Images of Diamond Pads before/after Bake-Soak Treatment for LION Replication (Alan Goldwater)

The following was posted by Alan Goldwater

In response to Axil’s suggestion, here are some images of the diamond pads before and after the bake/soak treatment. The first two images are of the raw pads, still attached to the green resin backing sheet. The first image is with side lighting only, and shows the color of the diamonds tinted by reflected light off the backing, . The second image is with through-the-lens direct lighting, and shows bright gold-tinted reflections from the polished nickel backing of the disc. Some of the gold color is also reflected back through the diamonds, giving them more false color.

ag1

ag2

The third image is of a pad removed from the D2O soaking after two weeks. The changes are subtle, but some details may be revealed after further study. The small area in the central red circle is a facet plane that happened to be horizontal to the disc, which enabled a look at higher magnification with some depth of field. The result in image 4 is pretty cool, lots of tiny tetrahedral crystals growing out of the surface. The smallest ones visible are around 1 micron, and because of the wide range of dimension seen, there are likely to be many sub-micron ones as well.

ag3

ag4

I’m not saying that these nano-scale features resulted from the bake/soak treatment. I wasn’t looking in the raw material, but having seen this, I would surely have a closer look with SEM (if I had one).

AlanG

  • Bob Greenyer

    Thanks Alan Goldwater for this work.

    Alan is going to great lengths to make sure his LION replication will have both live data and be focussed on looking for excess heat.

    • Stephen Taylor

      Image 4 seems to have us all speechless. Thanks Alan, Bob and everyone. We’re trying to remain calm.

      • Bob Greenyer

        I hope I am remembering this right, but it turns out these form normally at high pressure and temperature with water (and I think CO2) on the 1,1,1 faces which probably explains the orientation. Of course, that begs the question, why did they form here.

        EDIT: I see axil has posted the relevant research above.

  • Alan Smith

    The little triangles are known as ‘maccles’ or ‘Trigons’ rough diamonds. Here’s one I found on google images.

    .https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/5b7d1d931f0ef54a297a72a120ed18e71a4598369678551f8053b2efd8c9f4de.jpg

  • I’ve lost track of what these pictures are showing. The second and third images are before and after soaking in heavy water? “The changes are subtle” all right; I need help to see them. I don’t see a “central red circle.”

    • Bob Greenyer

      On the third picture, Alan Goldwater has added a fine edged red circle to highlight the diamond face that he magnifies in the fourth image.

  • Axil Axil

    https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ammin.2010.95.issue-10/am.2010.3451/am.2010.3451.xml

    Influence of the fluid composition on diamond dissolution forms in carbonate melts

    Abstract
    The influence of СО2 and Н2О on the morphology of diamond dissolution in carbonate melts was studied experimentally at pressure 5.7-7.0 GPa and temperature 1400-1750 °С, using a BARS multi-anvil apparatus. It has been established that diamond dissolution in fluid-free carbonate melts starts with the development of positive trigons on the {111} diamond faces, followed by truncation of crystal edges by trigon-trioctahedral surfaces, and finally by the transformation of diamond into spherical dodecahedroid-like morphology. Diamond dissolution in СО2-bearing carbonate melts also begins with the formation of positive trigons on the {111} faces and development trigon-trioctahedron surfaces on the edges. Dissolution form changes from trigon-trioctahedron to dodecahedroid with increasing loss of initial weight. Addition of more than 8 wt% of Н2О into the carbonate medium changes the orientation of the trigons and the secondary morphology of diamond. At the beginning of the process, negative trigons and ditrigonal (shield-shaped) dissolution layers developed on the {111} faces. Dissolution form of diamond in water-bearing melts is tetrahexahedroid, which is most similar to rounded natural diamonds. The results obtained allow us to regard the morphology of trigons and dissolution forms as an indicator of the composition of the diamond dissolution medium. The experiments suggest that the morphology of diamond during dissolution is controlled by the presence of water in a system. Our data show that the СО2/(СО2+Н2О) ratio by weight value was <0.81 during natural diamond dissolution.

