The following post was submitted by Axil Axil
Polaritons are composite half-light half-matter quasiparticles that arise from a strong coupling between infrared photons and electric dipoles (excitons), which are the electron and the associated hole of a dipole.
Electrons on the surface of metal are free to move. They are set into motion by the electric field of the infrared light that shines on the surface of a metal particle. This light energy “pumps” energy into the electrons.
The energetic particle is polarized and there is a positively charged side and a negatively charged side. The electrons are attracted to the positive side, this produces a restoring force. The electron oscillates between the positive and negative sides of the particle. The magnitude of these oscillations are quantized and are called “surface plasmons”.
A perfect infrared light reflector like nickel will keep infrared light confined very close to its surface. The surface plasmon will couple with the light confined on the surface of the metal when the energies of the SP and the photon are equal and the photon will change the dipole oscillation waveform so the magnetic field of the hybrid wave is perpendicular to the vector of the wave.
A SPP can keep together for a long time before it falls apart. When it holds together, it is called a dark polariton. When it gives up its light energy, it is called a bright polariton.
The tubercles on the nickel powder act as phase masks to produce a vortex of polaritons. Under the influence of the tubercles, the SPPs spin in a circle and give and take energy so that all the SPPs that live inside this vortex are the same waveform. One soliton can influence another over the entire system through the tranfer of EMF so that eventually all the SPPs are the same waveform and all the dipoles are ocillating in unison.
In general in the presence of SPPs, any irregular feature on the surface or edge or crack in a metal will produce SPP solitons.
This vortex is itself a quasiparticle where all the polaritons that enter the vortex settle to the same energy through wispering gallary wave interference (Fano interference).
This dark mode soliton is a dense ball of EMF that gets very strong as heat and/or nuclear energy is pumped into the SPP system; think ball lightning but completely dark.
As quasiparticles, it is these dark mode solitons that will form the Bose Einstein Condinsate (BEC) through the transfer of infrared photons and bright SPPs between all the solitons on the tubicle face of all the nickel powder.
Interestingly, bright mode SPPs will transfer their light based energy from the infrared photon to the SP when the SPP breaks up. In this way being paced by the energy of the dipole, the frequency of light in a system will shorten bing produced by the increased energy of the SPP up to extreme ultrviolet and soft x-rays as nuclear energy flows into the system.
I think of this BEC as all the polaritons in a given system oscillating back and forth in unison on the surface of the nickel micro particles and when they reach the edge of the particle, they jump off and spin in unison around inside the vortex before they travel back to the positively charge edge of the particle.
Unless this SPP based BEC formation process is established in the nickel micro particles, when the nanoparticles first appear later on in the evolution of a system when the supercritical gas based nanoparticle formation process sets in, these nanoparticle based SPPs will act locally and produce hot spots. But if a SPP BEC is in place, the new nano SPPs will transfer their excess energy throughout the system under the influence of the SPP BEC. In this energy sharing between SPP solitons, the flow of nuclear energy is well distributed throughout the LENR system.
Finally, the SPP dark mode soliton is a magnetic monipole. The special magnetic field that this soliton produces will affect nuclear activity of nearby matter to enable transfer of that excess binding energy through the soliton and be distributed throughout the LENR system.
We might think of an SPP soliton as a sort of lighthouse that shoots out a powerful magnetic beam that pulses in time as the SPPs oscillates back and forth over the particle and orbits briefly around its negatively charged tubercle covered edge at terahertz frequencies.