The Clustered Teeth of the E-Cat QX (Hank Mills)

The following post has been submitted by Hank Mills

What Andrea Rossi has achieved so far with the Quark seems phenomenally amazing. Moreover, I expect that the E-Cat QX has far more potential than mentioned in the presentation.

I think the E-Cat QX is connected with the phenomenon of EVOs (Exotic Vacuum Objects) intensely studied by Ken R. Shoulders, a holder of many patents, a man who was once named scientist of the year, and is known as the “Father of Micro-electrons” for his earlier work?

Ken Shoulders

Paper on Ectons

The same phenomenon he studied is also referred to by other names such as high density charged clusters, ectons (by several Russian teams), micro-ball lightning, condensed plasmoids, and a few others. Basically, they represent a well documented phenomenon in which electrons can overcome their mutual repulsion and cluster together in close proximity. They exist throughout nature and are at the heart of many different phenomena. A simple explanation of one method by which they can be produced is by a discharge between electrodes. The ultra high electrical gradients that occur at surface irregularities and protrusions on a cathode produce very high fields and current densities. A series of events take place, over a precariously short time-frame, that leads to a sudden temperature rise and a micro-explosion of the region of high field density. This releases not only a spray of particles but also a high density of electrons in a small volume. A portion of these electrons can cluster together, overcoming their repulsion, and form an EVO or “charged cluster.”

These charged clusters can behave quite anomalously. For instance, they often pull in and encapsulate positive ions from the environment or particles from their creation. (see more here: Ken R. Shoulders and others have been able to document that for no additional input kinetic energy beyond what would be required to accelerate the electron cluster, the “screened” or “shielded” interior heavy ion (such as a number of protons as one example) can be hurled onto a target anode at high speeds. Upon impacting the target, the transported heavy ion can possess millions of electron-volts: enough energy to produce nuclear events and transmutations. Ken Shoulders and other teams were able to document such transmutations. In addition, the passage of the EVO or charged cluster through metals can leave a path in which matter seems to be de-molecularized, as if the electron bonds holding the lattice together had been disrupted. SEM images of these boreholes and resulting slag are available on the net.

There are two additional mechanisms I’ve came across that could allow these charged clusters to produce nuclear reactions.

First, is that when these EVOs (which can assume different geometric configurations) orient themselves into torus shapes the electrical attract to pull exterior ions inwards can become intense, to the point that the pull can impart millions of electron volts to the tractored ions. Basically, these torus shaped EVOs could be considered atom grinders as new ions are smashed against those already present in the interior. The very nature of the EVO shields any hard radiation from escaping this electric “singularity” and the KE produced by the interior nuclear reactions is released upon impact on the anode.

Secondly, is that an EVO (perhaps with a proton at the core) could take the place of an electron in the orbit of a typical atom, reduce the barriers that inhibit nuclear reactions, and trigger LENR.

I expect that the Quark is producing EVOs via one of many mechanisms: including emission from the cathode during “ecton” explosions, in the plasma itself due to pumping with waveforms, or in the nickel cathode when a high loading of nickel results in the production of interior cracks/fissures in the lattice triggering fracto-emission. Moreover, the bombardment of the cathode by protons and other ions could not only produce the high loading ratios but also the physical impulses required to produce interior cracking. Basically, several of these mechanisms could work together, self re-inforcing each other, to produce the enormous COPs produced by the Quark.

Then, again, there could very well be other phenomenon at play: there could be more than one energy producing phenomena. But if EVOs are at play, it could explain some issues and yield even more possibilities. For example, the abnormal heating of your power supply (requiring active cooling). Also, if EVOs are being continuously created and destroyed, I expect a great deal of “longitudinal” — rather than traditional transverse — impulses to be emitted from your reactor. Instead of being idealy received by a traditionally oriented antenna, a long antenna positioned coaxially to the vector of propagation would optimally receive them. Or, with an antenna similar to what Nikola Tesla utilized, a circular metal sphere may intercept them. After reception, the power could be rectified in a number of ways and added to the output total.

