1.00, of civil servants 1.00, of a president 0.99, of a senator 0.95, of a congressman 0.90, of a militaryman 0.50, of a cop 0.25 their place is set in society for your word vs my word situation. Lack of audiovisual live stream and on demand reproduction establishes intent to murder of the legal thu,gs with government approved/contracted guns. Deployment of true democracy with all voting issues handled by the best mathematicians that even the Wall-St banking doesn’t have. Credit creation right proportional to previous year’s productivity and adherence to mathematical formulas based on repayment of that issued credit; not a hidden bankist issued rent-su,ckability score. Just as military works for all people, patent office shall work for all people without any barriers to entry or false pride of “being a self sufficient entity run with revenue generated from its own activities and therefore a net positive to the government”.
            What should government-err-servment do? Things that everybody wants to do and things that nobody wants to do – public right to dilute money belongs to public domain, public responsibility to pick up trash is a public domain duty.
            Today government gives away banking charters (fun job and public misappropriation to their private friends) and nobody cares about potholes and trash on the public roads. Inflated IPOs are paid through savings of the masses and their bankruptcies are passed on to the masses as well. Divide the spoils among the conquerers of the masses to keep the masses poverished by keeping yourself agressively empowered must end.
            For every person born, assign them a capital creation right of 400k per 10 years to be first usable at 21. No rentism or interest ever. A 20 year old can start off with a house of 800k and spend 400k per 10 years till they die. They can invest whatever and however but cannot ever borrow more than personal 10 year limit. They can trade as they please. Accumulated unconsumed capital becomes the measure of social status and guarantee of happy stable life, unlike paycheck to paycheck indignity and fearful uncertainty. Maximize robotics. 95% global joblessness. Only thing to do in life is spend five minutes per day voting for continuously updating “our generation our constitution”. After that – travel, debate philosophies, watch TV, search for God – all upto you.
            We can start with true democracies. Will publish soon. Work in progress.

          • ElaisaKasan

            The Cryptocurrency Ethereum enables democratized credit creation.

          • Eyedoc

            Not really, EK ….. a person must buy their way in, only the blockchain geeks get to ‘creat credit’ for themselves……..just another fiat currency

          • LilyLover

            Thank you for the timely question. I paused and reevaluated – am I doing what I know I must?

            Yes we can do this. The quick rambling summarizes what’s standing in the way.

  • Otto1923

    I don’t understand. With that much power, just make everything bigger. Put the thing in a large PV cube. Who cares about uniformity? Who cares if it’s the size of rossi’s shipping container?

    Are they also stalling? Why??

  • otto von ottsville

    I don’t understand. With all that power why not just make everything bigger? Put it in a large PV cube. Who cares about uniformity? Who cares if it’s the size of rossi’s shipping container?

    It can power a building, a complex. It can be the size of a bloombox.

    Why are they stalling??

    Perhaps the size requirements were driven by what Mills could lug through an airport on his way to CNN interviews and speaking engagements.

    • Dr. Mike

      The blackbody radiator must be contained within a pressurized vessel to balance the vapor pressure of the silver within the radiator (about 10atm for the blackbody radiator operating at 3000K). This seems to be the main factor limiting the size of the device.
      Uniformity is important for CPV cell (or PV or solar cell) arrays because these cells are low voltage, high current devices that need to be connected in series to manage the effects of resistance and the voltage drops due to that resistance. Since the same current flows through all devices connected in series, the current flow for all of the devices that are connected together will be the current of the device that sees the least illumination intensity. If the illumination uniformity were only +/- 25%, then the efficiency of the group of devices connected together in series would only be about 50% of the maximum efficiency of an individual CPV cell. (There will be a small voltage increase output in the devices seeing a high illumination intensity but forced to operate at a lower current due to the series connection to devices seeing a low intensity, but this will only raise the overall array efficiency by a few percent.)

      • otto von ottsville

        He’s talking about power output equal to a nuclear reactor. He can optimize later on.

