*The following post has been submitted by Donald Anderson.*

A photograph accompanied by much discussion in LENR blogs has been interpreted without regard to electrical circuit theory of voltages around a closed circuit. The confusion is, I believe, because I believe that the E-Cat QX is an energy-producing device once excited, and that Andrea Rossi will withhold some knowledge until full demonstration and disclosure before the end of this October.

Consider the following statements which have been made by Andrea Rossi regarding the E-Cat QX, either in one of the papers published with he and Gullstrom in Arxiv on July 18,2017 or in response to questions in his blog:

- The QX can produce a combination of heat (to 2600C), light, and electricity. If the total is say 20 watts (same as watt-hours per hour to the EE), it may include perhaps 10% electrical energy, perhaps 20 or 30 % light, and the rest is available as heat through a heat exchanger surrounding the lamp.
- In the most recent paper, and as reported earlier, the energy source provided to ignite the “plasma” can be pure and simple dc, for example two 12V batteries.
- The thermal output, by measuring temperature rise in a heat transfer oil in a heat exchanger surrounding the QX, and hence including absorption of any light, is stated to be 20 watts.
- This heat transfer appears to be the temperature rise in 1.8 seconds.
- Start-up occurs in perhaps a minute or so, and shut down can be in seconds.
- Voltage measured across a one-ohm resistor is 0.105 volts, so the measured current is 0.105 amps or 105 milliamps. NOTE THAT THE SIGN OF THIS MEASURED CURRENT IS NOT OBVIOUS IN THE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING TWO VOLTMETERS MEASURING ONLY ACROSS THE ONE OHM.

As an analog, suppose I were to construct a system involving a voltage source of 24 VDC, a one ohm resistor, and a tiny dc motor/generator attached to a tiny gasoline engine. When used as a starter, if the motor has a very low impedance, nearly 24 volts would start to spin-up the motor. The current would be limited to 24 amperes, and would decrease as rpm increase. Given a fuel and spark, in perhaps a minute the current would drop as rpm built until-lo!- the engine starts at say 1000rpm.

Now assume that the engine is governed to idle at say 1100 rpm, and this the “starter”is viewed as a “generator”, producing 24.105 volts DC at that rpm. . Yes, the one ohm resistor does have a current of 105 milliamps, but it measures the recharge of the battery!

I offer thus a possible explanation in accord with all released information for the E-Cat QX listed above: The QX is like a fluorescent lamp or arc lamp which cold-starts in a time of the order of minutes when excited at 24VDC, with a maximum current perhaps approaching 24 amps given the ballast resistor limit. When producing energy once “ignited”, it produces 24.105 volts and recharges the battery. Just as an automobile draws very large starting current, the generator replaces that energy in the battery.

Compare this to the purported argument presented by Rossi that the energy from the battery continues to be V^2/R or I^2 x R, about 11 milliwatts. This suggests a COP, or thermal output of 20 watts divided by at 11 milliwatts, of over 1800. Rather, once ignited, the QX has a net negative energy input and is in the self-sustaining mode (SSM).

Donald Anderson

## Circuit Analysis of the E-Cat QX with DC Exitation (Donald Anderson)

The following post has been submitted by Donald Anderson.A photograph accompanied by much discussion in LENR blogs has been interpreted without regard to electrical circuit theory of voltages around a closed circuit. The confusion is, I believe, because I believe that the E-Cat QX is an energy-producing device once excited, and that Andrea Rossi will withhold some knowledge until full demonstration and disclosure before the end of this October.

Consider the following statements which have been made by Andrea Rossi regarding the E-Cat QX, either in one of the papers published with he and Gullstrom in Arxiv on July 18,2017 or in response to questions in his blog:

As an analog, suppose I were to construct a system involving a voltage source of 24 VDC, a one ohm resistor, and a tiny dc motor/generator attached to a tiny gasoline engine. When used as a starter, if the motor has a very low impedance, nearly 24 volts would start to spin-up the motor. The current would be limited to 24 amperes, and would decrease as rpm increase. Given a fuel and spark, in perhaps a minute the current would drop as rpm built until-lo!- the engine starts at say 1000rpm.

Now assume that the engine is governed to idle at say 1100 rpm, and this the “starter”is viewed as a “generator”, producing 24.105 volts DC at that rpm. . Yes, the one ohm resistor does have a current of 105 milliamps, but it measures the recharge of the battery!

I offer thus a possible explanation in accord with all released information for the E-Cat QX listed above: The QX is like a fluorescent lamp or arc lamp which cold-starts in a time of the order of minutes when excited at 24VDC, with a maximum current perhaps approaching 24 amps given the ballast resistor limit. When producing energy once “ignited”, it produces 24.105 volts and recharges the battery. Just as an automobile draws very large starting current, the generator replaces that energy in the battery.

Compare this to the purported argument presented by Rossi that the energy from the battery continues to be V^2/R or I^2 x R, about 11 milliwatts. This suggests a COP, or thermal output of 20 watts divided by at 11 milliwatts, of over 1800. Rather, once ignited, the QX has a net negative energy input and is in the self-sustaining mode (SSM).

Donald Anderson