The following post has been submitted by Hank Mills
There’s something truly special that makes Andrea Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) devices produce excess power. Speculation has raged for years about the nature of his so-called secret sauce. Every time a nugget of information is provided about a design element added to a new reactor model or some additional fuel component, hundreds of online posts are made. Yet progress towards mainstream acceptance of the technology remains dreadfully slow. I believe this may now change. I suggest that a unifying catalyst for the E-Cat has emerged that allows us to make sense of the processes taking place in his reactor, the rationale for his various fuel components (along with their sizes, properties, and composition), and the reasoning behind the various reactor designs he’s tested. The application of this knowledge could allow for a wide range of devices that not only produce energy from novel nuclear reactions but manipulate the underlying medium of the vacuum in useful ways. You may not believe in Santa Claus, but in this article I’m about to propose a phenomenological nexus that could keep Rudolph’s nose aglow, provide all the electricity needed to keep Santa’s factory humming along, and keep his sleigh soaring through sky, defying gravity.
When an adequate electrical potential is applied to a cathode in proximity to an anode, a complex series of processes, many simultaneous, take place. The result can be an accumulation of electric charge localized to a tiny region of the cathode surface, usually at a surface irregularity such as a crack, pit, or protrusion. Once a critical level of charge is accumulated, an “ecton” explosion takes place, allowing an almost fluidic stream of electrons to surge out of the cathode. These electrons exist amid a spray of metallic vapor from the “cathode spot” and positively charged gaseous ions. By a process that is not fully understood, these electrons – along with a much smaller quantity of positive ions – self organize into a structure that allows the electrons to stick together in close proximity, defying their mutual electrostatic repulsion due to their like charge. These mysterious objects have been described by scientists around the world going back at least a century. Although referred to by many different names including strange radiation, ectons, charged clusters, electron clusters, exotic vacuum objects (EVOs), charged plasmoids, and micro-ball lightning, they are truly ubiquitous in that they have been produced in an extremely wide array of circumstances in various experimental apparatuses.
One researcher in particular, Kenneth Shoulders, the author of EV – A Tale of Discovery and numerous shorter online documents, spent many years of his life investigating these objects, which he described as exotic vacuum objects or EVOs. Among many other interesting effects, he discovered that some unknown property of this high density, likely torodial structure of electrons could nullify almost its entire effective mass, along with the much higher mass of heavier positive ions trapped inside. The result is that once created, the input energy cost to accelerate an EVO from a cathode to an anode was minuscule, perhaps less than a thousandth of what would be expected. Moreover, if during the course of travel the torodial plasmoid was to interact with physical structures, truly bizarre effects would take place that defied all current scientific knowledge.
As an example, if a one micron sized EVO was made to follow an undersized channel (let’s say perhaps a tenth of a micron in diameter) between two slabs of a dielectric material such as aluminum oxide, the object would atomize the obstructing material into a liquid via a non-thermal process while boring an appropriately sized channel. The aluminum oxide slush would be rapidly ejected out of the channel along the same path as the EVO. In other cases, if an EVO carrying internal positive ions was accelerated into an appropriately configured anode, nuclear reactions could be produced by a number of different mechanisms, including the anomalous kinetic energy acquired by the heavy ions. In many of these impacts transmutation products could be identified.
From his relentless experimentation, Ken Shoulders learned that these EVOs could transform from a “white” excited state in which they emitted electrons (allowing them to be filmed in his custom-made electron pinhole camera) through many intermediate gray states to a “black” state that was for all intents and purposes, invisible. In the black state, the EVO interacted only very weakly with matter. However, with a proper stimulus in the form of an externally applied electric field or several cycles of RF frequencies, the ghostly structure could be brought back to life as a white EVO.
Eventually, Shoulders gained the experience to produce EVOs of various diameters (from hundreds of nanometers to perhaps a few tens of microns or even larger in some cases), maneuver them through the equivalent of small scale obstacle courses including right angle turns, split individual EVOs into multiple smaller units to recombine them at another location on the guidance track, and even fire them off from cathodes at frequencies of up to the megahertz range. Perhaps equally importantly, he learned how to identify the evidence of their presence – their varied but unique signatures.