My guess is that there’s more of this longitudinal impulse “power” being emitted (which travels through virtually all matter without producing a counter EMF via Lenz Law because of a lack of a magnetic component) than the heat you are able to produce. I expect these impulses may be most intense directly behind the electrodes where EVOs may be impacting, on either side of the QX reactor.

Again, if you’re not familiar with EVOs (charged clusters, ectons, charged plasmoids, etc) then please let me know and I can provide you with a multitude of links and papers.

  • BillH

    You seem to have all the answers, please reproduce the Rossi demo but without all the hidden parts?

    • Axil Axil

      Rossi’s reactor is very much like the Defkalion reactor. That reactor was well documented. Look there.

  • Dr. Mike

    What experiments would you propose to prove or disprove your theory?

  • Gerard McEk

    It would be nice when you would put all the known properties together. What do we actually know about them? Are they dangerous as radiation? How do you detect them? Are they sensitive for magnetic or electric fields? How do they behave in metals, conductors, insulating materials? Ken Shoulders has developed an apparatus to generate them, does it work in vacuum and also in plain air? Can you collect them? What is the biggest size and the smallest? Do you believe that H- is the smallest and active in LENR? I am sure there are many more questions. Can you give us an overview of everything of which there is a certain level of confidence? Thanks!

    • Zephir

      The EVOs are still one man show – Ken Shoulders. No existence of EVOs was demonstrated yet, their connection to cold fusion the less, the connection to Quark-X reactor of Andrea Rossi even less. Whole the above article is deeply speculative.

    • Axil Axil

      You can start your study here

      Nanoplamonics: The physics behind the application

      • Gerard McEk

        Axil, thanks! Do you believe that Charged Clusters, Exotic Vacuum Objects (Ken Schoulders terms) and ball lightning are a special forms of plasmoids? What I read is that SPP may exist at the surface of metals. I did not read anything like small balls (or big balls like ball lightning) have something to do with plasmoids.
        Edit: sorry I read above that you think it is the case and that monopoles play an important role.

        • Axil Axil

          Regarding monopole magnetism as a catalyst for LENR

          I have just run across an interesting tidbit when looking at the instanton write up in Wiki.

          This added mass comes from the creation of instantons as magnetic vortex packets that add mass to the quark.

          “In 3-dimensional gauge theories with Higgs fields, ‘t Hooft–Polyakov monopoles play the role of instantons. In his 1977 paper Quark Confinement and Topology of Gauge Groups, Alexander Polyakov demonstrated that instanton effects in 3-dimensional QED coupled to a scalar field lead to a mass for the photon.”

          I then looked up the paper by N. Seiberg, E. Witten

          Monopole Condensation, And Confinement In N=2 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

          What this says is that monopole magnetism can condense in the vacuum and form particles that have mass. When mass is added to the hadron, manly to quarks, they decay into mesons.

          In a more simple explanation, monopole magnetism pumps mass into a proton or a neutron until it decays into a meson.

        • Axil Axil

          See my post above regarding the TAO effect. This effect causes many small plasmoids to congeal into one large combined one.There are many nano and microstructures that can support polaritons. The Rossi effect most likely uses metallic hydrogen and/or lithium. Rossi’s fuel preparation process generates metallic hydrogen/lithium by compressing these elements under extreme pressure. This molecule of between 4 and 60 atoms supports polaritons on its surface and is produced through the compression of atoms in microcavities where the uncertainty principle provides the power of compression. Once formed, these molecules can float around. The TAO effect causes many of these molecules to combine into a large aggregate. It is this large luminous aggregate that is seen floating around inside the QX.

  • Engineer48


    I suggest the strong force disruption mechanism in the Gullstroem theory may replace the need for EVOs.

    This strong force disruption mechanism may be responsible for the pits and holes in metal that some claim are created by EVOs.

    Being able to disrupt the strong force could cause an atom to totally break apart. Once all the protons eject from the nucleus, the orbital electrons will break orbit, leaving behind a naken nucleus composed of only neutrons. Ie Neutronium. After 5x 11 minute half lifes, the neutrons will break apart into protons, electrons and anti neutrinos.

