Growing the Doped Diamond Whiskers of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat

The following post has been submitted by “the Director”

(Please check out my blog for a more in-depth and complete version of this article at my blog the Electron Clusters Project: Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat Effect: A Process Using Carbon, Low Work Function Dopants, and Atomic Hydrogen for “Negative Electron Affinity” Diamond Synthesis.)

I don’t believe that Andrea Rossi has a single, sole, solitary catalyst and nor does the even more enigmatic me356. The complete picture, only now coming into focus, is much more interesting. In short, I propose that inside these LENR reactors a complex, dynamic interaction between atomic hydrogen, various forms of carbon, and additional doping elements (namely lithium among others) combine on a heated nickel surface to produce diamond structures. With an ultra low work function and Negative Electron Affinity, these diamonds produce negative hydrogen ions (protons with addition electrons) and various forms of Exotic Vacuum Objects (EVOs) or “strange radiation.” The final result is the triggering of cold fusion and excess heat.

Let’s start with basics. Me356 claimed to have used Ni 200 alloy nickel vaping wire which contains carbon and is documented to precipitate graphite. In addition to the fact that he may have stumbled onto the E-Cat effect after exposing nickel to hydrocarbons from coal gas, Andrea Rossi has typically used “carbonyl nickel” powder that contains carbon residue from the manufacturing process. What’s interesting is that for CVD diamond synthesis, nickel is the best out of a very short list of elements that can function as suitable substrates: with copper perhaps coming in second. The next ingredient needed is atomic hydrogen – which we know has been a critical component in every E-Cat reactor since this saga began. Now is when the action starts!

When atomic hydrogen plasma comes into contact with a nickel surface, protons impact the surface, instantly burrow into the lattice, and produce a shallow film of nickel hydride. Due to the melting temperature of nickel hydride being approximately 1150C (much lower than around 1450C for pure nickel) this surface layer can exist as a liquid. This nickel hydride and the showers of protons impact any carbon present. Regardless if the carbon has been precipitated from the nickel, deposited from a percent or two of hydrocarbon (methane or carbon monoxide) added to the plasma, or seeded with nano-diamond powder, the atomic hydrogen starts to break apart the graphite (sp2) bonds and convert them into diamond (sp3) bonds. The high percentage of atomic hydrogen along with the nickel hydride layer make sure that diamond structures are preferentially formed, rather than graphite.

The diamond structures that result can take many geometric forms, sometimes even spikes or needle like “whiskers” that can enhance electric fields. Importantly, due to the hydrogen present, they can be “doped” in such a way so their work function has been lowered and they posses a NEA or “negative electron affinity.” Additional elements added to the plasma such as lithium can also act as dopants: sometimes lowering the work function even further. During high temperature operation, the bonds of some number of the atoms doping the diamond surface can be broken. Interestingly, the presence of high temperature lithium vapor, hydrogen gas, and especially a continual plasma of atomic hydrogen or lithium can keep these emitter structures continually regenerated — adding atoms and molecules back to the surface.

The electrons, negative hydrogen ions (likely a class of EVOs in and of themselves), strange radiation, and other EVOs emitted by these diamond structures are what I think trigger LENR. The heat, light, radiation, and cycles of fracto-emission (EVOs generated when the embrittled nickel hydride surface fractures) keep the interior temperature high which sustains the operation of these emitters and keep their surfaces regenerated. This is a lively and constantly ongoing process!

Looking at the operation of the E-Cat and other LENR systems from this perspective offers many paths forward for replicators. The practical side of cold fusion no longer seems so mysterious. By utilizing atomic hydrogen sources (from direct current glow discharge, corona discharge, radio frequency generators, microwave sources, hot tungsten filaments, etc) and various sources of carbon along with nickel, we can produce ultra-low work function electron emitters – likely what Rossi originally described as his ever so critical tubercules or tubercles.

For more information including other useful dopants, carbon allotropes, and some practical considerations, please check out the full version of this article.

  • Ophelia Rump

    Please excuse me for being a little uninformed but is there an actual fuel being consumed or transmuted here?
    Where does the energy which is released come from?

    I understand that there is transmutation, but is that where the energy comes from, or is that only a byproduct of the reaction?
    Could the energy be flowing from a vast reservoir of potential energy?

    What I am getting at is: in theory cold you perhaps engineer a material to sustain this reaction indefinitely? Rossi earlier alluded to being able to re-initialize the nickel used, and use it repeatedly, which apparently did not bother anyone but me; some years ago.

    • The Director


      There are likely a multitude of nuclear reactions taking place. EVOs are being generated both directly from the plasma (Kenneth Shoulders proved this occurs), being emitted from the Negative Electron Affinity diamond emitter structures, and via fracto-emission. These EVOs themselves in addition to the the products they emit upon their destruction (x-rays, slow neutrons, electrons, muon like “heavy electrons”, positive ions with anomalous levels of KE) provide the stimulation that many theories of LENR reactions claim to require. These systems are not like one pianist playing on stage: an entire orchestra is playing along! Most likely, many of the ingredients in the reactor (hydrogen, nickel, lithium, and maybe even carbon itself) are under experiencing nuclear reactions – probably at dramatically different rates depending upon the design and parameters of the system. Some ingredients may undergo nuclear reactions at low temperatures, while others may become more dominant at higher temperatures. Honestly, there is a lot we don’t know for certain and can only be learned from first hand experience. I’m starting to think that the vast number of negative hydrogen ions produced when protons make contact with the NEA diamond surface (according to one paper I found fifty percent of them can become ionized) could be very important.

      So one portion of the energy is indeed coming from the nuclear reactions taking place. But some portion of the energy could also come from energy extracted directly from the zero point energy field (AKA vacuum or aether). EVOs, during their formation, may actually contain fields powerful enough to cohere the random fluctuations of the vacuum and extract positron-electron pairs. This may provide a fraction of the output of one of these systems.

      I think that only a small percentage of the matter in one of these systems would be converted to energy over the lifetime of the device. Most of the fuel could be re-cycled, re-processed, and used to fuel another reactor. What may happen after extended usage is that the EVO emitter sites may fail to be continually regenerated and may “burn out.”

  • Jouni Tuomela

    Thank you for these thoughts, very interesting.
    Perhaps I just have to restart my research on 2.45GHz Carbon particle-plasmas in CO2-atmosphere.
    Lithium from some batteries, Electrodes made to shapes from Ken Shoulders’ patents, from Tungsten to create atomic H, connected to my high voltage DC-generator (ozone generator), under atmosphere generated from my coming modified HHO-generator, in tube covered with industrial diamonds and Nickel, bombarded by ultrasonics and some magnetic fields.
    What else hmm, ok here is my research thisfar 🙂–fJj3UsM

  • Jouni Tuomela

    How do you feel about these theories, do these thoughts fit into yours?
    Transmutations happening from the core of our earth upwards, when the pressure no longer captures electrons in close contact with the nucleus.
    From Synthestech, dubbed in english.

    • HS61AF91

      gotta watch this!