Ken Shoulders found the track marks of EVOs in a wide variety of materials, including the spent fuel of LENR or cold fusion experiments. However, he was not alone in identifying strange marks left behind by these anomalous self-sustaining structures of electric charge. Other teams around the world, going back decades, had found the same fingerprint markings produced by their experiments.
Exploded wires, high current arc discharges through liquid, electrolytic cold fusion cells, plasma based abnormal glow discharge tubes, Tesla coils, electrical components pushed until dielectric breakdown, and many other apparatuses could produce these self-organizing structures. Even cavitation bubbles produced by ultrasound in a liquid have proven to create them. High voltage isn’t even always needed to create them: tracks have been discovered on the electrodes of six-volt electrolysis cells!
Since they often produce x-rays or low-level gammas when impacting metals, the remains of exploded wires or electrolytic electrodes have been placed near detectors. Up to a couple days after the initial experiment was completed, the tracks of “strange radiation” along with x-rays were found – sometimes at the distance of a meter or through barriers that would have blocked alpha or beta rays! In some experiments, magnetic materials like nickel or iron were found to trap, absorb, or at least prevent the passage of these anomalous emissions. Other materials, like aluminum, sometimes had little effect at all, allowing them to pass through. Likely, a spectrum of EVOs spanning many “gray” levels were passing through space and eventually being detected. Many others were likely lost to the environment. Everywhere this extremely intuitive and highly skilled inventor looked, the evidence of charge clusters seemed to exist. There’s no escaping their presence or effects!
The majority of energy gainful, exothermic processes within the entire range of cold fusion reactors that have been built to date are likely directly related to the initial synthesis, purposeful guidance, and resulting actions of EVOs. Andrea Rossi’s energy catalyzer models from his first powder based systems to the E-Cat QX are no exception. In each model of his reactors, he built in mechanisms – perhaps in his earliest systems unknowingly – that produced both EVOs and the conditions for them to catalyze LENR reactions. As his knowledge of what was transpiring in his reactors grew more complete, he made appropriate enhancements that increased the reaction rate or even allowed the direct production of electricity. But before any examples of such improvements can be provided, another physical phenomenon must be briefly discussed that has been fully and wholly accepted by mainstream physics: surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). I’ll effort to describe this topic in a plain and intuitive manner, which means readers will have to perform their own online research for a more comprehensive summary of the topic. But my explanation should be good enough to convey the fundamental concepts that are critical for grasping what I believe is Andrea Rossi’s now not-so-secret catalyst.
An electrically conductive metal has some number of mobile electrons that are free to move about. Without these charge carriers being able to move about, there could be no such thing as a surface plasmon polariton. Now, let’s examine each component of this potentially confusing term.
The first word, “surface” means that this phenomenon takes place on the surface of a metal. More precisely, SPPs can be found at the interface of a metal surface and a dielectric (which can be a gaseous environment, a solid, or even free space). All the action takes place just above or below the surface.
Next, at this surface is a, “plasmon” which can be very roughly conceptualized as an undulating or bobbing collection of electrons from the metal pushing up from the surface, extending above some distance, and crashing back down again below the surface. Even though the lattice of the metal is solid, these free electrons have the mobility to travel freely and slosh about like a liquid: almost like waves or ripples on a pond.
Finally, we come to the word, “polariton” which refers to how these ripples of electrons (plasmons) at the surface interact with various stimuli from the environment. If an electromagnetic wave in the form of photons (two examples of photon sources could be a laser or infrared light from a hot surface) impacts the metal-dielectric interface at the surface of the metal, the electric component of the photon imparts momentum to the free electrons creating potentially powerful ripples of electrons that spread out in all directions, rapidly dropping in magnitude.
