E-Cat Plant Test Plan (Fabio Penon)

The following text of the plan for testing the 1 MW plant written by Fabio Penon before the 1 year E-Cat plant test began, is taken from Exhibit 70 -1 from the docket of the Rossi v. IH Court case. This is a transcription of the document which can be found in the original at https://www.e-catworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/70-01-Exhibit-1.pdf



1. Plant description 

The MW1—USA plant under test consists of 115 power generation units, grouped in modules. Only 111 units will be operational during the tests: Four units will be used as spare parts. 

Every unit absorbs a power of about 1.1 kW — 2.5 kW 

Each unit consists of a reaction chamber, where the nickel powder reacts with the hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst.
Electric heaters heath the reaction chamber and by this way trigger the reaction between nickel and hydrogen.
The power panel regulates the power supply of the electric heaters. 

The cooling water is contained in a tank, placed inside the plant, that receives the water from an external plant. It is conveyed by pumps in the units E—Cat, where it is heated to vaporize. The steam is collected in one tube of the steam line, which conveys it to the outside of the shelter.

The steam is then passed through the customer’s facility, where it cools up to its condensation. 

The water is so recycled to the internal tank in a closed loop. The water is distilled water. The external tank is connected with the internal tank, by a water line and a floating valve, so that the level of water inside the internal tank is maintained constant. The water flows from the external tank into the internal tank by gravity. 

The heating elements of the E-Cat units, the pumps for the water, the internal services to the shelter and the control panel are powered by the public grid

 In the plant some measuring instruments are installed:

– flowmeter for measuring the flow rate of cooling water inlet into the shelter. It is located along the line of return of the water, between the plant of the Customer andthe 1 MW E—Cat

– temperature probe for measuring the cooling water temperature at the inlet of the shelter. It is located in the internal water tank, containing cooling distilled water. 

– temperature probe for measuring steam temperature at the outlet of the shelter. It is located along the steam pipe at the outside of the shelter 

– pressure probe for measuring steam pressure at the outlet of the shelter. It is located along the steam pipe at the outside of the shelter 

– power analyzer for measuring the power supply. It is located along the electric power line before the E—Cat

2. Test set up

2.1 List of components 

. 60 Water pump ( Prominent)
. 115 E-Cat units
1 Water pump
1 Internal Water tank (0.2 C.M. )
1 Auxiliary external water tank

2.2 Measurement instrumentation

 -Flowmeter                                            Test report n. 01/2015, dated 2015/01/15
-Power analyzer PCE 830                     Calibration certificate n. 0518/15, dated 2015/01/28
-Probe for water temperature measurement          HSTC – TT – Tl — 24S.
– Probe for steam temperature measurement        TU — T – NPT — U 72
-Probe for steam pressure measurement PX 309—100A5V
– Multifunction calibrator

 The measurement chain of temperature a will be calibrated by the thermometer HSTC-TT-Tl-24S-1M-SMPW-M

 3. Calculation of the energy mutiple

 6.1 Calculation of the energy produced ( EP )
The energy produced by 111 power generator units is given by the sum of the heat of
heating of water, heat of vaporization of water and heat of superheating the steam. 


 ER( energy of heating of water up to100 °C )= Mw x Csz ( va — Tiw)
Mw = mass of water vaporized during the whole test, coming from tank
TiW = inlet temperature of the water, coming from tank
Csw= specific heat of water = 1‘14 Wh/(kg°K)
va = vaporization temperature of the water = 100 °C
Ev = ( energy of vaporization of water) = A x Mw
A = ( latent energy of vaporization) = 627,5 Wh/kg


Es ( heating energy of steam ) = M3 x Cps x ( Tos — va)
Ms = mass of steam produced during the whole test
Cps =specific heat of steam at constant pressure = 0,542 Wh/kg
Tos = outlet temperature of the steam
va = vaporization temperature of the water
The values referto the atmospheric pressure

 In order to be conservative:
– it will be not taken into account the heating energy of steam
-the temperature of the incoming water will be always considered to be equal to the
maximum value of the same measured during the entire test day

 It will be possible small leaks of water to the inside of the shelter and are present
measurement uncertainties
To take this into account the total mass of water transited during the test period will be
reduced by 10%..

 3.2 Calculation of the energy absorbed ( Ea ) 

The energy is supplied from the public grid
in order to be conservative:
 — all the supplied energy is supposed be absorbed by the 111 reactors 

In reality a part of this energy feeds the pump, which conveys the water from the tank
external to the reactors This energy doesn’t feed the reactors

3.3 Calculation of the ‘energy multiple’ 

Energy multiple = energy produced (EP)
                          energy absorbed ( EA)


4. Test protocol

Before testing Leonardo Corporation will implement the system in accordance with reference documentation
The ERV will provide the measuring devices: probe for measuring water inlet temperature probe to measure outlet steam temperature,
probe to measure the outlet steam pressure, 
inlet water flowmeter, electrical power analyser
Leonardo Corporation will install measuring devices with reference documentation

Before the plant start up the ERV will verify the compliance of the plant configuration and
of the measuring chains with reference documentation.He will carry out a trial run 

Leonardo Corporation will start the system

The ERV will then follow the system start-up to reach the operating conditions and at least
the next 24 hours of operation 

According to data collected after the first 24 hours of operation, he will make an initial
assessment of the ‘Energy Multiple’ and he will prepare the report

During the test will be detected the electrical power supplied, the temperature of the inlet
water, the temperature and the pressure of the outlet steam, the flow rate of inlet water.

 At 00.00 of every day of the test, the measurement system will calculate the mass of water
that has passed through the E—Cat and the total energy supplied to the E—Cat. 

Every event that occurs from the start until the close of the tests, after 350 days of
operation, will be recorded in the logbook by Leonardo Corporation.

During the 350 days of operation, the ERV will visits to the plant with a frequency approximately
four months in order to verify the configuration of the system and the measuring chains and make evaluations of Multiple Energy

At the end of the 350 days of operation the ERV will follow the shutdown of the plant
At the conclusion of the test the ERV will produce a final report, showing the results

Abano Terme, 2015/02/09


Fabio Penon ME.