  • Bob Greenyer

    LION – 3M Diapad virgin and used (in LION2) NURUGO + S7 comparison

    A deep look in full colour HD at a raw 3M Diapad appears before any treatment and then after a run using he LION protocol (LION 2)

    https://youtu.be/UQpd2L8H2IY

    MFMP Hutchison Sample 10 ‘Ball Burn’ NURUGO + S7
    Deep dive into the wonderful rich tapestry that is Sample 10.
    https://youtu.be/GSQADKiuqhk

    • Axil Axil

      The diapad comparison video shows a unexpected and surprising amount of damage to the nickel. Nickel is the most insensitive element to sustain damage from the LENR reaction due to its high nuclear density. But those diapads show a high damage rate. This is not good news for the LENR reactor developer. This very high damage rate to the reactor structure will result in a short operational life for a LENR reactor.

      One of the requirements of a good LENR reactor design is to keep the reaction away from the structure of the reactor and have the reaction effect only the hydrogen gas. Or at least to provide enough nickel to support a long reactor runtime. The nickel might be configured using long electrodes that erodes like a cigar burns from the tip. The QX might use this method to produce a long reactor run time life.

      Another method to avoid rapid structure erosion is to use a liquid electrode that can sustain distruction of its substance but can be constantly renewed.

  • Bob Greenyer

    LION in the desert?
    In tests conducted Hungary, August 2018, it appeared that solid pyramid shapes can generate electric current between their tip and base, could this be one of the secrets behind the LION reaction?

    https://youtu.be/QYzjt5lG080

    Zoltan is a real free-thinker and has done an immense amount of study on the pyramid form, quantum mechanical, mathematics, chemistry and actual physical experiments.

    For a quick look inside Zoltan’s book and the ISBN
    https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/d8c2077d398aa733050d28cf000740fdefb949643fbbb2ea8695db54767af9e3.jpg https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/d8ba5bdd9d71fca5ad8b507af99c67d61bc3f45c1144de545a07db3eb99e83be.jpg https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/bddc9ac16cd51ca7fab8a07556ef1186d0886af3d08a0625776c6b8604140fd2.jpg

    • Axil Axil

      https://www.intechopen.com/books/plasmonics-principles-and-applications/plasmonic-lenses

      Another structure that can realize nanofocusing was theoretically reported [53]. SPPs propagating toward the tip of a tapered plasmonic waveguide are slowed down and asymptotically stopped when we tend to the tip, never actually reaching it (the travel time to the tip is logarithmically divergent). This phenomenon causes accumulation of energy and giant local fields at the tip. Focusing of fundamental cylindrical SPP wave is formed at apex of the taper tip, as shown in Fig. 30. Figure 31 displays the amplitudes of the local optical fields in the cross section of the system for the normal and longitudinal (with respect to the axis) components of the optical electric field. As SPP’s move toward the tip, the SPP fields start to localize at the metal surface, and simultaneously, our wavelength is progressively reducing and amplitude growing. The field magnitudes grow significantly at small |Z|. The transverse x component grows by an order of magnitude as the SPP’s approach the tip of the guide, while the longitudinal z component, which is very small far from the tip, grows relatively much stronger. The 3D energy concentration occurs at the tip of a smoothly tapered metal nanoplasmonic waveguide. This causes the local field increase by 3 orders of magnitude in intensity and four orders in energy density.

      https://www.intechopen.com/source/html/40334/media/image62.png

    • Axil Axil

      SPPs are not mobile, they are fixed to the surface of the metal/conductor that produces them. The LION reaction is mobile because the particle that the SPP is affixed to is mobile. The ultra-dense deuterium is mobile that the diamonds produce and the SPP rides on the surface of that deuterium particle.

    • Axil Axil

      To test if gravity is causing the current flow, the experimenter should test the effect at night in a low/no light condition.

      Also, how does temperature effect the production of current?

      Harding concrete undergoes long term chemical reasons for years. Such a reaction could be producing current.

      • Bob Greenyer

        All good points, I know the first 2 are very well addressed in his book with various studies – not looked at concrete aspects.