However, there are additional ways to produce surface plasmon polaritons (couplings of plasmons and stimulus at a dielectric interface) other than the impact of photons. Electrically charged particles such as electrons, protons, or ions impacting the surface can also produce the same collective projections of electrons rolling across the surface. Likewise, SPPs can be generated on the metal-dielectric interface of a cathode pulsed with a voltage source. The whole system of the pulsating “surface plasmon” along with the source of stimulus is referred to as a pseudo-particle, hence the overall “surface plasmon polariton.” Now, since we have the word salad sorted out, we can move on!
SPPs are not necessarily EVOs; however, they are important in the creation of EVOs for multiple reasons. They facilitate the electric field amplification on a sharp tip or surface protrusion, such as the pointed wires used by Kenneth Shoulders or the large number of nano-needles found on the surface of planar electrodes in other systems. This allows for the “ecton explosion” that releases a burst of electrons, metal vapor, and ions. Furthermore, SSPs may generate the orientations and organized structures of surface plasmons which, once ejected into the internal space of a reactor from a discharging cathode, might lead to the formation of the EVO.
A good analogy could be a lump of clay on the spinning wheel of a potter. The spinning blob is not a vase or watering pot. To be transformed into a usable, functional piece of pottery, an external force (in this case the hands of the artisan) must intelligently mold and shape the raw material into the desired structure. Similarly, I believe the creator of the universe, devised a method that allows his hands – through the dynamic forces of the active vacuum or aether – to combine the undulating, patterned SPP with some number of heavier ions while shaping the plasmoid that will become the EVO.
Given the above, a reasonable thought would be that by further enhancing SPPs on a metal-dielectric interface, more “ecton” events could be triggered, and, hence, EVOs created. The good news is that there are multiple methods of enhancing SPPs.
To be best of my understanding, here are a several methods that have proven to work in mainstream optics research labs: placing surface protrusions on a planar surface that will produce a large electric field pushing the plasmon upwards, creating pits or cracks on a surface which will make the plasmon project horizontally into each side of the crevice, utilizing an array of differently sized spherical particles that will strengthen the plasmons where the particles make contact, utilizing a dielectric of higher permittivity and/or a conductor of greater conductivity, matching the size of surface irregularities (or powder sizes) to the wave length of oncoming photons to produce resonant conditions, utilizing smaller surface area wires instead of large planar surfaces to reduce dissipation rates for a giving stimulation, and setting up specific patterns of surface features with the goal of creating lenses that can focus plasmons.
But the most obvious way of enhancing the production of a SPP should be obvious: striking the material with an EVO! According to Kenneth Shoulders, in addition to producing various kinds of structural damage, the EVO can dump a massive electrical charge onto a target in an extremely short period of time, perhaps in a picosecond or less! He demonstrated that a hundred billion electrons from a single EVO of approximately one micron in diameter can be imparted during such an energetic strike.
The plasmon undulations of electrons rippling through the surface layers of the target material would be immense. Although Kenneth Shoulders, as far as I’m aware, never referred to SPPs in his writings, he elaborated on how such impacts could create self-sustaining chain reactions. He called them “wildfires.” His reasoning was straightforward. If you have an embrittled surface – such as nickel loaded with hydrogen to create a hydride layer – the kinetic damage of the strike could damage the lattice creating breaks, fractures, and cracks. The result is fracto-emission of electrons – a well-documented phenomenon in scientific literature.
However, going beyond what’s currently understood by mainstream science, he claimed that the wildfires he observed (in addition to heat after death in LENR systems) were due to EVOs being produced by those incidents of fracto-emission. These emissions of charged clusters, likely carrying some number of protons, would then inflict additional damage, creating a semi-perpetuating cycle that could go on for extended periods.
In one experiment that may be useful in visualizing the effect of SPPs, Shoulders placed the exposed, uncovered end portion of a length of insulated wire – 1/64th inch diameter covered with Formvar insulation – within the guide path of an EVO. He then allowed it to be struck multiple times. Under a critical voltage of 4.8 kilovolts, nothing significant happened. However, upon hitting that input voltage, sparks (which always indicate an EVO has been created) were emitted from the entire length of the wire which were powerful enough to blast off chunks of the insulation.