  • Dr. Mike

    The blackbody radiator must be contained within a pressurized vessel to balance the vapor pressure of the silver within the radiator (about 10atm for the blackbody radiator operating at 3000K). This seems to be the main factor limiting the size of the device.
    Uniformity is important for CPV cell (or PV or solar cell) arrays because these cells are low voltage, high current devices that need to be connected in series to manage the effects of resistance and the voltage drops due to that resistance. Since the same current flows through all devices connected in series, the current flow for all of the devices that are connected together will be the current of the device that sees the least illumination intensity. If the illumination uniformity were only +/- 25%, then the efficiency of the group of devices connected together in series would only be about 50% of the maximum efficiency of an individual CPV cell. (There will be a small voltage increase output in the devices seeing a high illumination intensity but forced to operate at a lower current due to the series connection to devices seeing a low intensity, but this will only raise the overall array efficiency by a few percent.)

  • Axil Axil

    http://www.pveducation.org/sites/default/files/PVCDROM/Properties-of-Sunlight/Images/LOGSP.GIF

    The area under the curve describes the power that is produced by the 3000K carbon radiator. It looks to me that the power produced in the visible range is just 10% or less of the power available in the light spectrum produced by the SunCell. That visible range is subject to another percentage reduction based on the efficiency of the solar cells. As an estimate, 5% or less of the optical power produced by the SunCell is converted to electricity.

    • Dr. Mike

      Triple junction CPV cells really can convert 40% of the total available energy to electricity in solar concentrations of 500-1000. A slight tweak of the concentrator solar cells probably will make them up to 45% efficient in a 3000K spectrum since there are less high energy photons in this spectrum as compared to the solar spectrum (~6000K spectrum). Solar cells (or any photovoltaic cells) do not just convert the visible spectrum into electricity, they convert all photons with energy greater than the semiconductor bandgap energy into electricity. In one type of triple junction cell, an InGaP layer will convert photons with wavelengths of ~300nm to ~700nm, a GaAs layer will convert photons with wavelengths of ~700nm to ~1000nm, and an InGaAs layer will convert photons with wavelengths of ~1000nm to ~1400nm. All photons with wavelengths of >1400nm will pass through the device or be reflected by the backside contact of the device and pass out of the front side of the device. If CPV cells could be placed on a sphere with 100% area coverage of the sphere with no spacing between the cells, and the cells saw a uniform 100W/cm2 illumination intensity, they really could convert 40% of the available energy into electricity. Furthermore, all photons with wavelengths greater than 1400nm can be reflected back to the source, reducing the amount of hydrogen needed to fuel the SunCell. For the current SunCell design, the CPV array will only be ~a 3/4 sphere with only about 59% of that area covered with cells. An operating temperature of 80C will reduce the output by 4-5%, and illumination uniformity issues will reduce the output by another 25-50%. My estimation would give an electrical output of 10-15% of the ~330000W that will be output by the 3000K blackbody radiator.

      • Axil Axil

        A turbo generator will produce 90% efficiency. See above posts.

        • Dr. Mike

          This is a good argument for going thermal rather than electrical for the initial SunCell. There still would remain the question as to what the efficiency would be to extract heat from the SunCell. These 2 numbers multiplied together would give the overall efficiency of conversion to electricity.

        • Piper

          Only possible in a computer model with unobtainable materials magically appearing in the stockroom.

          The materials developed after much effort allow an externally heated CO2 turbine system to achieve 50% Eff. for a 10 million watt electrical output system. The efficiency drops rapidly as the turbine diameter is reduced, even given CO2 at half the density of liquid water. By scaling to electrical 150-250 kW the efficiency range would be 12 – 20, being generous. The recuperator would be the largest item in the mix of components.

          Better to attempt to decomp water at 3000K and pick off the H2 for a Bloom Box.

          • Axil Axil

            The maximum efficiency available is about 60% at 1500C for a gas based turbine but the need to keep nitrous oxide down keeps a lid on that maximum efficiency.

            50% Eff. for a 10 million watt electrical output system is a good initial COTS turban for a CO2 system.

  • Axil Axil

    A better design for a thermal based SubCell is to capture heat in a layer of supercritical CO2 confined the space between a concentric double sphere (BA) with the inner layer (A) being a translucent sphere of boron nitride that confines the CO2 and the outer sphere (B) composed of graphite which is the black body radiator.

