Paper: “On nuclear DD synthesis at the initial stage of nanosecond vacuum discharge with deuterium-loaded Pd anode”

The following post has been submitted by Engineer48

This new paper is very interesting (found by Alain Coetmuer here):
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/946/1/012025

The article title is: “On nuclear DD synthesis at the initial stage of nanosecond vacuum discharge with deuterium-loaded Pd anode”

Authors: Yu K Kurilenkov, S Yu Gus’kov, V T Karpukhin, A V Oginov and I S Samoylov

Source: Journal of Physics: Conference Series

Here they use a highly deuterated Pd Anode, which is impacted with electrons from the Al Cathode. This knocks Deuterons out of the Pd Anode and as they have a positive charge, they accelerate toward the negative Al Cathode. Then the 1st D stops as it impacts the Al, after which the following D slam into it with enough KE from the acceleration between Anode to Cathode to breach the Coulomb barrier and initiate D+D fusion.

As the fusion does not occur inside a lattice due to phonon pressure waves, the resultant by products are as expected from a normal D+D fusion event. So lots of radiation.

Point of the paper is here is a new way to trigger D+D, which while not missing the bad radiation, still shows that D+D fusion can occur in a non stellar environment.

Maybe post it to the forum as a new discussion topic?

  • Pekka Janhunen

    Farnsworth fusor (FF) demonstrated that DD fusion can occur in non-stellar environment. The reason that prohibits the FF from being a practical energy device is that it needs electric energy as input while producing thermal energy as output, and with low COP. This devices seems a bit similar to FF.

    • Andreas Moraitis

      You beat me in reaction time, Pekka…

    • Anon2012_2014

      COP like 1.0001. Useless as an energy production device.

  • Andreas Moraitis

    „[…]shows that D+D fusion can occur in a non stellar environment.“

    Of course it can occur, for example in a Farnsworth-Hirsch fusor:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusor

    This is mainstream for many decades. You can even do it in your kitchen. The problem in nuclear fusion is not if it is possible, but how to get a net energy gain (that is, a ‘COP’ > 1).

  • Engineer48

    Guys,

    Point being this illustrates what happens when D+D fusion occurs on the surface of a lattice, ie the Al cathode.

    Same would be expected on the surface of Ni or Pd, say in a crack.

    Which strongly suggests D+D > 4He + 23.8 MeV (heat) occurs deep inside a highly phonon wave compressed lattice and not in a surface crack as suggested by others.

  • Zephir

    The year 1926 was a turning point in Germany. The Germans had been on the losing side in World War I and Zeppelin wished for helium, but the only industrial-scale production was in the United States, where it was considered a strategic material and could not under any circumstances be exported. Two Austrian chemists, Friedrich “Fritz” Paneth and Kurt Peters, working at the University of Berlin, thought they had the answer to the helium problem. Although the neutron, a component of the atomic nucleus, had yet to be discovered, and the structure of the element-defining nucleus was still murky, the chemists thought that helium could be synthesized by fusing hydrogen nuclei together. The combination medium would be metallic palladium, known to all chemists as having a strange affinity for hydrogen. A block of palladium, just standing on its own, will absorb 900 times its volume in hydrogen with no encouragement from compression. Palladium was well-known as a “hydrogen-leak window,” used in high-vacuum systems to introduce hydrogen, one atom at a time, to be electrically accelerated or otherwise used in several physics experiments. A section of an otherwise gas-tight system made of palladium would admit hydrogen as if it were a hole in the wall.