    Dod someone mention “Disruptors”?

    • Axil Axil

      The EVO (polariton) produces via monopole magnetism an increase in the mass of the quark via the increase in their spin energy. This increased mass changes the flavor of the quark to a higher mass quark that causes the hadron to decay.

      This added mass comes from the creation of instantons as magnetic vortex packets that add mass to the quark.

  • Engineer48

    It may be that the QX reactor is based on a new way to trigger a LENR reaction.

    Different from that used by Focardi, Piantelli and the earlier ECats.

    Aneutronic fission based on proton release via moderation of the strong force such that the electrostatic repulsion force between protons becomes greater than the attractive strong force.

    This releases a proton with KE, which converts to heat and as the proton reaches the surface of the electrode it generates a position ion current flow back to the control system.

    Very different form of LENR.

    • Axil Axil

      I don’t beleive that many people use the High tension arc to optimize the LENR output power production. The QX single control is sort of like the Defkalion spark activation but more organized.

      The monopole magnetic field produced by the EVO (polariton) produces quark change in the proton and neutron that converts them to mesons. This decay energy of the hadrons is where LENR gets its energy. It is not so much a fission process but more a subatomic particle decay process.

  • Brokeeper

    Perhaps there are multiple theories not just one provoked in the brew:
    “Boil thou first in the charmed pot!
    ALL. Double, double toil and trouble;
    Fire burn, and caldron bubble.” (Witch1)

  • Toussaint françois
  • Evo-cat-ive

    Bob Greenyer: my (anonymous) apologies for at least some of the doubts.

    • Bob Greenyer

      It is ok.

      Remember, EVOs, Rydberg matter and UDH, UDD are all Charge Clusters / Condensed Plasmoids, they are not atoms they are like a plasma, in that the electrons are not specifically associated with a particular nucleus, but in a condensed state. This is where nomenclature is really annoying.

      All need electrons.

      The smallest is the Cooper Pair

      The smallest including a positive ion is cooper pair + proton, otherwise called protide, H-, e-pe-, Negaton, Magnon etc.

  • Axil Axil

    Regarding:”Ken Shoulders also believed that EVO’s were capable of transforming into mini Black Holes, or in their various manifestations (all EVOs are not the same) could be harnessed for: Unlimited Energy production, Antigravity, Propulsion, Transmutation, Teleportation, Unimaginable destructive capability. Quite a list.”

    I beleive that the EVO is a nanoparticle or a cluster of nanoparticles that are produced by the vaporization of a metal by the high heat generated by the arc discharge or metallic hydrogen produce in through micro cavity compression via the uncertainty principle. Those nanoparticle(s) host surface plasmon polaritons on their surfaces that become entangled.

    Polaritons can be either bright of dark. The dark polaritons absorb energy and store it LIKE A BLACK HOLE. The bose condinsate formed by these polaritons act just like black holes in that they generate hawking radiation, the source of heat radiation. What goes into the Polariton BEC is high energy radiation and what comes out is hawking radiation (heat). These clusters of nanoparticles are self sustaining and feed off the decay of matter that they induce.

    Ken Shoulders saw in his experiments both white EVOs and Black EVOs. These EVOs correspond to the dark and bright polaritons that are well knowing in nanoplasmonics.

    Strange as it may seem, these EVO behave like the string theory predictions of tachyons. This prediction includes black hole behavior, monopole behavior, hadronization (meson production) and massive energy storage/high mass. Tachyons tracks have been seen in LENR ash.

    “How is an EVO Made: They are ubiquitous and usually made by sparking processes.
    The spark you make by static electricity contains mainly EVOs. Even breaking a rock or rapidly forming a bubble makes EVOs.”

    These processes produce nanoparticles that are excited by the energy around the site of nanoparticle formation carried in the form of EMF.

    I will not cover metallic hydrogen in this post.

    A polariton is an electron that has been entangled with a photon. This new particle loses its negative charge and most of its mass. Polaritons can combined together into a soliton as a bose condinsate because they are bosons. This is what gives the EVO their ability of these electron like particles to group together by the trillions.