    The efficiency of a CO2 supercritical turbine operating at temperature of 3000K is around 90%..

    http://okphysics.com/mwebs/uploads/2013/08/concentric_shell_potential-1.png https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/63c75591187ec7404509dd73b75033059ace3bf7c66bde1d1875bdcc8d17f3d6.png

    • Dr. Mike

      I don’t see how you extract heat from this system. How hot would the outer B graphite layer get? It will still radiate heat to the outside of B as radiative heat.

      • Axil Axil

        http://ryanfernandes.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/bullseye-o.jpg

        Silver will coat the carbon sphere that faces the plasma. A highly insulated N concentric sphere setup that holds CO2 between the spaces between the concentric sphere shells will produce a radiator whose outer surface is at room temperature and its innermost shell is at 3000K.

        The innermost shell produces CO2 at 3000K. Outer shells could be made be made from stainless steel to save cost. CO2 cooled to room temperature returning from the turbine can flow from the outer shells to the innermost shall extracting heat from each shell layer progressively in turn as the flow of CO2 travels inward. Little heat energy is lost in this setup to the ambient.

        • Dr. Mike

          I understand your idea conceptually, but don’t see how you can get the CO2 to flow from an outer sphere to the next inner one and then flow out of the inner most sphere to the outside world. Also, what pressure of CO2 does the power turbine require?

          • Axil Axil

            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9EftqFYaHg

            We pump the coolant (Co2). We need a very high pressure for high operating temperatures…1000 bar for 900C. Pressure is the major problem for turbines. For 3000K, I cannot calculate easily. This may be why BrLP went with PVs for a mobile reactor.

          • Dr. Mike

            My guess is that there will be a problem with the material strength of the inner graphite sphere when it is at 3000K on one side and >3500K on the other side if the pressure isn’t balanced on both sides of the sphere (~10atm at 3000K).

          • Axil Axil

            At an additional expense, the solution to low pressure coolant is to use a liquid metal or a molten salt to remove heat from the sphere and then to transfer that heat to a high pressure gas in a heat exchanger. A liquid metal candidate might be molten copper with a boiling point of 2835 K. Molten Iron is another possibility with a boiling point of 3134 K.

          • Dr. Mike

            A circulating liquid metal seems like it might be a good method for getting heat out of the SunCell. If the outside of the graphite sphere could be held at 2500K or so with a high flow of liquid metal to take away the heat, it should be possible to generate more heat from the system without getting too much sublimation on the inner surface of the graphite sphere. It might be possible to achieve an output power of > 500000W with the 6″ diameter graphite sphere and maybe more with a larger diameter sphere. Achieving a uniform flow of metal around the sphere would take some engineering effort.

          • Axil Axil
          • Dr. Mike

            This looks good in 2-dimensions; however, I don’t see how it works in 3-dimensions. If you assume that heat is generated uniformly over the graphite sphere, then it seems like you would need a fairly uniform flow of the liquid metal over the sphere or areas of the sphere near a high flow of metal would stay cool by having heat removed, whereas areas in which there was not much flow of metal would get very hot, perhaps boiling the metal. Maybe having the inlet and outlet on opposite sides of the sphere would work? The outlet of the graphite sphere would be at the highest temperature and the inlet at the lowest temperature. As long as the temperature gradients in the sphere were small enough not to overly stress the sphere structurally, it should not matter it the temperature of the graphite sphere is not uniform.

          • Axil Axil

            The inlet and outlets are positioned on opposite sides of each shell of the multi-shell sphere and the liquid coolant moves back and forth in each shell as it moves from the outside of each shell of the sphere to the innermost layer.

            I like the Thorium Iron eutectic (Th7Fe3). It does not look like you can vaporize that coolant with a 3000K heat source.

          • US_Citizen71
          • Axil Axil

            Have you had a look at Leif Holmlid’s latest experiment?