  • Alain Samoun

    To add to what Bob G. says below, here two pictures showing the diamond dots on a magnetized iron rod with some Ni wire around it. One can see the magnetized dots up on the rod maybe forming an equivalent of the pyramids described by the Hungarians. Would this be a part of the explanation of the Lion’s experiment?

    https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/94668d68c40671bc9383d594d9c9d864c7a8e7d986f5495dc8d76a32a79389a6.jpg https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/1daf64f6e2005b3135b4cb4794d16d0c8c7fa28412d3301ffc6618c03ce45056.jpg

    • Bob Greenyer

      Dear Alain,

      Firstly – it is great to see you have started a LION inspired experiment.

      Please can you clarify what you did here – are the Diapads D2O treated after bake-out, if so, for how long?

      What was your experiment protocol?

      What is it exactly that you are drawing attention to? Can you highlight the relevant part of the image?

      • Alain Samoun

        I “extracted” the Diapads by burning the plastic where they were attached to,then I put them in water H2O and then heated them by induction in a glass tubing with, inside, an iron rod wrapped by an Ni wire. A TC is attached to an end of the iron rod. Some quartz wool keeps the rod inside the glass tubing. The heating of the tubing( up to 700C) did not show any heat anomalie so far. Reading the piece on the pyramid that you mentioned,I wanted to show on these pictures that the diapads – the little disks shown on the pictures,especially on the center of the second one, take an upward position when the iron rod is magnetized – the magnet is at the end of the rod in first picture. In the Lion experiment,as otherexperiments with coil heating,I’m sure that there is induction currents,then magnetic field, on the heated metallic pieces, I was wondering if that can be the reason of electricity in the experiments.

        • Axil Axil

          All the fuel based LENR systems that I am familiar with require weeks or up to a month of hydrogen exposure with a substrate to produce the LENR active agent. I beleive that this agent is ultra dense hydrogen/deuterium. The goal of hydrogen exposure is to produce high hydrogen loading into voids in the lattice of a receptive substrates: diamond, palladium, nickel.

          The broken/shortened molecular bonds of these various substrates provide the compression necessary to compress the hydrogen to high levels.

          One exception, there are cavitation based systems that use cavitation bubble collapse to immediately produce the high pressure required to generate the ultra dense hydrogen.

          • Alain Samoun

            Agree, my next step is to expose the ingredients: iron,nickel and diapads to hydrogen.

        • Bob Greenyer

          Dear Alain,

          Interesting observation. Thankyou for sharing. For sure there will be a magnetic field in the reactor from the heater coil.

          The electric production comes from cold electricity IMPO – will explain in O Day.

          I think the investment in to D2O is very worth it, if you cannot afford it, please let me know as I am sure the MFMP directors would be happy to support an open researcher.

          • Alain Samoun

            Thanks for the encouragement 😉 Yes I need a little bit of D2O about 30ml so I can use it to impregnate the disks and the Ni wire. If anybody can spare some I will be grateful

          • Bob Greenyer

            If you order some and send your paypal address via Quantumheat.org website, we will send you the money.

          • Alain Samoun

            Thanks Bob but I found D2O on ebay: about 10ml for $25 I can afford it.

          • Bob Greenyer

            Ok – mind if I have your link source – I’d like to get some in.

          • Alain Samoun
          • Bob Greenyer

            This protocol needs very little.

    • Alan Smith

      Hi Alain.

      The reason the discs stand on end is simple magnetics. Each end of your rod has a single pole- be it N or S. However, the induced magnetism in the discs means they MUST have 2 poles N and S. So if the end of your magnetised rod has (say) a S pole the N pole of the discs sticks to it, but the other edge of the disc must have a S pole, and so is repelled by the rod. Result, they stand on edge, leaning in a direction determined by the (imaginary/virtual) magnetic flux lines spilling out from each end of the iron rod.

  • Axil Axil

    I don’t understand why there is copper wire wrapping needed around he body of the LION reactor tube? What purpose does that wire wrapping serve?

    • Alain Samoun

      Yes with the plastic…,I also wonder why…

    • Alan Smith

      I assume it is there to thermalise radiation. It also has a secondary purpose perhaps, like the steel wire used to reinforce the barrels of big guns. The D2O steam/Air pressure inside those little alumina tubes is like to be somewhere in the region of 10-50 Bar at high temperatures, so it will strengthen the parallel sides of the tube – while the much stronger hemispherical end is left exposed.

