The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil
Why is water a very good friend to the Ni/H reaction and an enemy to the Pd/D reaction?
In nanoplasmonics, an optical box must be formed at the surface of the metal gas interface layer. The metal must not absorb light if the reaction that produces polaritons is to be optimally efficient. Each metal has its own light reflective character.
“Now in his EuroPatent that was revoked it is written:
The transition metal can be selected from the group comprised of: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Pd, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, lanthanoids, actinoids. Such metals belong to one of the four transition groups”
Good engineering requires that there is a match between the metal selected for use in the reactor and the frequency of light produced or used inside the reactor that is optimally reflected by that metal.
For example. nickel, zirconium, or titanium is best for infrared light. A reactor whose operating temperature is about 600C can use nickel best.
Gold and silver are best used in a reactor that produces visible light. A laser that produces visible light is best used to stimulate these precious metals.
Palladium, platinum and iridium is used best in a reactor that uses ultraviolet light. Light at that wave length is produced by a very high temperature reactor whose operating temperature is about 1500C. Or in the case of laser stimulation(as per Holmlid), a laser in the UV range will produce the best stimulation.
It is bad engineering to use noble metals in a low temperature reactor.
If we want to design a reactor that uses a refractory metal like tungsten, we must test that metal to see what type of light is optimally reflected by that metal to see if it is compatible with the heat range of the reactor we intend to design.
Polariton theory establishes the engineering guideline concerning the match of the reflective properties of the metal to the optimal black body temperature range of the reactor being designed. In this regard, the correct theory of LENR is important to direct the proper engineering guidelines used in building a reactor. Random selection of a substrate metal will lead to uncertain reactor behavior.
If the ability to reflect light at a specific frequency at key parameter in the LENR reaction, any substance that absorbs EMF at that optimum frequency is damaging to the reaction.
The presence of water in the Ni/H reaction which works best in the infrared light frequencies is not damaged by the presence of water in the frequency region of the reaction.
However, in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum where noble metals work best, water absorbs that EMF by a factor of up to 10^^8 times.
The use of palladium in a water based system is problematical because the water in that system will all but stop the LENR reaction. On the other hand, noble metals including palladium in a pure hydrogen gas only gas phase system will work well as shown by Holmlid and the E-Cat X.
When using noble metals, keep oxygen out of the gas mix.
To restate, the assumption that underlies the polariton theory of LENR causation is that optical properties of the materials used in the reactor are important in the optimization of the LENR reaction.
There are three important parameters that must be compatible in setting up the LENR reaction as follows: the optical behavior of the metal substrate, the optical behavior of the envelope, and the black body frequency of the driving optical pumping force.
Polaritons are formed inside an optical box where the floor of the box is the metal of the microparticle, the top of the box is the envelope that covers the metal and the pumping frequency is the operating temperature of the reactor.
In a reactor designed to operate in the infrared blackbody temperature range, Protium is optically better to use as an envelop substance than deuterium because Protium is lighter than deuterium.
In more detail, The inviting blue of a mountain lake or a sea is unique in nature, in that it is caused by vibrational transitions involving hydrogen bonding.
Why is water blue?
Water’s intrinsically blue color is easy to see when the water is sufficiently deep, such as in the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas, and in Colorado mountain lakes. Pure water and ice have a pale blue color, which is most noticeable at tropical white-sand beaches or in ice caves in glaciers. (Green colors are usually derived from algae.) The blueness of the water is neither due to light scattering (which gives the sky its blue color) nor dissolved impurities (such as copper). Because the absorption that gives water its color is in the red end of the visible spectrum, one sees blue, the complementary color of orange, when observing light that has passed through several meters of water. Snow and ice has the same intense blue color, scattered back from deep holes in fresh snow.
Blue water is the only known example of a natural color caused by vibrational transitions. In most other cases, color is caused by the interaction of photons of light with electrons. Some of these mechanisms are resonant interactions, such as absorption, emission, and selective reflection. Others are non-resonant, including Rayleigh scattering, interference, diffraction, and refraction. Unlike with water, these mechanisms rely primarily on the interaction of photons with electrons.
The bent water molecule H2O in the free state has three fundamental vibrations. It is helpful to think of metal spheres fixed on strong springs in visualizing these vibrations. The three normal modes are: (a) the symmetrical stretch, (b) the symmetrical bend, and (c) the antisymmetrical bend.
The faint blue color of water is seen in this photo. Here, you look upwards through 3-meter long sealed aluminum tubes filled with purified water. On the left, the faintly bluish tube contains regular (light) water, and at right, the clear tube is empty.
Water owes its blueness to selective absorption in the red portion of its visible spectrum. The absorbed photons promote transitions to high overtone and combination states of the nuclear motions of the molecule, i.e. to highly excited vibrations. We know molecular vibrations color water because “heavy” water (which is chemically the same as regular water, but with the two hydrogen atoms replaced with deuterium atoms – an isotope of hydrogen with one extra neutron that makes “heavy” water about 10% heavier) has a similar absorption curve, shifted to higher wavelengths outside of the visible spectrum of light. Heavy water is thus colorless.