            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0169895#pone.0169895.ref007

            I like LENR as a basis to support a light speed capable interstellar motor. As discovered by Holmlid, LENR produces sub atomic particles and nuclear fragments moving at ¾ light speeds. And even better, LENR produces its own energy. If we want to fly between the stars, LENR is the way to go… think LENR

          • Axil Axil

            https://www.lenr-forum.com/attachment/2249-pasted-from-clipboard-png/

            ​​The Thorium Iron eutectic with a 45/55 ratio is liquid at 875C. If the LENR reaction does produce muons, this thorium eutectic will provide a shield as well as support muon based fission.​

  • Axil Axil

    A better design for a thermal based SubCell is to capture heat in a layer of supercritical CO2 confined in the space between a concentric double sphere (BA) with the inner layer (A) being a translucent sphere of boron nitride that confines the CO2 and the outer sphere (B) composed of graphite which is the black body radiator.

    The efficiency of a CO2 supercritical turbine operating at temperature of 3000K is around 90%..

    http://calistry.org/New/sites/all/libraries/ckeditor//plugins/ckeditor_wiris/integration/showimage.php?formula=8f76fb5f8902e711fe093abe124799f9.png

    http://okphysics.com/mwebs/uploads/2013/08/concentric_shell_potential-1.png https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/63c75591187ec7404509dd73b75033059ace3bf7c66bde1d1875bdcc8d17f3d6.png

    • Dr. Mike

      I don’t see how you extract heat from this system. How hot would the outer B graphite layer get? It will still radiate heat to the outside of B as radiative heat.

      • Axil Axil

        http://ryanfernandes.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/bullseye-o.jpg

        Silver will coat the carbon sphere that faces the plasma.

        Based on Layered Composite Thermal Insulation as follows:

        A highly insulated N concentric sphere setup that holds CO2 between the spaces between the concentric sphere shells will produce a radiator whose outer surface is at room temperature and its innermost shell is at 3000K.

        The innermost shell produces CO2 at 3000K. Outer shells could be made from stainless steel to save cost. CO2 cooled to room temperature returning from the turbine can flow from the outer shells to the innermost shell extracting heat from each shell layer thus cooling each shell layer progressively in turn as the flow of CO2 travels inward. Little heat energy is lost in this setup to the ambient.

        • Dr. Mike

          I understand your idea conceptually, but don’t see how you can get the CO2 to flow from an outer sphere to the next inner one and then flow out of the inner most sphere to the outside world. Also, what pressure of CO2 does the power turbine require?

          • Axil Axil

            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9EftqFYaHg

            We pump the coolant (Co2). We need a very high pressure for high operating temperatures…1000 bar for 900C. Pressure is the major problem for turbines. For 3000K, I cannot calculate easily. This may be why BrLP went with PVs for a mobile reactor.

          • Dr. Mike

            My guess is that there will be a problem with the material strength of the inner graphite sphere when it is at 3000K on one side and >3500K on the other side if the pressure isn’t balanced on both sides of the sphere (~10atm at 3000K).

          • Axil Axil

            At an additional expense, the solution to low pressure coolant is to use a liquid metal or a molten salt to remove heat from the sphere and then to transfer that heat to a high pressure gas in a heat exchanger. A liquid metal candidate might be Gallium which has a large heat range as a liquid at a melting temperature at 302 K and a boiling point at 2477 K. That boiling point can be increased by adding some small amount of pressure.

            Tin is another possible coolant at liquid range between (505.08 K. and 2875 K)

            Aluminum liquid range is 933 K to 2792 K

          • Dr. Mike

            A circulating liquid metal seems like it might be a good method for getting heat out of the SunCell. If the outside of the graphite sphere could be held at 2500K or so with a high flow of liquid metal to take away the heat, it should be possible to generate more heat from the system without getting too much sublimation on the inner surface of the graphite sphere. It might be possible to achieve an output power of > 500000W with the 6″ diameter graphite sphere and maybe more with a larger diameter sphere. Achieving a uniform flow of metal around the sphere would take some engineering effort.

          • Axil Axil

            https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/85/Spiral-heat-exchanger-schematic-workaround.svg/2000px-Spiral-heat-exchanger-schematic-workaround.svg.png

            With the carbon sphere in the center, we would not have two flows…just one with the cold liquid coming in from the outer spherical zone to an exit of hot liquid from the central interior region of the sphere. The heat exchange could be insulated to keep the coolant hot so that is remains a liquid.