      • Axil Axil

        Yes, I will accept 10 bar. But the physics behind the wire support conjecture of the tube is invalid. The wire will expand and the copper will soften as the heat increases to 800C to 1000C. In the case of a big gun barrel, the temperature is ambient, and the pressure increase comes in a pulse. The increase in pressure in the tube is gradual and the temperature is high.

        IMHO, the copper wire wrapping is ineffectual and therefore useless.

        This concept can be tested in a dummy reactor without wire wrap. If the tube ruptures, then more support is required. But the tube thickness can be increased to provide that support.

        • Alan Smith

          The CofE of Cu is around twice that of fused alumina for sure. However, for the moment at least we will persist with the Cu Wire. Replication is replication. Or is it Brexit? I forget.

          • Axil Axil

            When the replication process is over, then the reduction process begins where each aspect of the reactor/fuel is varied to find out what makes the LENR reaction go. The copper wire as a factor in the LENR reaction is something to look into.

          • Alan Smith

            Everything is open to enquiry, of course. But not until the ground rules are clearly established.

    • Bob Greenyer

      I understood it to form a very good thermally conductive bridge and near perfect spacer between the Quartz tube furnace and the alumina core. This would additionally make heating of the core more even without affecting the magnetic field from the electrified heater winding.

      Lastly, in my IIT Mumbai presentation, I said that the top four elemental conductors would be best for capture / and storage of ( and subsequently growing) CCs – with those with lowest melting points being degraded the fastest. Therefore, Cu has the best capacity for capture and storage of CCs without being disrupted as Silver and Aluminium have lower melting points and Au is too damn expensive.

      This is the combination of factors which I believe lead S.V. Adamenko to favour Copper in his accretion plates.

  • Axil Axil

    From a post by Nigel Dyer on vortex:

    I have been looking at the graph titled

    “After the MASSIVE broad band ‘turn on’ pulse, the excess heat mode is between 0 and 100KeV”

    at

    http://www.quantumheat.org/index.php/en/home/mfmp-blog/519-the-cookbook-is-in-the-signal

    which shows the steady state gamma radiation from the Parkhomov-like experiment, together with a plot of the gamma radiation that is seen right at the start.

    It appears that the initial gamma radiation obeys a perfect inverse frequency squared law. I feel that this must be telling us something about the underlying physics, but it is not clear what. I cannot find any other examples of inverse frequency squared emission of radiation.

    Any ideas?

    Quantum 1/f noise

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_1/f_noise

    The basic derivation of quantum 1/f was made by Dr. Peter Handel, a theoretical physicist at the University of Missouri – St. Louis, and published in Physical Review A, in August 1980.

    “The conventional Q1/fE represents 1/f fluctuations caused by bremsstrahlung, decoherence and interference in the scattering of charged particles off one another, in tunneling or in any other process in solid state physics and in general. ”

    The subatomic particles flux related to decay, particle creation(electron/muon), scattering and interference produced by Ultra dense hydogen fits this criteria nicely.

    ——————————————–
    Background material

    Hydrogen atoms confined in a cavity just don’t behave in the way Ed Storms predicts because of influence of Quantum Mechanics on them. When atoms are confined in a tight cavity, they gain energy because of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

    Adding atoms into a confined system such as a cluster is like putting a tiger in a cage. A tiger in a big zoo with open fields will act more relaxed, because he has a lot of room to wander around. If you now confine him in smaller and smaller areas, he gets nervous and agitated. It’s a lot that way with any particle. If they’re free to move all around, they have low energy. Put them together and confine them in a small cavity, they get very excited and try to get out of the structure.

    This energy from confinement can be removed by the medal lattice in which the hydrogen atoms are confined. This is what high hydrogen loading into a metal lattice accomplishes…compressing hydrogen to extreme pressure.

    This heating based energy transfer process is similar to what happens in the refrigeration cycle.

    In this refrigeration cycle, a circulating refrigerant such as Freon enters the compressor as a vapor. The vapor is compressed at constant entropy and exits the compressor superheated. The superheated vapor travels through the condenser which first cools and removes the superheat and then condenses the vapor into a liquid by removing additional heat at constant pressure and temperature. The liquid refrigerant goes through the expansion valve (also called a throttle valve) where its pressure abruptly decreases, causing flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of, typically, less than half of the liquid.