In subsequent strikes, sparks would only emerge from the insulated portions, and not where the insulation had been blasted off. The explanation here is pretty straightforward. Upon being hit by an EVO, the small diameter, low surface area wire allowed for the resulting surface plasmon polariton spikes to be intensified rather than spreading out over a large area and fading out. The SPPs were intensified even further where the dielectric insulating material covered the wire! Where the Formvar was not present, the only dielectric present was the low pressure, perhaps near vacuum gases of the surroundings. Here is a great example of how one EVO strike can trigger the production of many more.)
In recent years there have been many papers and patent applications published that revolve around the concept of powerful surface plasmon polaritons inducing nuclear reactions and isotopic shifting in a more direct manner. Often, the SPPs are stimulated with a specific type of laser, perhaps focused on a hydrogenated surface. Although the scientific jargon can be challenging to mentally digest at times, one explanation is that powerful SPPs on appropriate surfaces can liberate or produce a certain type of “slow neutron” with a large “cross section” that can easily penetrate into the nucleus of nearby atoms to induce isotopic shifting and/or exothermic nuclear reactions.
Another line of thought suggests that such intense SPPs can produce “heavy electrons” that can penetrate the electron shells of an atom to produce other types of reactions that produce energy. Some researchers cojecture that these heavy electrons may actually represent some form of electron cluster shielding the electrostatic charge an interior proton. Whatever the primary nuclear mechanism(s) of the reactions reported in such literature turn out to be, SPPs and the EVOs they help generate are intricately involved – without a doubt.
Using the understanding these two phenomena – SPPs and the “strange radiation” they generate – we can begin to examine how Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat technology evolved over time. In the following I hypothesize several optimizations made on the E-Cat is by no means complete or even totally accurate. But I believe it can provide insights into how Rossi produced SPPs, generated EVOs, and intelligently guided them to generate excess power. I’ll try to be brief on each point.
1 – In at least some if not all of his earliest systems, we know Andrea Rossi degassed his fuel under high vacuum to remove trapped gases. This removes trapped oxygen, water, and carbon monoxide among other contaminants that can hinder LENR reactions for multiple reasons – including the fact they take up space in the lattice where you want absorbed protons to go! If you don’t remove these gases, the hydrogen embrittlement process can’t happen. Another problem they cause that is directly relevant to this article, is that they can hinder the production of EVOs in a plasma. Kenneth Shoulders explained that water, oxygen, and electronegative gases can “suck up” electrons which inhibits the processes that produce charge clusters in a plasma environment. Cycles of heating and degassing may eliminate this problem.
2 – Andrea Rossi chose nickel powder with a high surface area. The carbonyl nickel he used (a specific type of nickel powder that’s commercially available and not the highly toxic gas) is covered in sub-micron spikes, tubercules, valleys, and protrusions. Not only would these features increase the effective surface area, but they would allow for SPPs to be enhanced. According to the Fluid Heater patent, he baked his particles to heat trapped water molecules which produced internal explosions that further enhanced the surface features.
3 – Nano-particles of palladium and other elements were mixed in with the nickel fuel. Utilizing nano-particles as “reverse spillover catalysts” can dramatically boost the adsorption and absorption of hydrogen into the nickel below. However, in regards to SPPs, the textured surface produced either by sputtering of the nickel or applied metallic nano-powders allows for an amplification effect in which the magnitude of the plasmons are increased.
4 – Ultra high temperatures are generated inside the reactor that can produce infrared photons, split molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen, and emit electrons. One possible way he has done this is by sometimes utilizing tungsten heating elements which can withstand the temperatures required. In addition to creating atomic hydrogen that can be much more rapidly absorbed by the nickel than molecular hydrogen, any free electrons, charged ions, or sufficiently energetic photons will be capable of producing SPPs on the surface of the fuel. These may be enhanced by the nano-particles coating the surface of the nickel powder or the spikes and protrusions found on the particles.