    As Piantelli has shown in his experiments, It is true that polaritons can be formed on the surface of transition metal without a sparking process but the EVO is usually associated with sparking.

    Polaritons can also form on the surface of collapsing cavitation bubbles.

    Regarding: “In much of his work Shoulders describes EVO’s as discrete toroidal entities”

    The polariton as EVO exists in a toroidal entity called a whispering gallery wave where two contra rotating waves of photons circulate in a high Q mode (AKA little energy loss). The entangled electrons associated with the photon currents remain in a electron hole dipole in the metal that supports the EVO. The whispering gallery wave can be located at a distance from the metal that produced it.

    The whispering gallery wave is an optical microcavity, Science has resently demonstrated experimentally the emergence of spontaneous symmetry breaking in an ultrahigh-Q whispering-gallery microresonator. The Optical whispering gallery (WGW) microcavity is the structural form that the Surface Plasmon Polariton assumed in LENR. These whispering gallery modes are analogous to the acoustic resonances in the whispering gallery in St. Paul Cathedral in London.

    A critical clue to the role of symmetry breaking in LENR is the observation that the application of an electrostatic field catalyzes spontaneous symmetry breaking in the WGW via the Kerr effect. In the quiescent magnetic state, the WGW produces a magnetic field like a dipole magnet. But these field lines can be slightly anisotropic and these magnetic field lines will produce a minimal LENR effect.

    But when a high voltage electrostatic field is applied to the WGW, the index of refraction inside the wave becomes complex via the KERR effect and the counter rotating photon currents combine into a unified current.

    This activated WGW is now transformed from a magnetic dipole to a magnetic monopole thus greatly amplifying its magnetic strength. This structure can now produce a powerful LENR response in proportion to the number and energy content of photons that are circulating inside the WGW.

    Regarding: :”capable of forming chains of inter-twined toroids”

    When the high voltage electrostatic field is applied, the TAO Effect is also applied to a group of WGWs (AKA polariton solitons),

    The polariton soliton is a superconductor because it is a Bose condinsate and as such is subject to the TAO effect.

    Theorists succumb to Tao

    Mysterious microscopic spheres could point towards an unconventional theory for superconductivity

    From: the Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia US

    Some 20 years ago physicists thought they understood almost everything about superconductivity. Below a certain temperature elements such as mercury suddenly lose all resistance to electric current due to electrons forming pairs, in accordance with the famous Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. But in 1986 the discovery of copper oxide materials that become superconducting at relatively high temperatures wrecked this view. Today, high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates still remains a puzzle, but could it be that our understanding of conventional superconductors is even beginning to show cracks? According to Jorge Hirsch of the University of California in San Diego, a phenomenon called the Tao effect cannot be explained by the conventional BCS theory, and instead requires an alternative electrodynamic description that applies to all superconductors (Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 187001).

    Superconducting surprise: The Tao effect was discovered in 1999 by the present author and co-workers at Southern Illinois University and Princeton University. To our complete surprise, when we applied a strong electric field to a group of superconducting microparticles we found that millions of them spontaneously aggregated into balls about a millimetre in size. Normal metallic particles either bounce between the two electrodes in a DC electric field or form chains in an AC electric field, so the field-induced formation of balls appears to be unique to superconductors.

    The Tao effect was first observed with powders of high-temperature superconductors such as bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide. However, subsequent experiments performed in 2002 and 2003 with low-temperature superconducting powders, and also with magnesium diboride, confirmed that die effect occurs for all superconductors. The interaction between superconductors and an electric or magnetic field is an important topic in superconductivity. As early as 1935, more than 60 years before superconducting balls were first observed, Fritz London and his brother Heinz suggested that superconductors and normal conductors should respond differently to static electric fields. In particular, they predicted that a static electric field could penetrate into superconductors as far as a static magnetic field. In our initial experiments with low-temperature superconductors, we found that two critical values of electric field occurred as the strength of the field was increased. The first was the point at which the superconducting microparticles suddenly started to aggregate into stable balls, beyond which the size of the ball started to decrease until the second critical value was reached. At this point, the balls instantaneously disintegrated and flew onto the electrodes.