            Something that looks like this

            http://cfd2012.com/uploads/3/1/6/2/3162191/8967188.png?409

          • Dr. Mike

            This looks good in 2-dimensions; however, I don’t see how it works in 3-dimensions. If you assume that heat is generated uniformly over the graphite sphere, then it seems like you would need a fairly uniform flow of the liquid metal over the sphere or areas of the sphere near a high flow of metal would stay cool by having heat removed, whereas areas in which there was not much flow of metal would get very hot, perhaps boiling the metal. Maybe having the inlet and outlet on opposite sides of the sphere would work? The outlet of the graphite sphere would be at the highest temperature and the inlet at the lowest temperature. As long as the temperature gradients in the sphere were small enough not to overly stress the sphere structurally, it should not matter it the temperature of the graphite sphere is not uniform.

          • Axil Axil

            The inlet and outlets are positioned on opposite sides of each shell of the multi-shell sphere and the liquid coolant moves back and forth in each shell as it moves from the outside of each shell of the sphere to the innermost layer.

            I like the Thorium Iron eutectic (Th7Fe3). It does not look like you can vaporize that coolant with a 3000K heat source.

          • US_Citizen71
          • Axil Axil

            https://www.lenr-forum.com/attachment/2249-pasted-from-clipboard-png/

            ​​The Thorium Iron eutectic with a 45/55 ratio is liquid at 875C. If the LENR reaction does produce muons, this thorium eutectic will provide a shield as well as support muon based fission.​

    • Piper

      Co2 has been shown to undergo direct thermolysis at temps as low as 1200C in contact with certain ceramics–hot O2 and CO in the mix!

      • Axil Axil

        How about graphite and stainless steel?

  • Axil Axil
  • Axil Axil
  • Axil Axil

    The maximum efficiency available is about 60% at 1500C for a gas based turbine but the need to keep nitrous oxide down keeps a lid on that maximum efficiency.

    50% Eff. for a 10 million watt electrical output system is a good initial COTS turban for a CO2 system.

  • georgehants

    MorganMck, the “dream” is already here, it is called MFMP et al.

  • artefact

    BLP:

    EarthScope Media Interview on May 22, 2017

    On May 22, 2017, Dr. Mills was interviewed by EarthScope Media which aired on KALW 91.3 FM in San Francisco, CA

    http://brilliantlightpower.com/earthscope-media-interview-on-may-22-2017/

    • MorganMck

      Really nothing new here.

  • Axil Axil
  • Axil Axil
  • Nicholas Payne

    88 comments and not a single mention of hydrinos. All the companies that might be put out of business by this, will make a ginormous fuss about hydrinos and the dangers thereof

  • Nicholas Payne

    88 comments and not a single mention of hydrinos. All the companies that might be put out of business by this, will make a ginormous fuss about hydrinos and the dangers thereof

    • Piper

      Walter Peck–inspector for the EPA to the rescue?

      • US_Citizen71

        : ) LOL!!!

    • MorganMck

      There will be plenty of time to talk about hydrinos (and/or alternative theories) if/when BrLP’s claims are validated with an operating prototype. It would have been more straight-forward with the Electric SunCell but we can start with the Thermal version. As we have seen in the LENR world, it is much easier to second guess heat than electric measurements but if the SunCell can really run indefinitely in self-sustain mode with only water as fuel this should not be too difficult. Any substantial thermal output for an extended period with only water added will be quite convincing to testers.

      • Nicholas Payne

        Brilliant Light Power will need to own the conversation about hydrinos, by having researched the facts, otherwise the oil industry will own it by playing to people’s fears. No there is not plenty of time later to discuss this.

        • MorganMck

          I assume you are anticipating resistance to SunCell adoption based on some mysterious “hydrino emission” which can’t be be measured by any existing equipment or process. At present I sense no such mass hysteria. There is however a lot of skepticism about BrLP being able to commercialize their process to produce any meaningful results after promising and failing to do so many times in the past. Until Dr. Mills turns that perception around, I doubt many will even perceive hydrinos as real and therefore not dangerous. Assuming he is able to demonstrate his claims, I would think that every test for dangerous emissions known to man will be performed on the device by third parties and the hydrino theory will get a lot of attention. First things first.