    Thinking that a 900-times compression would surely make hydrogen atoms fuse together, Paneth and Peters made a thin capillary out of palladium, heated it red-hot to expand the distance between palladium atoms, and directed hydrogen gas through the center. Cooling the palladium, they expected the additional compression given by the shrinking of the crystal lattice of the metal to ensure fusion of the hydrogen absorbed under heated conditions. They were not disappointed. Spectroscopic analysis detected helium mixed with the excess hydrogen flowing out the end of the palladium capillary tube. The amount was small, but in this first experiment they had demonstrated the synthesis of an element, not by radioactive decay on the heavy end of the periodic chart of the elements, but by combination, on the bottom end of the chart. Several sources of possible error were considered and eliminated. The chemists composed a detailed description of their groundbreaking experiment and its results, “Über die Verwandlung von Wasserstoff in Helium” (The Transmutation of Hydrogen into Helium), and sent it to the German chemistry journal, Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellshaft. The interesting paper was received on August 17, 1926, and was published in the September issue, volume 59. The distinguished English journal Nature published a full account of the experiment as a news article in the October 9, 1926, edition. The retraction with explanations of the helium detection errors in Nature appeared in the May 14, 1927, issue, volume 119.

    • Engineer48

      Hi Zephir,

      Wow! Thanks for that.

      Seems lattice compression when all the interstitual spaces are occupied by H or D is how LENR works.

      Of course H+H > D which then loads the lattice with D to enable D+D > 4He.

      • Zephir

        Lattice compression would indeed helps the cold fusion but it’s not the full story of it, IMHO. IMO the longitudinal waves of long chains of atoms enable the D+D > 4He fusion via Astroblaster effect.

        • Engineer48

          Hi Zephir,

          Yes momentum transfer from the massive lattice atoms to the very light D.

          I suggest however that KE is not that much involved. What drives the interstitial D together is electrostatic pressure from the lattice compressed orbital electrons distorting their shells and that of the nucleus.

          When the lattice does a 3 axis compression, it gets very squeezy.

          MuKubre also noted a direct relationship between lattice loading % vs lattice temperature. Ie at the same loading %, as lattice temp increased so too did the excess heat.

          Which ties into lattuce compression as the higher lattice heat increases lattice vibration and thus compression, enabling more D to get close enough to trigger a tunneling fusion event.

          • Zephir

            Compression is supposed to be a statical effect, isn’t it true? Elevated temperature decreases the lattice compression instead (lattice expands) on behalf of intensity of lattice thermal vibrations and collisions. Such a temperature dependence would therefore imply, that the effect of collisions – not lattice pressure is dominant for cold fusion.

          • Zephir

            /* When the lattice does a 3 axis compression, it gets very squeezy.*/

            Which is why I’m talking about 1D collisions of long line atoms, not 3-axis compression. Such a collisions would run independently of neighboring atoms.

    • Mylan

      Zephir, I’m not sure what your point is considering the last sentence. Seems rather useless if they made experimental errors.

      • Engineer48

        Hi Mylan,

        Researching the subject further it seems others claimed the result was impossible and had to be an experimental error.

        However others did observe similar results.

        http://www.levity.com/alchemy/nelson2_6.html

      • Zephir

        Many retractions of inconvenient findings were made of political reasons: pressure of journal editors, Academia and/or lobby of helium producers. For example the cold fusion experiments of Wendt and Irion were wildly attacked by proponents of scientific establishment, like Ernst Rutherford.

        Today we can see, that the findings of Fleischmann and Pons or Wendt and Irion weren’t in fact erroneous.

    • Andreas Moraitis

      http://blogs.sciencemag.org/books/2017/06/06/atomic-adventures/

      Seems to be an interesting book, so thanks Zephir.

      • Engineer48

        Hi Andreas,

        Indeed.

  • Engineer48

    Interesting:

    The Transmutation of Hydrogen to Helium & Neon

    (1) W. Ramsay ~ J. Thomson ~ N. Collie ~ H. Patterson & I. Masson ~ (2) References
    (1) W. Ramsay, et al.

    Dozens of scientific papers were published between 1905 and 1927 concerning the mysterious appearance of hydrogen, helium and neon in vacuum tubes. The matter never has been resolved.

    http://www.levity.com/alchemy/nelson2_6.html

    LENR in 1905?