    In like manor, the hydrogen is compressed inside the cavity and this compression produces heat. The heat is removed from the cavity by the lattice as the hydrogen transfers energy to the walls of the cavity through collision. In this way the energy of hydrogen compression is converted to lattice phonons. The lattice will dissipate the energy produced by hydrogen compression as more hydrogen enters into the cavities.

    Over time, the hydrogen will shed all the energy of compression and the hydrogen enters a state of minimum kinetic energy,

    According to J. E. Hirsch

    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.0139v1.pdf

    The origin of the Meissner effect in new and old superconductors

    Holmlid states that the superconductive state that is seen in ultra-dense hydogen comports with the theory of hole superconductivity put forth by Hirsch.

    Quote

    “I propose that the Meissner effect can only be explained if: (i) superconductivity is driven by lowering of the kinetic energy of the charge carriers [6], and (ii) superconductors expel negative charge from the interior to the surface in the transition to superconductivity [7]. This physics results in a macroscopically inhomogeneous charge distribution [8] and in the existence of macroscopic zero-point motion which manifests itself in the form of a spin current [9] in the ground state of superconductors. Neither BCS theory nor London electrodynamic theory describes this physics. Nevertheless, parts of both BCS theory and London theory are undoubtedly correct. The points (i) and (ii) are intimately connected. Kinetic energy lowering means, e.g. via Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, expansion of the electronic wave function which in turn implies outward motion of negative charge. That outward motion of negative charge explains the generation of the Meissner current is immediately seen from the action of the Lorentz force[10]. That the Meissner effect is impossible in the absence of outward motion of charge is immediately seen from the equations of motion [11] and from the fact that there is no other source of electromotive force[12]. That kinetic energy lowering drives superconductivity follows from the fact that the Meissner effect cannot occur unless there is outward motion of negative charge; outward motion of negative charge implies charge separation, hence increase in potential energy, so the ‘emf’ driving it[12] has to be lowering of kinetic energy.”

    http://images.slideplayer.com/24/7089254/slides/slide_35.jpg

    The appearance of the Meissner effect produces the configuration that Holmlid has documented through his experiments: a cooper pair of protons surrounded with a spin wave of negative charge.

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2016/02/27/implications-of-signal-seeing-into-the-cat-with-x-rays-mfmp-video-on-latest-findings/

    The origin of the “Signal”

    In one of the MFMP experiments, a burst of x-rays were detected just before excess heat was observed to begin in the dog bone reactor.

    That burst took the form of Bremsstrahlung but without the characteristic spikes of the x-rays producing the Bremsstrahlung resulting in a total smooth power curve.

    This Bremsstrahlung was produced by the onset of the Meissner effect as it expelled electrons from the lithium positive core at a large fraction of the speed of light when Ultra Dense Lithium in the MDMP reactor became a superconductor in a Bose condensate formation process.

    In addition, the Bremsstrahlung will also occur when the LENR reaction ends and the superconductive state collapses and the meissner effect ends. This radiation bust has been seen when many LENR systems shut down.

    This Bremsstrahlung burst backs up Holmlid’s conjecture that many fuel based LENR systems are powered by ultra-dense hydrogen and/or lithium. It also shows that the Hole theory of superconductivity as put forth by J. E. Hirsch is valid and plays a critical role in LENR.

  • Axil Axil

    Here is a suggested experiment to show that the LENR active reactant is superfluidic.

    Configure two plastic bottles in an hourglass configuration where the connection between the two tubes is provided by a metal or glass tube. Place LENR fuel (diadisks) in the bottom chamber. Let the fuel sit in the bottom chamber for at least a month, If the UDH is a super fluid, it will leave the fuel and travel up the tube to the upper chamber where it will eat away at the surfaces of the plastic bottle at the top of the chamber.