5 – In some setups, with or without other forms of stimulation or enhancement of SPPs, pulses of direct current may be applied through the body of the reactor. This likely not only creates intense plasmons ripples on the fuel but may ionize the gaseous environment to some extent. This can create additional free electrons and ions that may impact the fuel, enhancing hydrogen absorption and/or further magnifying the SPP effect. As will continue to be discussed, the production of plasma by some mechanism seems to be a common and repetitive theme.
6 – The individual modules of the original one megawatt plant tested in Italy utilized RFGs (radio frequency generators) that activated after a certain temperature profile had been reached. This would have produced a hydrogen (with perhaps a touch of lithium or other elements) plasma that not only could dramatically accelerate the hydrogenation process – yielding a brittle surface – but also generate EVOs. Kenneth Shoulders discussed and provided evidence that a pure plasma, with no metallic nano-particles from a cathode, could produce tracks and holes in a target called a “witness plate” that was either charged positively or grounded. In the reactors of this first one megawatt plant, some EVOs could have randomly impacted nickel fuel that may have been embedded onto the inner walls of the reactor body. However, Andrea Rossi used copper outer shells in at least some of his reactors. If the conductive exterior of such a reactor had been either grounded (earthed) or attached to a positive electrical potential, the EVOs would have been much more likely to impact the fuel on their way to the anode. Such impacts would have produced immense SPPs – which could then have stimulated nuclear reactions!
7 – Although I cannot find the reference, I specifically remember a reference that has always intrigued me, yet only in recent weeks have I recognized the full significance. In this very early article about one of Andrea Rossi’s first public tests of the E-Cat, an attendee reported a box attached to the reactor that was labled, “Tesla Coil.” For a long time, I thought that he was simply using the Tesla Coil to produce plasma capable of dissociating molecular hydrogen. Now, I recognize that there was another important reason. Kenneth Shoulders and others have been able to produce the signature tracks of EVOs by allowing the glowing streamers of a high voltage Tesla Coil to hit a target. According to him, an EVO leads each of these streamers as they travel towards a target. Connecting this to Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat, such an EVO at the tip of a streamer would produce powerful SPP waves upon striking hydrogenated, embrittled nickel powder. Not only would initial nuclear reactions take place via multiple possible routes, but the powerful strike could produce fracto-emission of electrons from broken bonds in the lattice the lattice. The continual cycles of EVO production could allow for periods in which the reactor could operate in a self-sustaining mode without input.
8 – Some of his reactors, such as the Lugano Device, could have produced plasma in their interiors due to high amplitude harmonics or resonance frequencies produced by the three phase AC applied to their resistance coils. At already very high internal temperatures, the barriers to plasma production could have been lowered enough so that this sub-optimal, indirect method was at least adequate to allow for EVO production. Utilizing the highest AC voltage possible would also likely help.
9 – Perhaps the most important fuel additive Rossi has utilized so far is lithium. Over the years and decades, multiple teams and scientists have discovered ways of inducing fusion between forms of hydrogen (protium, deuterium, or ions) and lithium at energies far below what’s officially predicted by mainstream physics. Two in particular stand out. In one series of papers available online, a prestigious researcher successfully and dramatically increased the rate enhancement of proton-lithium fusion by firing hydrogen into molten lithium. By keeping the lithium both in the molten state (near the melting temperature) and the surface clean of contaminants (no oxides or nitrides creating a barrier), he could induce individual fusion events using strikes with an energy of only a few thousand KeV.
Additionally, Unified Gravity Corporation has published results in which protons and lithium in the plasma state can undergo fusion reactions within a very low (if narrow) window of around 200eV. Due to these results, the idea of independent protons, accelerated to moderate energies, impacting and fusing with lithium atoms in an E-Cat seems quite feasible. Even more interestingly, the thought of EVOs carrying protons striking lithium wetted nickel powder is exciting!
