The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil
Because of the breakthrough experiments performed by Leif Holmlid, LENR has taken on a very serious and profound implication. In these experiments, billions of subatomic particles are produced containing strange quarks that have only been seen in the particle collisions produced by the largest particle accelerators. The nature of LENR may be far more profound than was ever suspected before these new results were revealed.
Holmlid now joins R. Mills and Ken Shoulders at defining LENR as a cosmic force.
The nature in which these subatomic particles are produced suggest cosmic implications. These creation of there particles violate CPT symmetry. This breaking of symmetry CPT symmetry is thought to be central to the mystery of how matter was created in preference to anti matter during cosmic inflation. This brings up a possible connection between LENR and cosmic inflation. For background on this subject, we must first look toward Alan Guth, the father of the inflation theory for insight.
Alan Guth: “How Does Inflation Work?”
I will begin by giving a quick rundown of how inflation works. By starting my explanation at the beginning.
The key idea – the underlying physics – that makes inflation possible is the fact that most modern particle theories predict that there should exist a state of matter that turns gravity on its head, creating a gravitational repulsion. Gravity does not always have to be attractive.The possibility of repulsive gravity arises because, according to Einstein’s theory of general relativity, gravitational fields are produced not just by energy or mass densities, but also by pressures….
The gravitational repulsion caused by this peculiar kind of material is the secret behind inflation. Inflation is the proposition that the early universe contained at least a small patch that was filled with this peculiar repulsive-gravity material.The name for this peculiar gravitationally repulsive state is not well-established. A false vacuum is a limited patch of vacuum with a finite energy density. There are a variety of theories about how this might have happened jusy after the Big Bang based on ideas ranging from chaotic initial conditions to the creation of the universe as a quantum tunneling event. Despite the ambiguity of this aspect of the theory, there are two things to keep in mind. First, the probability of finding a region filled with this repulsive-gravity material need not be large. I will come back to this point later, and argue that it is only necessary that the probability is nonzero. Second, the resulting predictions do not depend on how the initial patch was formed. Once the patch exists, inflation takes over and produces a universe that ends up inevitably looking very much like the one that we live in.
The initial patch can be incredibly small. It need be only about one-billionth the size of a single proton. Once the patch exists it starts to rapidly expand because of its internal gravitational repulsion. The expansion is exponential, which means it is characterized by a doubling time, which for a typical inflationary theory might be in the neighborhood of 10^^-37 seconds. So every 10^^-37 seconds the diameter of the patch doubles, and then it doubles again and again during each 10^^-37 second interval. The success of the description requires about a hundred of these doublings, but there could have been many more. In the course of this expansion, the patch went from being a tiny speck to a size at least as large as a marble.
So the patch of repulsive-gravity material expanded by a huge factor. Whenever a normal material expands its density goes down, but this material behaves completely differently. As it expands, the density remains constant. That means that the total amount of mass contained in the region increased during inflation by a colossal factor.
The increase in mass probably seems strange at first, because it sounds like a gross violation of the principle of energy conservation. Mass and energy are equivalent, so we are claiming that the energy of the matter within the patch increased by a colossal factor. The reason this is possible is that the conservation of energy has a sort of a loophole, which physicists have known at least since the 1930s,R. C. Tolman, Phys. Rev. 39, 320 (1932).but haven’t talked about very much. Energy is always conserved; there are no loopholes to that basic statement. However, we normally think of energies as always being positive. If that were true, then the large amount of energy that we see in the universe could not possibly have gotten here unless the universe started with a lot of energy. However, this is the loophole: energies are not always positive. In particular, the energy of a gravitational field is negative. This statement, that the energy of a gravitational field is negative, is true both in the context of the Newtonian theory of gravity and also in the more sophisticated context of general relativity.
So, during inflation, total energy is conserved. As more and more positive energy (or mass) appears as the patch expands at constant density, more and more negative energy is simultaneously appearing in the gravitational field that fills the region. The total energy is constant, and it remains incredibly small because the negative contribution of gravity cancels the enormous positive energy of the matter. The total energy, in fact, could very plausibly be zero. It is quite possible that there is a perfect cancellation between the negative energy of gravity and the positive energy of everything else.
For the theory to be successful, there has to be a mechanism to end the period of inflation – the period of accelerated expansion – because the universe is not undergoing inflation today.Actually there is strong evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating in the present era, and the mechanism for this acceleration is believed to be very similar to that of inflation. This… Inflation ends because the repulsive-gravity material is fundamentally unstable. So it doesn’t survive forever, but instead decays like a radioactive substance. Like traditional forms of radioactive decay, it decays exponentially, which means that the decay is characterized by a half-life. During any period of one half-life, on average half of the repulsive-gravity material will decay into normal attractive-gravity material.
In the process of decaying, the repulsive-gravity material releases the energy that has been locked up within itself. That energy evolves to become a hot soup of ordinary particles. Initially the decay produces a relatively small number of high-energy particles, but these particles start to scatter off of each other. Eventually the energy becomes what we call thermalized, which means that it produces an equilibrium gas of hot particles – a hot primordial soup – which is exactly the initial condition that had always been assumed in the context of the standard big bang theory.
Thus, inflation is an add-on to the standard big bang theory. Inflation supplies the beginning to which the standard big bang theory then becomes the continuation.
I now propose that LENR is the currently ongoing inflationary process that creates negative vacuum energy and a equal balancing amount of positive matter and energy.
Goth tells us here that the segregation of negative vacuum energy must be balanced by an equal amount of positive energy/matter. This is how most of the positive energy/matter in the universe formed just after the big bang.
Because of the driving force from the pressure produced by negative energy, positive matter and energy is born.
Because there is negative and positive energy balance in the process of matter creation, the universe walks on a knife’s edge between collapse and explosive expansion and that balance in the size of the universe between expansion and collapse is maintained by the associated balance between gravity and positive mass/energy.
Because of its peculiar characteristics, LENR produces a false vacuum where the vacuum is partitioned between a positive vacuum energy and negative vacuum energy on a mesoscopic scale and for a long period of time.
Cosmic inflation stopped billions of years ago, but a new type of inflation restarted about 5.8 billion years ago. This time long past is the epoch when enough open space formed to permit the formation of clouds of hydrogen gas and nano-dust particles thrown far and wide by exploding stars mixed to create the far flung LENR active regions that currently persist throughout the cosmos.
LENR is a process where positive matter concentrates negative vacuum energy in an eternal cycle. Paradoxically that negative vacuum energy produces more positive energy and matter when it decays. This new mass and energy begins the LENR cycle all over again. That negative vacuum energy will build and eventually decay within the SPP solitons produced by the dust and gas between the stars. And eventually this negative vacuum energy will decay and be converted into positive matter and energy in the same way that a positron is created from negative vacuum energy.
The vacuum is both energy and gravity neutral. But when the vacuum is broken apart on a large scale, both gravity and energy and matter are produced. But positive energy/matter produce attractive gravity, and conversely negative vacuum energy produces repulsive gravity or the so called dark gravity. The universe will expand in proportion to the amount of LENR activity that is underway at any given time withing the cosmos. That LENR activity segregates negative vacuum energy from the energy balance of the vacuum. Some regions of space are expanding because LENR is underway in those regions, and other regions are not expanding like the one we live in because LENR is not active in the dust that pervades our galaxy. Science is struggling to understand what is producing repulsive gravity and why it is distributed so unevenly throughout the cosmos.
In a nutshell, LENR is the ultimate cause of eternal inflation. Through that process the accelerating cosmos results where the universe doubles in size even 8 billion years in a ongoing process that so confounds orthodox science.