The following is a comment made by Chapman on the previous thread.
As I said back in MAY!
May 4, 2016 at 7:16 PM
Dear Mr. Rossi,
Folks seem to be having a hard time visualizing what is actually happening in an E-Cat. Please allow me to put forth this visual model in order to clarify the “inner workings” and “deep mysteries” within.
Consider a standard kitchen blender with a glass carafe, like you make margaritas in during warm summer afternoons.
Like most blenders, the lid has a small plug which can be removed for adding ingredients during operation. Around the hole for the plug there is a small flat lip.
Now, imagine this:
1. Remove the plug, and balance a few steel ball bearings on the lip around the hole.
2. Turn on the blender, just on low to start with, but SLOWLY increase the blender until it is up to “High”.
Take a moment to look at it. The blades are whirling around at high RPM and the ball bearings are jiggling around from the vibration, teetering around the edge of the lip.
3. Now, WHACK the blender with a rolling pin!
The ball bearings fall from the lip and into the fast spinning blades below, and are sent smashing through the glass of the carafe, shattering it into pieces!
In this visual aid, the blender blades are Nickel atoms, the ball bearings are Hydrogen Ions liberated from the Lithium-Aluminum-Hydride and the glass carafe is the web of Lithium Atoms mixed throughout.
Heating the mixture to just short of the melting point of the nickel, and pumping up the electron shells about the nickel nuclei is represented by the power of the high speed blades.
Whacking the blender with a rolling pin is identical to sending an Electromagnetic Pulse through the energized e-cat reactor vessel. Deformation of the electron shells causes the capture and eventual disassembly of hydrogen ions within the maelstrom of the electron shell energy fields resulting in the energetic expulsion of suddenly solitary protons.
These ejected protons then collide with lithium atoms and transmutate Lithium 7 to Beryllium 8, which promptly decay to two Alpha – which consequently gain electrons to become Helium atoms.
The process of the forced decay of Lithium to Helium – resulting in a large energy release – is well documented, and was the first nuclear fission process ever demonstrated. [see Cockcroft-Walton; 1932]
The genius of the e-cat is in its application of the primary LENR process (proton liberation from an energized nickel-hydride) to effectively utilize individual Nickel atoms as sub-Nano scale proton accelerators.
Indeed, this invention should be rightly considered a breakthrough in Nano-Tech Engineering, as the apparatus is, in fact, mechanical in nature rather than chemical or nuclear, just as a Scanning Electron Microscope is a MACHINE, not a “reaction”.
Consider: This process does not involve molecular interactions and formations (other than the Hydride fuel supplement), so this exhibit can not be called “chemical” in nature. And, while we see Helium being produced while Hydrogen is consumed, this clearly is not “Fusion”, as it is a sequence going through Lithium and then DOWN to Helium. Now, in modern terms, the breakdown of Beryllium is a “decay” into Alpha particles as radiation, so this clearly does not qualify as fission under current models.
So I repeat, the E-Cat is neither CHEMICAL, FISSION nor FUSION. It is a MACHINE! A beautiful, badass, Nano-Tech, Energy Liberating Machine!
GOD BLESS YOU, Mr. Rossi. May he continue to bless your endeavours with success, while you continue to work to bring this to the masses!
– Chapman –
I have repeatedly gone on and on about the fact that the reaction chain is aneutronic, and the only neutron troubles arise as the result of misguided individuals insisting on FOULING their experiments with deuterium, thinking they were chasing a classic “Hot-Fusion” model of fusing hydrogen into helium.
Again, I say to all, this has been out there for years, and anyone can read up and understand what the process is and how it works.
But I would point out one thing I think you need to look closer at. Piantelli writes about the proton energy at expulsion – after the disassociation of the hydrogen – as being around 6.7MEV. Unfortunately, that is derived from the coulomb barrier potential resulting from the total charged nucleons involved. But if you think it through you will realize that the hydrogen dissociates at the point where the external forces equal the attractive force of its own structure – a little over 1 MEV. The hydrogen ION cannot penetrate to the deepest reaches of the electron cloud because it is ripped apart only part way down.
You still get protons with enough energy for the lowest probability lithium penetrations, but a reduced total count. So where does the additional energy come from to pump the protons up not only to the point of totally dominating the lithium, but even absorption by the nickel?
That is where the Plasmons come in. As “superstructures” they affect colliding protons by dramatically increasing the proton energy, enabling direct nickel absorption. And the same mechanism also facilitates supercharging alpha particles from the lithium decay to the point where they also can penetrate the nickel.
For all those people arguing about collision statistics based upon accelerator models, I would remind you that the protons in question are not fired from an external source, to be deflected and lost, but rather are internally released. The proper comparison would be photon migration from the center of the sun to the surface. 20,000 to 100,000 years.
Read about “Drunkard’s walk” and you will understand that even the LOWEST PROBABILITY collision results become guaranteed certainties after no more than SECONDS of the internal pinball-like environment. And, speaking of pinball, consider that while a proton may bounce off a nickel atom like a pinball bounces off a passive bumper, when the pinball bounces off a plasmon it is like hitting an ACTIVE bumper that kicks the ball away harder than it approached.
Anyway, this plasmon action explains why the reaction is heat-dependant. Plasmon energy levels are the product of the size of the plasmon, and the heat of the individual participating members.
Pumping up protons to the point that they can only penetrate partway through the electron cloud of target atoms will result in radiation emissions as the proton disrupts the deep shells. As temperature increases and proton energy passes the absorption threshold these emissions will cease. What this means is that there are several discrete “emission windows” as the reactor is brought up to operational temperatures. These emissions can be mitigated, or even capitalized on, by careful material selection and a strict initiation protocol.
Finally – any nickel will do. As long as it is powdered form and heat treated for embrittlement. I suggest heat under vacuum, then flush with hydrogen to quench. Repeat. This will achieve the molecular beta phase, the microfractures for porosity, elimination of contaminant gases, AND hydrogen saturation for pre-loading. Catalytic Nickel sponges are overkill. They are formed for molecular scale filtration, and we are talking about hydrogen atoms! They leak through on their own. You just want to fracture the grains by flash quenching so that under a microscope they look like dandelion puffs = maximum surface area.
In the end, this ain’t rocket science. All it takes is a little reading and a few days of staring at a blank wall while you let your brain fit it all together. The physics are simple. It is the Engineering that is tricky! Materials have limitations that do not show up in equations!!!