Weyl-Kondo Quantum Semi-metal Defines Deuterated Palladium (Russ George)

The following post was originally published by Russ George on the Atom Ecology website here, and is reposted here with permission.

December 21, 2017

An international team of physicists has just now “stumbled upon” an entirely new quantum material, which they have called “Weyl-Kondo semi-metal”.

In these quirky materials scientists don’t necessarily have the theories to predict the behaviour of such quantum materials, more often they create them experimentally first and measure them to observe their properties hoping the observations of new facts might one day lead to new theories.

Are we heading back to the roots of physics where observed mysteries comes first and theory only thereafter?
The new findings, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, come from a team at the Vienna University of Technology carrying out experimental work to develop new materials, and a team at Rice University carrying out theoretical work.

‘We really just stumbled upon this, suddenly, we found that the mass (of material in hand) had gone from like 1,000 times the mass of an electron to zero,’ said Dr Lai.

This is a definitive atom-ecology phenom characteristic of “Weyl fermions”, elusive particles first proposed over 80 years ago. The scientists understood that their particles were originating due to a phenomenon known as the “Kondo effect”, leading them to name their new material Weyl-Kondo semi-metal. Another characteristic of this ‘quantum material’ are its powerful interactions, beyond the potency of interactions defined or even predicted by standard physics.

Cold Fusion created a firestorm of dogmatic controversy in the world of physics, it was and is outside of the box of simple physics and demands a quantum mechanism… click to read more

The key to the new quantum material? Palladium, or rather doped palladium, a good starting point as palladium when doped with other elements such as deuterium has already shown the extraordinary characteristic of suddenly becoming a super-conductor another of the Weyl-Kondo expected characteristics.

Of course the anomalous results of the late great Martin Fleischmann and his colleague Stanley Pons are even more unexpected characteristics of their favoured ‘quantum-material’.

March 29, 1989

You might recall their momentous announcement of their findings following publication of their first paper in a prestigious journal of electro-chemistry…. their discovery became known as ‘COLD FUSION.’

The announcement of the room temperature fusion back in March of 1989 drew immediate attention around the world. It was so inexplicable that famous Nobel Laureates in Physics including Glen Seaborg, Linus Pauling, and Edward Teller soon declared that the effect must be a quantum effect. That quantum effect would allow for the screening of the normal Coulomb repulsion that keeps hydrogen nuclei from getting near enough to spontaneously fuse.

In November 1989, the Energy Research Advisory Board of the Department of Energy in the United States made five recommendations regarding Cold Fusion, among them, to check for the production of helium and of tritium in the electrolyte in which cold fusion was supposed to have occurred.

Helium, especially 4He and tritium have appeared in many cold fusion experiments in Japan, Italy, Russia, USA, Canada, India and China, and according to Li Xing Zhong at Tsinghua University Beijing China, it is one of the strongest pieces of evidence for condensed matter nuclear reactions, as it implies a new mechanism operating at low energy: selective resonance tunnelling (a quantum effect).

Here’s a link to a report in the Magazine WIRED revealing my finding of 4He in a controlled experiment. Side by side in real-time over 28 days helium was measured in palladium exposed to normal hydrogen, the control, and deuterium the active cold fusion reactor. The graph pictured is a spoiler for the report.

Above is a sample of data showing a rise in 4He in a simple “cold fusion” experiment. Across the bottom in green is one set of data points where simple hydrogen was loaded into palladium, the red data set shows the identical experiment running deuterium gas. By simply heating the materials to 200 C abundant helium is produced. Experiment conducted at Stanford Research by Russ George sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto.

“The word quantum in quantum materials means they have properties that cannot be described by classical physics – we have to invoke quantum physics,” said Dr Amalia Coldea, a quantum materials researcher at the University of Oxford of this new finding.

While this new research is still of interest primarily to other quantum researchers, lead author Prof Buehler-Paschen is clear about where it could ultimately lead.

“Currently we design these materials to find new effects,” she said. “We search for them because these effects could be very useful, with technological applications.”

The most celebrated quantum materials are the high-temperature superconductors discovered in the 1980s, so named for their ability to conduct electrical current without resistance at temperatures well above those of traditional superconductors. Deuterated palladium is just such a superconductor.