    When Ken Shoulders was working, the polariton was not discovered, but in the last 10 years, its nature is intensively studied. The polariton is a condensed matter entity. It needs a metal surface to form. But after formation it can become decoupled from that metal surface and float around. The entangled electrons that are part of the polariton condensate are still a part of the electron/hole dipole, it is the photon portion of the polariton that can travel.

    As the polariton soliton extracts energy from quarks in the matter around it, the polariton soliton stores that energy in WGWs and the LENR effect becomes more powerful over time, because the new photons add more spin to the WGW. As the energy content of the WGW increases, the frequency of the photons increases from infrared to extreme ultraviolet. (1)

    Fabiani revealed that he has seen balls of light eating the structure of a reactor when the activation signal is applied. So Rossi has produced the EVO and it is the cause of his reaction.

    1 – The equation for photon energy is {displaystyle E={frac {hc}{lambda }}} E = hc/y
    Where E is photon energy, h is the Planck constant, c is the speed of light in vacuum and y is the photon’s wavelength…um-phase-transitions.html

    Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions

    A new and elegant take on Quantum Mechanics has arrived on the scene just in time to help explain how LENR works. With this new tool, dynamic systems are understood to include phase transitions at the extreme limits of their solution sets.

    Dynamic operators that have been only discovered a few years ago are now widely used in quantum optics which is at the heart of the LENR reaction.

    Phase transitions are hot in physics now central to the understanding of the Higgs field, optics with changing indices of refraction, and superconductivity all demonstrate phase transitions and the famous Mexican hat upside down potential that only using the complex number set can properly explain.

    In this figure, think of the blue optical resonators as the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) with a whispering gallery wave structure. The red toroids are the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

    In this experimental setup explained by the figure, coupled optical resonators (paired red and blue toroids on little pedestals) are PT symmetry systems. When they are tuned through a “phase transition” light, instead of moving through them in both directions, can only travel one way.
    In LENR terms when a phase transition occurs is the SPP optical resonators, and when a proton decays, the energy of that decay in the form of a Gamma ray can only be absorbed by the SPP. Light energy cannot move from the SPP into the proton.

    We learn from this model that quantum theories need not obey the conventional mathematical condition of Hermiticity so long as they obey the physical geometric condition of space-time-reflection symmetry (PT symmetry).

    PT symmetry challenges a standard convention in physics—the widely held belief that a quantum Hamiltonian must be Hermitian. And, because PT symmetry is a weaker condition than Hermiticity, there are infinitely many Hamiltonians that are PT symmetric but non-Hermitian; we can now study new kinds of quantum theories that would have been rejected in the past as being unphysical. Moreover, PT-symmetric systems exhibit a feature that Hermitian systems cannot; as indicated in the energy levels become complex when energy from outside the system changes in the system.

    The transition from real to complex energies is a key feature of PT-symmetric systems and it is called the PT phase transition. At this transition the system goes from a state of physical equilibrium (called a state of unbroken PT symmetry) to nonequilibrium (broken PT symmetry).

    LENR occurs when PT symmetry is broken in an optical micro cavity.

    From this post:

    Fabiani alludes to the KERR effect as the E-Cat stimulus E-Cat reaction as follows:

    “Over the years we realized that the reaction needs more stimuli than only heating. Everyone thinks that thermal stimulus is enough but that’s just the beginning. It’s not enough for maximum efficiency. It’s the base, the synthesis of the reaction. But the reaction has almost behaviors as of living matter, and it has responses as a function of the stimuli. They can be of many types other than thermal. And these are the ones that trigger, let’s call it the most fun part of it, allowing excellent gains in terms of response to the stimuli.”