Due to these charged clusters reducing mass and inertia somewhat like a hypothesized warp bubble, they could accelerate protons to far higher energies than those existing normally in the plasma. With proper tuning of whatever mechanism may be producing the plasma (ultra-hot heating element, radio frequency generator, high amplitude harmonics from the resistors, electrical impulses sent through the fuel) certain windows of collision energies could be carefully tuned in. Finally, lithium (like potassium and sodium rumored to have been used as a catalyst in some of his previous systems) is an electro-positive element that may help induce the production of EVOs.
10 – The Quark, or E-Cat QX, represents the current pinnacle of Andrea Rossi’s development of the energy catalyzer. A comparison of this device to some of Kenneth Shoulders test systems yields striking similarity. Moreover, the basic idea of a discharge tube with a cathode and an anode achieving a mode of excess power generation – in the forms of heat, light, and electricity — isn’t new. If his device works in a similar manner to others (some of which were focusing on electrical production rather than generation of thermal energy) then EVOs are without doubt involved.
We know so that there are two electrodes with a narrow channel between them that’s almost certainly composed of a dielectric material like quartz. As Kenneth Shoulders has explained, a narrow channel surrounded by dielectric is an ideal guide for an EVO. If there is a significant gas pressure and the surface is even reasonably smooth, the charge clusters will travel through such a cappilary tube from one end to the other, not touching the surface! The narrow tube may service another purpose. If the overall size of the electrodes are larger than the diameter of the hole in the dielectric, a field intensification process may boost the electric field in that region and allow an EVO to be generated more easily. Additionally, we don’t know anything about the surface characteristics of his electrodes. However, if they have been roughened up in some manner, this would assist the formation of EVOs. Likely, the electrodes have been embrittled due to being loaded with hydrogen and perhaps some quantity of lithium. Shoulders has described a method in which he coated a cathode with titanium hydride. The brittle and self replenishing nature of the surface – in addition to the hydrogen it continually emitted – was said to be useful in generating the EVO discharges. I expect that a nickel or nickel-manganese electrode (the manganese helping eliminate oxygen and sulfur which are contaminants) with a hydride layer would work in the same manner.
To produce huge amounts of energy, only the smallest quantities of hydrogen and lithium would be required. Thin coatings on the electrodes would likely be enough. Another reason for this is that those who have seen the actual reaction chamber report no sign of foreign material: the tube seems clear, transparent, and obscured. Perhaps an interesting thought is that over time molten lithium could, perhaps, work its way from the outer area of the cathode to the tip. One of the problems that Kenneth Shoulders had to overcome was the degradation of his sharp points on the tips of cathode wires. After many firings, the sharp points would become so blunted that higher and higher voltages would be required to emit EVOs. In addition to using metal hydride coatings, he also used reservoirs of low melting point conductive substances such as mercury to overcome the problem. Gradually attracted by electric forces towards the tip of the cathode, the minuscule quantity of mercury would wet the tip, form the needle like launch point of the EVO, and be ejected off during the explosive discharge. I can’t help but wonder if almost imperceptable quantities of lithium in the E-Cat QX have replaced mercury in Shoulder’s test systems. Or, perhaps, other electro-positive elements with a low melting point such as sodium could be used. The light from his reactor, a slightly orange bright yellow, sure does look similar to the glow of a sodium plasma tube.
Once the E-Cat QX is discharged, a burst of EVOs are likely generated. Many of these may be too small to be seen by the naked eye; however, Frank Acland has reported seeing a tiny dot of light positioned in the central tube between electrodes. Ignoring a wide range of possible nuclear reactions that might happen mid-flight, the EVO strike on the anode could induce a number of effects. Direct thermonuclear fusion by slamming transported positive ions to anode surface is one; the application of an anomalous kinetic energy capable of being thermalized is another; a powerful triggering of Surface Plasmon Polaritons of extreme magnitude capable of producing neutrons or heavy electrons (more EVOs) is exciting, and the continuing cycles of fracto-emission could be an explanation for how the plasma may be sustained with such a low voltage. Most likely, a couple of these mechanisms are dominant. Regardless, the EVO strike would be a potential trigger for all of them!