Another classic example is the heavy fermion materials discovered in the late 1970s. In these, electrons appear to be effectively hundreds of times more massive than normal and, equally unusual, the effective electron mass seems to vary strongly as temperature changes. Could it be that these massive electron charges inside of the ultra-dense metallic deuterium that is its natural state when loaded into a palladium lattice is responsible for ‘cold fusion.’

Holmlid fusion


“Mesons from Laser-Induced Processes in Ultra Dense Hydrogen H(0)” – Leif Holmlid – Published: January 12, in PLOS ONE. It seems a very unusual form of ultra dense fusion is in hand in an incredibly simple to reproduce form with all the precision particle physics anyone might ever demand to substantiate it. Click here to read more

A scant few experimentalists and even fewer theoretical physicists have dedicated their careers to explaining the workings of such quantum materials. Much of the theoretical work focuses on the collective behavior that emerges in electronic materials undergoing transformation from one quantum state to another. It is near such points of transformation, or “quantum critical points,” that phenomena like high-temperature superconductivity and associated cold fusion effects are observed to occur.

These ‘quantum materials’ share some of the characteristics of topological insulators, a type of quantum material that gained international attention following the awarding of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics. Topological materials have only been defined in insulators, and electricity would flow only on the materials’ surface and not through the bulk. The topological conductors, however, carry electricity in the bulk, thanks to the Weyl fermions.

“These topological conductors can be described within the textbook framework of independent electrons,” Grefe said. “The central question, as challenging as it is fascinating, is this: What happens when the electron correlations are strong?”

Si, Lai and Grefe demonstrated that their zero-mass fermions are intimately tied to both strong electron correlations and nontrivial topology.

“We quickly realized that these are Weyl fermions that originate from a quintessential strong-correlation physics called the Kondo effect,” Grefe said. “We therefore dubbed this state a Weyl-Kondo semimetal.”

The Kondo effect captures how a band of electrons, which are so strongly correlated with each other that they act as localized spins, behave in a background of conduction electrons.

“We found that the Kondo effect makes the Weyl fermions move with a velocity that differs by several orders of magnitude from the noninteracting case,” Lai said. “This allowed us to predict that the electron correlations will enhance a particular quantity in the temperature dependence of the specific heat by a mind-boggling factor of a billion.”

Effectively these massive electron charges combined with the characteristic that they are behaving at room temperature rather like they were a billion times hotter is the very bridge classical HOT FUSION had demanded for COLD FUSION to exist.

There remain some mysteries in cold fusion amongst which are the clearly missing highly energetic radiations that accompany typical HOT FUSIONS of deuterons, but that’s another part of the story, stay tuned.

Russ George

  • Alan DeAngelis

    “….From the media accounts, the Pons and Fleischmann
    experiment appeared to have been motivated by the speculation that since
    electrons in a conduction band move collectively, it is possible for a
    conduction-band electron to act as if it were much more massive than a free
    electron. Thus, if there is a dislocation in the matrix of palladium ions, a
    site at which occupancy by two deuterium ions is marginally possible, an
    electron between these two deuterium ions might, by virtue of is effectively
    greater mass, bring them close enough for fusion to occur. The contradiction
    between the observed large heat release and the very small neutron yield may be
    explained by making the further assumption that catalyzed cold fusion is a
    different process from thermal fusion. In thermal deuterium-deuterium fusion
    the 4He nuclei is an extremely short-lived intermediate; the two deuterons come
    together with both the energy of the reaction and the thermal energy needed to
    overcome the coulombic barrier. This thermal energy brings with it considerable
    angular momentum. Since the 4He nuclei is isolated, the only ways in which it
    can dispose of the excess energy and angular momentum are by decomposition to
    3He + n and to T + H. In catalyzed cold fusion, however, the situation is quite
    different. The 4He nucleus is formed without significant angular momentum or
    thermal energy and is not isolated in that the electron which catalyzed the
    fusion event is available to remove excess energy.

    Thus one possible explanation for the production of heat without corresponding
    neutron production is that when fusion is catalyzed by conduction-band
    electrons in palladium the dominant reaction is to 4He, with 3He + n and T + H
    only minor side reactions….”