          • Nicholas Payne

            Yes hydrinos will get a lot of negative attention so it is good to be prepared.

          • MorganMck

            If you don’t think Randell Mills is prepared to explain and argue his hydrino theories, then I’m not sure you could ever be convinced. He has published a large book, scores of technical papers and has given many presentations on the subject. He has sparred with many academics and even won some over. I think he is more than prepared. An effective commercial product will have folks examining all these works plus postulating many alternatives.

          • Nicholas Payne

            He has suggested that NMR indicates that they may be trapped in common salt crystals, but do I have to read his entire opus or is there a paper that specifically addresses this issue of safety?

  • US_Citizen71

    : ) LOL!!!

  • ElaisaKasan

    Starting with a thermal device is a good business decision, since it enables income cash flow sooner. Larger graphite sphere and larger CPV array lowers the energy density for both which seems to be necessary until the state of CPV technology improves. The thermal unit can drive thermal adsorption chillers, and CO2 turbines. That is a big market.

    • Albert D. Kallal

      I much agree. And I posted here about 1 year ago saying why are they messing with a complex solar (PV) cell system? There is all kinds of heat issues for such a system. And PV’s are only going to get you in the 20% conversion rate. Perhaps close to 30% with some real state of the art PV cells.

      If the box produces lots of energy – then get the box out. There is a gazillion uses for such large amounts of heat energy. In fact the whole addition of the PV into this mix is one significant reason why I been so skeptical of their technology.

      This move bodes well for them and makes lots of sense. Power a steam turbine, a sterling engine, or some type of gas turbine as you noted. Or just use the heat for industrial processes – lots of uses for such energy. If their boxes produce such large amounts of energy – then investment will start to line up and little need for solar (PV) panels exists. And they can still continue working on their PV system anyway.

      Regards,
      Albert D. Kallal
      Edmonton, Alberta Canada

  • ElaisaKasan

    Starting with a thermal device is a good business decision, since it enables income cash flow sooner. Would a larger graphite sphere surrounded by a larger metallic sphere and larger CPV array address the illumination uniformity issue and lower the energy density which seems to be necessary given the state of CPV technology? The thermal unit can drive thermal adsorption chillers, and CO2 turbines. That is a big market.

    • Albert D. Kallal

      I much agree. And I posted here about 1 year ago saying why are they messing with a complex solar (PV) cell system? There is all kinds of heat issues for such a system. And PV’s are only going to get you in the 20% conversion rate. Perhaps close to 30% with some real state of the art PV cells.

      If the box produces lots of energy – then get the box out. There is a gazillion uses for such large amounts of heat energy. In fact the whole addition of the PV into this mix is one significant reason why I been so skeptical of their technology.

      This move bodes well for them and makes lots of sense. Power a steam turbine, a sterling engine, or some type of gas turbine as you noted. Or just use the heat for industrial processes – lots of uses for such energy. If their boxes produce such large amounts of energy – then investment will start to line up and little need for solar (PV) panels exists. And they can still continue working on their PV system anyway.

      Regards,
      Albert D. Kallal
      Edmonton, Alberta Canada

      • Piper

        One part of the previous insistence to prioritize PV conversion, apparently stems from the weight and size savings. PV provides enablement of electric transportation with an iteration of a mobile SunCell. This fixation is evident as a persistent goal expressed within the business planning.

        The added costs of a more traditional add-on electric conversion process will slow adoption, if the PV version isn’t sorted out without delay.

        • Omega Z

          Waiting until the PV version is sorted out will slow adoption. Just get the technology out there and let others make what they will of it.

      • Alastair Hodgson

        The PV version is the ultimate goal because it will make the unit portable. I agree that it makes sense to have a thermal version too though as this will slot nicely into existing infrastructure/grid.

        I suppose it was a hard ideological shift to make, but in the end it makes sense to produce the thermal version first.

        But the end game is moving away from the grid. PV version will enable this and empower the world, all the world, on a much grander scale.

  • Piper

    Anyone have experience or related exposure to the recovery/recycling of alkali metals from a seeded MHD plasma, one that didn’t involve chemical re-processing, perhaps a gas cooled nuclear fission heat source? Perhaps familiarity with the basis of the core plasma re-circulation within an open cycle fission reactor, a design which sought to minimize migration of the actinide fuel into the surrounding propellant jacket?