To go into the possible dynamics of the next series of reactions that would occur after such an LENR event on the anode would be an exhausting task. So, in short, I’ll simply say that I imagine a series of ejected particles, ions, and EVOs traveling back and forth between the electrodes helping the plasma sustain at nearly zero energy cost and an ultra low voltage.
The direct electrical production reported by Rossi would likely emerge from at least two sources. First, Kenneth Shoulders reported that EVOs can deposit their charge on an anode or secondary electrode target. The anode in the E-Cat QX is likely being bombarded by EVOs, and the impacts will be temporarily reversing the positive charge of the anode to a negative charge. This could likely be producing excess power spikes being fed back into the power supply. Secondly, Harold Aspden’s Law of Electrodynamics predicts that oppositely charged particles of different mass (in this case massive protons and light electrons) traveling in opposite directions would produce a linear electrodynamic force in a plasma – what I understand to be a flow of magnetic vector potential in one direction. This would produce multiple effects that could lead to electrical energy production and the overheating of Andrea Rossi’s power supply. Due to the nature of this “cold electricity” the engineering required may be challenging, because this type of electricity may abide by a different set of laws than ordinary “hot electricity.”
As a final note about the E-Cat QX, I’d like to point out that some suggest that the EVOs are a form of “magnetic monopole” ejecting a beam of magnetism. This would be in direct contradiction to the observed behavior of a charged cluster that closely resembles that of a negatively charged electron. EVOs are propelled linearly along electrical fields, are repulsed by like charges, continuously emit electrons observable in electron cameras, and seem to project a narrow beam of pure “magnetic vector potential.” This makes sense due to their torodial nature. The simplest way to think of them are tiny versions of macro scale perfectly wound torodial inductors – such as those used in electrical transformers. Their magnetic of an EVO is contained within the body of the torus while vector potential sprays out from the center hole like a jet of liquid. This narrowly confined powerful electric field likely extracts electron-positron pairs from the seething zero-point energy field to power the entire structure. Due to the fact that Maxwell’s original equations were gutted by Heaviside, many physicists (although not all) treat the scalar and vector potentials as mathematical abstractions. I’m looking forward to the EVOs inside the E-Cat QX proving the absolute reality of the scalar and vector potentials.
As you can see, I believe that Andrea Rossi’s true catalyst hasn’t been a particular ingredient, fuel additive, or stimulation method. All of these modifications have likely been useful and helpful – some working better than others. Fundamentally, though, the EVO is the true prime mover of the E-Cat. These entities hurriedly extracting energy from the vacuum and applying it to the reactor by a number of different mechanisms are responsible for the production of heat, light, and electricity in his systems.
This makes E-Cat technology even more interesting because it’s a hybrid system: extracting nuclear energy and zero-point energy at the same time. By examining the work of numerous researchers who have been investigating these electron clusters for decades, we can begin to understand how to optimize LENR systems. We’ll probably learn much about manipulating the zero-point energy field in the process – guiding us towards an understanding of the anomalous electrogravitic craft (including the man made ones) flying in our skies. The physics of the E-Cat won’t simply power out planet but also lead humanity to the stars, at warp speeds!
I encourage readers to spend a little time this holiday season considering the dynamics of how photons, electrons, ions, and plasmas may interact with roughened, properly sized surfaces to produce powerful Surface Plasmon Polaritons and EVOs that can induce nuclear reactions. Then, of course, how these EVOs can keep the process going by exciting even more intense SPPs and fracto-emission of additional charged clusters from hydrogen embrittled metals. Perhaps this coming year will be an exciting one with many detailed replications of the Rossi Effect.
Merry Christmas and an Energetic New Year!