    Richard K. Lyon May 15, 1989 letter to C&E News

    • Da Phys

      If the case, then how to explain that 3He+n and T+H remain the two dominant channels in muon catalyzed fusion, knowing that in muCF both deuterons don’t carry high angular momentum?

      • Alan DeAngelis

        Yeah, and there is mostly helium-4 formed without a gamma
        ray. So, I think (if you want dignify it with that word) that palladium
        deuteride D~Pd~D is undergoing IR stretching and doing something similar to an
        Oppenheimer-Phillips reaction where both the deuterons are absorbed by the
        palladium to form cadmium in and excited state, Cd* that in turn fissions into
        two alphas.

        D~Pd~D > Cd* > Pd + 2 He 24 MeV of kinetic energy with no gamma ray

        • Alan DeAngelis

          Pardon me. Only one He.

          D~Pd~D > Cd* > Pd + He 24 MeV no gamma

          • There is some sparse evidence in isotope ratios for such OP pathways but with the plethora of Pd and Cd isotopes this is a complex issue, not all isotopes are equally subject to slow fusion. It is a rich pathway for study but not the principal 4He path.

          • Alan DeAngelis

            Yeah, in my one sentence letter to C&E News (May 15, 1989) where I misspelled Fleischmann, I thought that there might be an O-P (“stripping”) reaction taking place.

            Pd-108 (d,p) Pd-109

            Pd-109 > Ag-109 + e

          • Alan DeAngelis


            Also, in the Mitsubishi transmutation experiments even numbers of deuterons are reacting with the metals. This plus the lack of a 24 MeV gamma ray and the creation of helium-4 makes me thinking of this.

            Pd + 2d > Cd* > Pd + He


          • Alan DeAngelis


            This might explain why the super saturation of Pd with deuterium is important.

            The stoichiometry is critical.

          • The evidence is very clear in the isotope ratios for the Pd to Ag path.

          • Alan DeAngelis

            Yeah, I was happy to see that soon after that John Dash was finding Ag on his cathodes that were giving off heat. So, perhaps the wild guess that I sent off by snail mail to C&E News a few weeks after the F&P announcement wasn’t that crazy (or maybe it was totally crazy but by
            dumb luck I got it right).

  • Pekka Janhunen

    “Quantum metal” sounds a loosely defined concept. It could mean many things. That something is “quantum” is no big news because everything is “quantum”, in principle.

    In place of ether, modern physics has spacetime and vacuum.

    Everything is a wave until measured, and then it becomes a particle. Measurement means that the quantum physical system interacts with a classical measurement apparatus. “Classical” means that it consists of so large number of quantum systems that classical physics is a good approximation to it. But no one understands it. There are many obscure interpretations attempts of it, so-called many-world is one of them. Physicists have just learned a recipe how to calculate things meaningfully. But the results match with nature.

  • LilyLover

    What is quantized?

  • Pekka Janhunen

    In Standard Model, vacuum is the minimum energy state which corresponds to the absence of particles and waves. The Standard Model is defined by its Lagrangian, and vacuum is the state which corresponds to the potential energy of that Lagrangian reaching its minimum. Things can be messy (false vacuum) if the minimum is only local but not global. The vacuum is the state on top of which quantum fluctuations occur.

    It is true that modern physics has ceased to be friends with common sense. But it produces results that agree with measurements, which is quite an achievement. So the problem is not with modern physics, but with our common sense. We do not have everyday experience about the spatial and energy scales where quantum physics and relativity become important. Consequently they look strange to us.

  • The Weyl fermions are counterpart of Dirac fermions observed in graphene. They’re analogy of Falaco solitons, which can be created at the water surface. Dirac fermions emerge, when the electrons get compressed within crystal lattice like the droplets fluid compressed by surface tension inside the hydrophobic sponge – in this environment the scalar component (longitudinal waves) becomes dominant. The Weyl fermions arise from environment, where the electrons get soaked into its pores instead. We can imagine electric current in such an environment like the motion of procession along narrow street of crowded city – the crowd must make place for it by retreating into neighboring streets (and to return back once the cortege passes). The motion of every electron is thus followed by motion of many others in perpendicular direction – such an electron is therefore propagating like much heavier particle than it actually is.