    Trying to shoehorn a carbon sphere radiator into the midst of a turbine engine, or any other reaction propulsion device outside of an ion drive, is the wrong track. The energy in practical versions of these devices is directly released into the working fluid within a very short time basis. Indirect heating is cumbersome, large, heavy–for example a NERVA engine–to compensate for a slow energy exchange process.

    Consider an alternative possibility. Direct energy transfer by UV radiation, into a tungsten seeded hydrogen propellant, was tested in the 60’s for a closed-cycle gas core (light-bulb) nuclear rocket. A fused quartz envelope isolated from the plasma by a cooling gas flow, provided separation of propellant from the proposed energy generating 25,000 R plasma which almost exclusively radiated UV light. Perhaps could deliver an ISP to 1500, limited by the need to retain the fission fragments and prevent fuel release through the propellant. The open gas core version performance should have provided an ISP of 6000, at the expense of all the fission materials being expelled into the atmosphere from a ground launch.

    The question is how much of the various engineering approaches applied to harness nuclear energy for air and space propulsion, could be applied to a lesser energetic energy source, with the virtue that it apparently may avoid the need for shielding, thus that mass penalty?

    Can a zone of stagnant flow be engineered to house an energy production reaction within a bubble, when surrounded by a possibly dissimilar working fluid at high pressure? Direct energy exchange to be accomplished by UV transmission through the boundary layer into the surrounding fluid?

    • Axil Axil

      Have you had a look at Leif Holmlid’s latest experiment?

      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0169895#pone.0169895.ref007

      I like LENR as a basis to support a light speed capable interstellar motor. As discovered by Holmlid, LENR produces sub atomic particles and nuclear fragments moving at ¾ light speeds. And even better, LENR produces its own energy. If we want to fly between the stars, LENR is the way to go… think LENR

  • Omega Z

    Waiting until the PV version is sorted out will slow adoption. Just get the technology out there and let others make what they will of it.

  • Veblin

    Futurist Dr. Randell Mills Talks SunCell, Off-Grid Power, And The Future Of Job Creation
    05/31/2017 09:42 am ET
    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/futurist-dr-randell-mills-talks-suncell-off-grid_us_592ec431e4b07c4c73138706

    • artefact

      “We have a multi-pronged approach. We’re introducing state-of-the-art theory, science, and technology that astonishes experts with quantifiable and verifiable results in multiple scientific and technological fields, and we are building a machine with a story behind it that blows everyone else away. Within a couple months we should be ready for to show its commercial potential. “

  • Jas
    • Jas

      Power Determination and Hydrino Product Characterization of Ultra-low Field Ignition of Hydrated Silver Shots
      R. Mills1,2, Y. Lu1, R. Frazer1

      • artefact

        Mills wrote about that paper:

        “This paper presents gold standard confirmation of megawatt scale power and over two-orders-of–magnitude energy gain from the hydrino reaction, spectrum of the hydrino transition to H(1/4), and comprehensive identification of the molecular hydrino H2(1/4) product.”

        • Andreas Moraitis

          If possible, they should collect some H2(1/4) and send samples to external labs. I only wonder how one could reliably detect a substance whose properties are unknown for the most part. It might work by the exclusion principle, though.

  • Jas
    • Jas

      Power Determination and Hydrino Product Characterization of Ultra-low Field Ignition of Hydrated Silver Shots
      R. Mills1,2, Y. Lu1, R. Frazer1

      • artefact

        Mills wrote about that paper:

        “This paper presents gold standard confirmation of megawatt scale power and over two-orders-of–magnitude energy gain from the hydrino reaction, spectrum of the hydrino transition to H(1/4), and comprehensive identification of the molecular hydrino H2(1/4) product.”

        • Andreas Moraitis

          If possible, they should collect some H2(1/4) and send samples to external labs. I only wonder how one could reliably detect a substance whose properties are unknown for the most part. It might work by the exclusion principle, though.