    Fabiani then talks about the SPP as a soliton of photons(ball lightning) and the KERR effect that activates that soliton as follows:

    Talking about the validity of the E-Cat technology, Fabiani continues:

    “With the failures, I found myself having to believe in it. Why? Because when something fails, you see the behavior of the object. The next time you adjust it, then you see that it behaves very differently. And then you realize that it is something unique. We have it all filmed, which still cannot be disclosed. We have photographs of creatures that emit pure light that have completely melted the reactor down, all in a very quiet way. You just turn off the stimuli system and the reaction is switched off. It’s impressive.

    A characteristic of the stimulus that can be distilled from the Fabiani quotes is that the stimulus is EMF field based. Study of the KERR effect reveals how its behavior is instructive in how LENR behaves including self sustaining mode.

    The DC Kerr effect, is the special case in which a slowly varying external electric field is applied by, for instance, a voltage on electrodes across the sample material. Polariton lifetimes are measured in picoseconds or at most microseconds. The polariton soliton must be restimulated after it comes into existence so that it can reach optimum power projection. Polaritons are not in equilibrium with new polaritons replacing dead ones on a short timescale. The electrostatic activation field must be constant in order to sustain the polariton at nominal power levels.

    In the optical or AC Kerr effect, an intense beam of light in a medium can itself provide the modulating electric field, without the need for an external field to be applied. In terms of the LENR reaction, the light produced by the polariton grows so bright, that the KERR field is self stimulating. This situation occurs in self sustain mode where the reaction builds on itself to the point where the light (aka white EVO) that it generates equals in intensity of the power produced by a laser, a self sustaining light level.

    In the Demo, Rossi was running the QX at 30% maximum power. This is achieved by reducing the electrostatic field strength so that the power projection of the polaritons is not optimized. When the QX runs at maximum power, the voltage applied to the electrodes is maximized. So the voltage level that produces the electrostatic field controls the power level of the QX.

    Only under maximum electrostatic stimulation is the self sustain condition reached. But there is a danger that the reaction will become supercritical when running in self sustain mode. This is the meltdown condition.

    Rossi protects against meltdown in the QX because the solid metal nanoparticles that support the polariton of entangled electron dipole motion is vaporized at high temperature, This kills all the polaritons in the QX. When the temperature of the plasma becomes low enough for metal

    A few more QX design factors can be extracted by considering the implications of the nature of the KERR stimulus control mechanism.

    Because the KERR effect is mediated by an electrostatic field, the material that the QX is made from must allow that field to get through the reactor structure and into the fuel. Therefore the structural material must be a non metal. Rossi might use non metals throughout the QX structure to avoid field absorption and to enable better control of that field.

    Many QX tubes can be controlled by one all encompassing electrostatic field. A direct wire connection does not need to be made to each QX tube.

    Regarding: “The principle requirement for generating an EV is to rapidly concentrate a very high, uncompensated electric charge in a small volume.”

    The entanglement of the polariton with a photon requires that the photon and the electron be in contact for a period long enough for the two to reach the same energy level. This thermalization between the electron and the photon is made possible when the electron can be localized in a limited space. Localization of the electron happen around bumps and in cracks in metals, A process called Anderson localization is central to this process of Polariton entanglement.

    Many LENR reactors use rough metal surfaces to catalyze the LENR reaction. This surface preparation of a metal surface can be done using metal vapor deposition (Piantelli) or either spark (Mizuno) or laser resurfacing. By their nature (topological), nanoparticles produce near ideal surface conditions for localizing electrons.

    For your convenience

    Also see post: “Rossi’s conference call”

    • Gerard McEk

      If you believe in what you have written, Axil, and I am sure you do, you must be able to draw a picture of how to replicate the QX including the electrical requirements needed to control it. Would you be willing to do that?
      And, thanks for this article!

  • Axil Axil

    The mass from the atom is converted by the EVO into hawking’s radiation which is thermal level heat.

    • f sedei

      The EVO theory is not totally convincing to me.

      • Axil Axil

        The key causative factor in the LENR reaction is monopole magnetism. There are many methods of generating monopole magnetism of which the EVO is only one. For example, rare earth magnets can produce monopole magnetism and therefore can produce the LENR reaction. The collapsing cavitation bubble is another causation mechanism.

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