    With compare to Weyl fermions, the Dirac fermions behave like the particles, which are forced to squeeze through a narrow holes during their motion across porous material. They’re traveling in brief jumps and they’re returning back a bit after finishing each jump like elastic spring. The time reversed component of motion therefore becomes strong with these objects too – it just applies in direction parallel to electron motion direction, not perpendicularly to it like at the case of Weyl fermions. As a whole the Dirac electrons move with high average speed like much more lightweight particle (wave), than they actually are. From this aspect of motion the notion of light fermion and heavy fermion materials arises: the light fermion material gives its charge carriers character of waves, the heavy fermion material enforce their particle character by introduction of adjacent vorticity (magnetic spinor field) to their motion.

    Just for completeness, there should exist third, weirdest group of quasiparticles, which combines the character of both Dirac, both Weyl particles – so called the Majorana fermions. You may imagine them like material which slows down the electrons by forcing them to squeeze across screw-like holes. Such an electrons will also jump back and forth, but they will be forced to change their spin during it, so that they will behave like their own antiparticle during it. Because Dirac fermions are domain of topological insulators and Weyl fermions are common in superconductors, it was predicted and subsequently demonstrated, that Majorana modes could exist at the phase interface of both (like between Indium antimonide – Niobium nanowires ).

    • Pekka Janhunen

      I have speculated that if some charged particle population becomes effectively massless, then it plasma frequency becomes infinite so that the material intercepts any electromagnetic wave including gammas. That would provide coupling from nuclear degrees of freedom which would stimulate many nuclear reactions while at the same time letting the reactions happen without gamma ray emission. Which is what one sees in LENR, broadly speaking.

      • There’s no doubt that the cold fusion is collective result of multiple colliding atom nuclei (Zephir), or their electrons (Widom-Larsen) or possibly both.

    • Even though our Weyl fermions have no mass, their speed is extremely low. Similarly to Falaco solitons, they’re propagating a much slower than the speed of native waves (polarons) in their environment. But they can be never fully stopped – or they would decay. They also have
      character of magnetic monopoles, though their monopoles come in pairs. Both aspects make Weyl fermions potentially important for overunity devices (like the magnet based motors and MEG), where one needs to change the properties of environment faster than the speed of energy
      propagation in an environment given. In particular the Floyd Sweet and Manelas Device could be based on Weyl fermions within strontium ferrites.

      Please note, that mesons correspond the Weyl fermions at nuclear scale: vortex pairs floating at the surface of atom nuclei droplets and being quite stable there. This pairing is quite visible on the curve of binding energies , though it vanishes for larger number of nucleons, so that meson theory of nuclear forces lost its merit soon. In Standard Model they’re considered a bosons in similar way, like the Weyl fermions –
      thought they’re actually an anyons – and intermediate particle between fermion and boson. String theory handles it by a concept of open string attached to a Dirichlet brane. String theorists probably never realized that they have practical
      example of their speculations before their eyes – not to say, that they will never observe any better one.

  • /* The brain starts to melt away from the fact that the photon is simultaneously a wave and a particle. */

    This is actually very common in Nature for artifacts called the solitons. At the water surface we can rarely see pure harmonic waves – but usually just a Russel’s solitons. The Weyl particles are just another type of solitons (which can be also generated at the water surface as so-called Falaco solitons). Photons are also nothing but solitons of light wave – the only reason why they’re not labeled so is ideological: the notion of massive environment forming the vacuum, i.e. the aether, which the soliton concept would imply. So that the photons and particle-wave duality concepts are presented like a mystery.

  • Pekka Janhunen

    Electromagnetic waves propagate in the electromagnetic field. A field is a quantity that exists everywhere, fills all space. The Standard Model has many fields, one of them is the electromagnetic field. Some of the fields describe particles (quarks and leptons), some describe interactions between them. Everything is a field, except gravity which is slightly different because it’s thought to be a geometric property (metric) of the spacetime.

  • /* They all the same critiquing QM and GR etc but that is where similarity ends. They define ether as gas or liquid and photon can be a particle or a wave in the ether and so on. */

    In dense aether model Universe is emergent system derived from random gas behavior and the vacuum can undergo various phases, being formed from the same material like the visible matter. QM and GR are theories describing the vacuum phase from particular energy density/distance scale perspectives. The water surface analogies are routinely applied.