  • Engineer48

    Amazing clear experimental LENR data from 1926:

    http://disq.us/url?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.levity.com%2Falchemy%2Fnelson2_6.html%3AyW499i9HOaHsnFEQfM8LT5eC3O8&cuid=2168707

    “The issue then lay dormant for several years, but research was resumed after World War One.

    In 1926, Prof. Fritz Paneth and Dr. K. Peters determined that palladium had effected the transmutation of hydrogen to helium in their experiments.

    Paneth and Peters absorbed H in colloidal Pd (sponge, black, or palladinised charcoal) for 12 hours, after which time they detected the main spectral lines of He.

    No He production was observed with Pd preparations that had not absorbed hydrogen.

    Preparations of Pd stored at room temperature should therefore produce He; this was found to be the case.

    After the He had been removed, the sample was stored again, then examined; more helium was obtained.

    The experiment was repeated three times with the same results. (17-20)

    The authors excluded all the possible sources of error in their experiments, such as the ingress of atmospheric He, absorption in glass or electrodes, preferential absorption of He by Pd, and the possibility of He being formed as a product of radio-active disintegration of Pd.

    No trace was detected of any energy liberated during the transformation, either as heat or radiation.

    It would seem worthwhile and desirable to replicate these experiments with modern equipment and techniques.”

    • Mylan

      Sure replications would be interesting, but as below you should mention that the authors themselves retracted the results.

      • Engineer48

        Hi Mylan,

        Here is what the authors stated;

        “A FEW months ago, K. Peters and I published an account of experiments we had made in an attempt to transmute hydrogen into helium (Ber. d. Deutschen Chem. Ges., 59, 2039; 1926).

        A more or less detailed account of this publication appeared in the columns of NATURE (vol. 118, p. 526, 1926), and perhaps I may be permitted to refer to a more recent publication on the same topic by K. Peters, P. Günther, and myself (Ber. d. Deutschen Chem. Ges., 60, 808; 1927).

        In this communication, as a result of further experiments, we feel that we are in a position to give an explanation of the occurrence of the observed very small quantities of helium in our experiments, without having recourse to the assumption of a synthesis of helium.”

        I don’t have access to the full article but would suggest a read would be of value.

        • Mylan

          Would be interesting to have the full text. Indeed, this does not sound like a full retraction. Though on the other hand, the simpler explanation (some kind of contamination in this case) should be considered correct, unless proven otherwise.

          • Engineer48

            Hi Mylan,

            Had they known what we know today, they may have stuck to their original claims.

            I’m sure they received a lot of flack and pressure to reconsider their findings.

  • Jayden

    Farnsworth fusor (FF) demonstrated that DD fusion can occur in non-stellar environment. The reason that prohibits the FF from being a practical energy device is that it needs electric energy as input while producing thermal energy as output, and with low COP. This devices seems a bit similar to FF.

  • Alan DeAngelis

    I think this is quite different for LENR. I’m sure that most people will disagree with me but I think that in the E-Cat the reactions create the plasma (not the other way around).

    Coupled chain reactions:

    H(1) + Li(7) > 2 He(4) 17.3 MeV

    Al(27) + He(4) > Si(30) + H(1) 2.37 MeV

    • Engineer48

      Hi Alan,

      Don’t remember Rossi ever disclosing what is in the QX.

      Don’t believe there is any Al or Li as it would coat the clear tube containg the 2 Ni rods, that according to Frank’s statement, Rossi claimed were “Processed so to speak”.

      My money is on

      1) no plasma just glow discharge,

      2) the gas is D2 with a trace of Neon & Argon to help lower min strike voltage,

      3) the Ni rods were electroplated with Pd and had D codeposited.

      • Alan DeAngelis

        Yeah, just a guess on my part about what’s going on in the QX. Probably using
        an alloy of transition metals that have a higher melting point than nickel.

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