The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil
Knot theory is old style science and goes back to Lord Kelvin.
[quote]Knots have been used for basic purposes such asrecording information, fastening and tying objects together, for thousands of years. The early, significant stimulus in knot theory would arrive later with Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and his theory of vortex atoms.
James Clerk Maxwell, a colleague and friend of Thomson’s and Tait’s, also developed a strong interest in knots. Maxwell studied Listing’s work on knots. He re-interpreted Gauss’ linking integral in terms of electromagnetic theory. In his formulation, the integral represented the work done by a charged particle moving along one component of the link under the influence of the magnetic field generated by an electric current along the other component. Maxwell also continued the study of smoke rings by considering three interacting rings.
When the luminiferous æther was not detected in the Michelson–Morley experiment, vortex theory became completely obsolete, and knot theory ceased to be of great scientific interest. Modern physics demonstrates that the discrete wavelengths depend on quantum energy levels.
But the æther has been now theorized to be a “Spin Net Liquid”
In condensed matter physics, a string-net is an extended object whose collective behavior has been proposed as a physical mechanism for topological order by Michael A. Levin and Xiao-Gang Wen. A particular string-net model may involve only closed loops; or networks of oriented, labeled strings obeying branching rules given by some gauge group; or still more general networks.
Their model purports to show the derivation of photons, electrons, and U(1) gauge charge, small (relative to the planck mass) but nonzero masses, and suggestions that the leptons, quarks, and gluons, can be modeled in the same way. In other words, string-net condensation provides an unification of photon and electron (or gauge bosons and fermions). It can be viewed as an origin of light and electron (or gauge interactions and Fermi statistics). However, their model does not account for the chiral coupling between the fermions and the SU(2)gauge bosons in the standard model.
[quote]The first hint that a new type of matter may exist came in 1982. “Twenty five years ago we thought we understood everything about phases and phase transitions of matter,” says Wen. “Then along came an experiment that opened up a whole new world.”
“The positions of electrons in a Fractional Quantum Hall (FQH) state appear random like in a liquid, but they dance around each other in a well organized manner and form a global dancing pattern.”
In the experiment, electrons moving in the interface between two semiconductors form a strange state, which allows a particle-like excitation (called a quasiparticle) that carries only 1/3 of electron charge. Such an excitation cannot be view as a motion of a single electron or any cluster with finite electrons. Thus this so-called fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state suggested that the quasiparticle excitation in a state can be very different from the underlying particle that form the state. The quasiparticle may even behave like a fraction of the underlying particle, even though the underlying particle can never break apart. It soon became clear that electrons under certain conditions can organize in a way such that a defect or a twist in the organization gives rise to a quasiparticle with fractional charge — an explanation that earned Laughlin, Horst Störmer and Daniel Tsui the Nobel prize (New Scientist, 31 January 1998, p 36).
A magnetic field got knotted up and formed a pair of toroids connected by a monopole field (quasiparticle) with fractional spin.
Lord Kelvin view of the atom as a knotted photon was not as science first thought.
Here is a theory of the electron as a knotted photon.
Is the electron a photon with toroidal topology?
Why should the quark be any different than the electron. The quark must also be a toroid made out of a knotted photon with fractional charge connected to its anti particle by a monopole field.
There seems to be a way to produce a monopole by twisting up photons to form a quasiparticle that can come into resonance with the quarks inside a nucleus using the same monopole based communications path the quarks effect each other with inside the nucleus.
What this monopole analog does is disrupt things inside the proton. It catalyzes proton decay.
[quote]Thus the monopole is the analog of a chemical catalyst. It is an agent provocateur. It wanders through matter stimulating proton decay and nuclear breakup without being changed itself. A single monopole can do this over and over again as rapidly as it can find its way into successive protons or nuclei. And with each such event, a quantity of energy is liberated which is far greater than that released in uranium fission. The implications of monopole catalysis are enormous. All matter, be it garbage or junk or gold ingots, becomes a source of unlimited energy. Given a suitable supply of monopoles the energy needs of the world are limited only by the supply of matter to be catalyzed into energy. If massive monopoles are ever found, they will be of incalculable worth for physical research and for energy production.
Beyond their utility as producers of energy, monopoles could probably be used directly in a spaceship engine. There have already been studies by Robert W. Forward and others showing that antimatter annihilating with matter in a magnetic “hemi-bottle”, an intense magnetic field pinched at one end and open at the other would serve as an extremely efficient spaceship drive. The problem is that the needed amount of antimatter fuel would require a truly staggering investment, because the antimatter would have to be manufactured by earth-based or orbiting “antiproton factories” of monumental size.
The same basic scheme, however, could be applied using monopole catalysis. The “fuel” would then be atoms of normal matter caused to explode because their protons and neutrons undergo catalyzed decay as a flux of monopoles is passed through them. The hemi-bottle magnetic nozzle then provides the dual function of guiding the charged nuclear fragments from the exploded nuclei out the exhaust port of the engine and at the same time collecting the monopoles at the pinch point for re-use in the next engine cycle.
Full article is at
Now we know that quantum knots are real. Holmlid has found that Rydberg hydrogen matter is superconductive and also demonstrates the meissner effect. From nanoplasmonics, we also know that surface plasmon polaritons(SPP) will always formed on the surface of a long nano-string type nanoparticle and might well produce this superconductive nature to the rydberg matter via Bose Condensation. Knotted vortex circulation of photons in SPPs that are trapped in a photonic locked vortex circulation in a topological plasmoid could produce an effective analog monopole capable of destabilizing subatomic particles as seen in Holmlid experiments.
The energy storage mechanism that absorbs energy from either a the LENR reaction’s based positive feedback loop or stimulation that comes from heat, laser or arc discharge might entail the addition of additional photonic quantum knots to form in a plasmoid circulation. Like in any coil, we can always add more wire windings to a coil adding more magnetic power. So to with quantum knots, there is always room for more.