These graphs illustrate why water (H2O) is blue, while “heavy” water (D2O) is colorless. The graph gives the visible and near-IR spectrum of H2O and D2O at room temperature. The absorption below 700 nm in wavelength contributes to the color of water (the blue graph). This absorption consists of the short wavelength tail of a band centered at 760 nm, and two weaker bands at 660 nm and 605 nm. The vibrational origin of this visible absorption of H2O is demonstrated by comparison with the spectrum of heavy water, D2O (the gray graph). Heavy water is chemically the same as regular (light) water, but with the two hydrogen atoms (as in H2O) replaced with deuterium atoms (deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen with one extra neutron – the extra neutron that makes “heavy” water about 10% heavier). Heavy water is colorless because all of its corresponding vibrational transitions are shifted to lower energy (higher wavelength) by the increase in isotope mass. For example, the H2O band at 760 nm (the red end of the spectrum) is shifted to approximately 1000 nm in D2O. This is outside the spectrum of visible light, so heavy water has no color.
Overtones (also called harmonics) are secondary vibrations of the string, with wavelengths in integer ratios to the fundamental note.
What is the role of overtones?
In music, a note has a fundamental wavelength and pitch that depend on the nature of the vibrating air column or string. A violin string’s pitch depends first on its vibrating length, and then on its thickness and tension. Secondary notes linked to this fundamental pitch are created when the string vibrates as though split into halves, thirds, quarters, and so on. The overtones have higher pitches than the fundamental pitch, and the note we hear is a combined sound, enriched by the overtones. The relative strength of the fundamental and overtone pitches contributes to the unique sound we associate with each instrument.
Molecular vibrations also have overtones related to their fundamental wavelength. Just as we hear a musical note that is a combination of a fundamental note with its overtones, so molecules may vibrate in complex combinations of their fundamental and overtone vibrations. In water molecules, only the first few overtones make a significant contribution to the overall vibrational energy.
Hydrogen bonding (purple) is a special type of dipole-dipole bond that exists between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom bonded to another electronegative atom. In water, the hydrogen atom (white) is covalently attached to the oxygen (red) of a water molecule (about 470 kJ/mol) but has an additional attraction (about 22 kJ/mol) to a neighboring oxygen atom of another water molecule. Hydrogen bonding is weak compared to covalent and ionic bonding.
What is the role of “hydrogen bonding”?
Water is unique among the molecules of nature in its high concentration of O-H bonds and in its plentiful supply. Most importantly, the O-H symmetric (v1) and antisymmetric (v3) vibrational stretching fundamentals are at high enough energy so that a four-quantum overtone transition (v1+ 3v3) occurs just at the red edge of the visible spectrum. When comparing the vibrational transitions of gaseous and liquid water, the liquid phase O-H stretching band is red-shifted (to a lower energy) from the gas phase values of v1 and v3 by several hundred wavenumbers. This shift is primarily the result of hydrogen bonding in the liquid. The near-IR absorption bands of ice (solid phase) are the most red-shifted of all. Hydrogen bonding in water causes the stretching frequencies of H2O to shift to lower values. It is believed that if water did not have hydrogen bonds, it would still be colored, perhaps with a more intense blue than actual water.
Other hydrogen-containing liquids and solids besides water, such as liquid ammonia, could possess traces of bluish color because of vibration and rotation effects. However, water and ice are the only two chemical substances occurring in sufficiently large bulk for a weak coloration to be visible.
Why do we not see colors caused by molecular vibrations in many other substances?
Most molecules have vibrational energies that are lower in frequency (longer in wavelength) than that of water, falling in the range of far infrared or thermal vibrations rather than in the visible light range. The hydrogen atoms in water are very light, and the bonds between hydrogen and oxygen very strong, which shifts them to higher frequencies (with shorter wavelengths), with overtones that lie in the range of visible light. Just as the pitch of a vibrating string is raised if the mass of the string is reduced and the tension applied to the string is increased, so too the highest-frequency vibrations occur with the lightest atoms (hydrogen) when most strongly bonded (to oxygen in water).
The blue green light of natural gas burning on a kitchen burner emitted by an oxygen-rich gas flame as seen on a kitchen range also involves such combination vibrational, rotational, and electronic excitations in the unstable molecules CH and C2.
The extra mass of the deuterium atom means that its frequency absorption pattern is shifted to the infrared by a few hundred wavelengths over protium because it is heavier than protium. In a sting instrument, thick stings vibrate at lower frequencies than do thing strings.
Therefore, deuterium is absorbs light at low frequencies over high frequencies.
The takeaway here, Protium should be used in LENR systems that operate in the infrared and deuterium should be used in LENR systems that operate in the ultraviolet.
On another note, Piantelli reports that deuterium and nitrogen poisons his LENR reaction. This is do to the high absorption of light by deuterium and nitrogen in the infrared.
DGT also reported that argon poisons their reaction. Once again argon absorbs infrared frequencies that removes the lid on the optical box.