  • US_Citizen71

    One of Axil’s recent posts on Muons got me to do a little Googling and I encountered this on the Muon wikipedia page https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon :

    “Negative muon atoms[edit]
    Negative muons can, however, form muonic atoms (previously called mu-mesic atoms), by replacing an electron in ordinary atoms. Muonic hydrogen atoms are much smaller than typical hydrogen atoms because the much larger mass of the muon gives it a much more localized ground-state wavefunction than is observed for the electron. In multi-electron atoms, when only one of the electrons is replaced by a muon, the size of the atom continues to be determined by the other electrons, and the atomic size is nearly unchanged. However, in such cases the orbital of the muon continues to be smaller and far closer to the nucleus than the atomic orbitals of the electrons.

    Muonic helium is created by substituting a muon for one of the electrons in helium-4. The muon orbits much closer to the nucleus, so muonic helium can therefore be regarded like an isotope of helium whose nucleus consists of two neutrons, two protons and a muon, with a single electron outside. Colloquially, it could be called “helium 4.1″, since the mass of the muon is slightly greater than 0.1 amu. Chemically, muonic helium, possessing an unpaired valence electron, can bond with other atoms, and behaves more like a hydrogen atom than an inert helium atom.[11][12][13]

    Muonic heavy hydrogen atoms with a negative muon may undergo nuclear fusion in the process of muon-catalyzed fusion, after the muon may leave the new atom to induce fusion in another hydrogen molecule. This process continues until the negative muon is trapped by a helium atom, and cannot leave until it decays.

    Finally, a possible fate of negative muons bound to conventional atoms is that they are captured by the weak-force by protons in nuclei in a sort of electron-capture-like process. When this happens, the proton becomes a neutron and a muon neutrino is emitted.”

    Sure sounds an awful lot like Mills’ Hydrino. Is the Sun Cell actually creating Muons and therefore generating heat via Muon catalyzed fusion?

  • Allan Shura

    Then in theory a hybrid design. The object would be then recapture of the reaction energy. If the
    plasma emits light there is only a 20% conversion rate but that is in energy accounting terms. The cost of the input needs to be 80% lower than the output if converted to dollar accounting. The heat would have to be recaptured in a generator or heat pump or substitute for distributed heating also added for the dollar accounting.

  • Allan Shura

    Then in theory a hybrid design. The object would be then recapture of the reaction energy. If the
    plasma emits light there is only a 20% conversion rate but that is in energy accounting terms. The cost of the input needs to be 80% lower than the output if converted to dollar accounting. The heat would have to be recaptured in a generator or heat pump or substitute for distributed heating also added for the dollar accounting.

  • Eyedoc

    Not really, EK ….. a person must buy their way in, only the blockchain geeks get to ‘creat credit’ for themselves……..just another fiat currency

  • sam
  • sam
  • sam

    Comment from Rossi Blog

    Eric Ashworth

    June 30, 2017 at 6:59 PM

    I know we all want Andrea to win his case against I.H. but my own feelings are that he not just up against I.H. but a lot of powerful people behind I.H.. Any technology that challenges big industry has major hurdles to jump over. The control that industry has on new technology is unbelievable unless you have come up against it yourself. While Andrea is out of commission with regards ourselves I think it a good time to inform a few people interested in physics the difficulty of introducing certain technologies that are labeled disruptive or before there time. The June 29th post by Cashmemorz regarding Randell Mills I found extremely interesting. Randell Mills puts forward a theory regarding oscillations within the atom. Unifying Field Oscillation technology also acknowledges that the atom contains oscillations and that these oscillations maintain identity by creating a static barrier that surrounds the unit. Something Einstein could not explain, when he said how is it that atoms do not flow together. Well it’s the internal oscillations that create the barrier. Unifying Field Oscillation technology is I believe as close as you can get to a mechanical Atom with unique capabilities especially in the aero industry whereby you can construct a building that can fly. A fire station, hospital etc. The embodied technology, although aroused a lot of interest with regards physicists at universities and research establishments was banned from being demonstrated by the powers that be. Big industries refused to comment and to develop a technology takes money and that’s where you get caught out because without the finance and required expertise the best technologies are dead in the water. To get an idea of the technology go to Unifying Field Oscillation Technology. So when people want to get into physics it’s best to remember that you are only told what certain people want you to know.