    GUT theories are already developed, Burkhard Heim, Sylwester Kornowski and Nigel B. Cook in particular did achieve remarkable success in prediction of particle masses.

    • Max Nozin

      Will take long for me to absorb these 3. But before I start 2 have to go. We can not have more than 1 GUT for the only reality. I do not care if quantum mech-math people prove it can be N:1.
      Save me time pick one please.

      • Of these Nigel B. Cook‘s theory is certainly the best one: theory is based on recursive supergravity shielding model and resulting formulas are also these simplest and most elegant ones (they reflect the actual nested vortex structure of elementary particles). Kornowski model is way more superficial (it uses some empirical constants, like the mass of mesons) and Heim’s theory is notoriously cryptic one. But we may find many other interesting derivations of particles on the net, for example from Randel Mills or Stephanian-Cohandel.

  • BTW It’s nice that cold fusion supporters are occasionally educated in solid state physics, but the above article is superficial and it provides only vague connection of cold fusion to subject. Despite it deals with heavy electrons, the dominant Widom-Larsen theory based on this concept isn’t mentioned there at all.

    Widom-Larsen theory proposes that “heavy electrons” formed at the surface of palladium hydride react with a proton in the palladium nucleus in an inverse beta decay process (e- + p+ -> n + neutrino). The required electron mass enhancement is proposed to be the result of very high electromagnetic fields produced by surface plasmon polariton resonance. The neutron produced would have “ultra low momentum,” and thus very high capture cross-section. These neutrons can then cause transmutation and energy release. However this theory has its critiques too.

    • Alan DeAngelis

      A few weeks after the F&P announcement Larry A Hull (in a letter to Chemical and Engineering
      News, May 15, 1989, page3) proposed the mechanism of a deuteron capturing an electron to become nn, “dineutronium”. http://disq.us/p/v91dbc

    • Andreas Moraitis

      Some scepticism towards W-L theory is certainly justified. But how could one explain the results of Don Borghi’s experiment (1960)? Santilli has proposed that the produced ‘neutrons’ might actually be a dense hydrogen species (“a new bound state of protons and electrons at short distances”, https://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0608229.pdf , p. 6). This resembles various other theories around. The most interesting question is how these ‘fake neutrons’ would behave when they get in contact with surrounding nuclei. Would their proton be captured since the electron neutralizes its Coulomb field, or might they even form loosely bound states that would actually look like heavier nuclei?

      • Pekka Janhunen

        In space plasmas, plasma waves exist which accelerate a minority of the particles to very high energy (cosmic rays). Maybe something similar happened in Don Borghi’s experiment. If one gets some high energy protons, they could knock out some neutrons from the wall materials.

      • Actually Widom-Larsen theory doesn’t consider dense hydrogen and in systems with low number of electrons (like the hydrogen/deuterium plasma) it would have problems to run. Instead of it, the W-L theory can explain many nuclear transmutations of heavier elements (with lotta electrons) where increase of nucleon number by one has been actually observed (typically the electrolysis of potassium salts on nickel cathode).

  • Here’s a different view to the new world of SLOW FUSION, as in cold fusion… should have know it would take a woman to tell us that fusion needs a slow hand… http://atom-ecology.russgeorge.net/2017/12/24/slow-fusion/

    • Alan DeAngelis

      …Don’t move too fast

      And you want your love to last

      Oh, you’ve been movin’ much too fast… https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n32cJLmHCsU

      • Music has the uncanny nature of being able to unlock the process of imagination, it is imagination that drives science and discovery

    • LION
    • Da Phys

      Agreed that cold fusion is slow. Slow is beautiful. A slow branch of D-D fusion can be easily explained through the weak interaction and low angular momentum. With then the production of sub-particules, your “mischugenons”.
      What is still missing in this love affair is why fast fusion doesn’t occur. Unfortunately for us, fast processes preceed slow ones. Two years now that we are working on this. Decode Signal Project. Without success. I’m sure this is the missing piece of the puzzle to unravel cold/slow fusion.

  • I think that if some people wouldn’t be lenr-forum admins, it would balance the things enough. Sometimes less is more.

    Merry Christmas to You too!

  • /* Gravity is an emergent force. */

    Nigel Cook’s theory actually is thermodynamic based theory. Emergent gravity also predicts inverse square law


  • No one talks about gravitons here…

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