    The size of the UDH can be determine by filling the connecting tube with filter material of various porosity.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultrafiltration

    The plastic bottle on top will not he affected by UHD action when the porosity of the filtration is too small to allow the UDH molecule to pass through.

    https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/61kBg5cHlVL._SL1450_.jpg

  • Axil Axil

    https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2018/03/superconductors-used-as-an-experimental-model-for-blackholes.html

    Superconductors used as an experimental model for blackholes

    ultra dense hydrogen as a superconductor behaves like a black hole. For example, UDH produces Hawking radiation, which happens to be in the infrared frequency range.

  • Axil Axil

    Another test that might be interesting to try is to use the hourglass plastic bottle concept with the diadisks soaking in D2O. Can the UDH find its way out of the D2O and into the upper chamber of the hourglass?

    Will the diadisks produce a steady flow of UDH without the diadisks having to be removed from the D2O?

    Can a reactor be built where there is a constant flow of UDH (say down
    nickle connection tube) from a cold UDH source remote from the hot LENR reactor to preserve the diadisks as the source of the LENR active agent.

    In this situation, the reactor would not need to be refueled using replacement of the reactor since the fuel supply would be consonantly supplied.

  • Bob Greenyer
    • LION

      Hi BOB,
      THANKS for all your wonderful hard work and application.
      This is how REAL Science is done. THOUGHTFUL OPEN INVESTIGATION.
      THANKS to all the GENEROUS donors who have facilitated MFMP in this work.

    • Axil Axil

      Keep an eye out for coordinated movements of the transmutation agent. It looks to me that the “harvesters” are moving in unison. This may be the result of “entanglement” of the agents in that many agents are acting as a single distributed but correlated entity.

      A colony of telepathic termites come to mind.

      • Bob Greenyer

        Hi Axil,

        I do get a sense that some are moving together, yes. It reminds me of coordinated strip mining.

    • Axil Axil

      If you remember the transmutation tracks that were generated by the transmutation agent on the SEM carbon tape adjacent to the ME356 fuel particles, were at the end of the track, a spot of heavy element was formed.

      https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQn0aXHOqY65AFZLxAW2KCwIZsaDt2CbNcb-gBSqqWDt-xmakc4Ng

      • Bob Greenyer

        It would be nice to see if that really is transmutation. me356 had only the SEM component at that time – so this could just be morphology – backscatter does actually give an indication of different elements. It would be helpful if he has upgraded his SEM with EDS to know that this is actually transmutation.

        • Axil Axil
          • Bob Greenyer

            And what was the fuel components?

          • Axil Axil

            Whatever those fuel components were, there was a increase in the atomic weight at the end of the various tracks.

          • Bob Greenyer

            ok – that is consistent.

          • Axil Axil

            Here is a ME356 SEM of an eruption of nanowires that are emerging from a transmutation agent that has borrowed into the carbon substrate.

            https://www.lenr-forum.com/attachment/3244-t10-jpg/

            This example is offered as blow back against the concept of element flow from the fuel particle into the tracks.

  • Stephen

    Hi Bob

    Ahlfors on the LENR forum just posted a very interesting paper on diamond etching with nickel powder that I thought you would definitely find interesting.

    https://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/thread/5511-the-lion-experiment/?postID=82068#post82068

    This is paper linked:

    http://www.yan.mech.keio.ac.jp/wp-site/wp-content/uploads/Surface-patterning-of-synthetic-diamond-crystallites-using-nickel-powder.pdf

    It could be interesting information in trying to put together together along with the Maccle formation and local EM/thermal environment what process are working together in creating these features. And if that can help paramatererise what is needed to stimulate and contain the transmutations you seem to be seeing.

    • Bob Greenyer

      This is an interesting paper, thanks for drawing it to my attention – especially considering the use of Nickel and Diamond.

      Firstly, it is based on the immersion of the Diamonds in 12-52μm nickel powder, Nickel of course is not present in the powder form in LION. Having the nickel in this scale will allow sintering processes at 600ºC and lower perhaps – so the Nickel becomes mobile and catalytically active.

      Secondly, whilst there are nano particles seen in the cavities, there is no suggestion that they are composed of anything other than Nickel, Carbon and oxygen.

      We did not detect Boron in our diamonds, perhaps limitation of the analysis – however, the study does state that its diamonds contain Boron.

      Perhaps the Deuterium Oxide changes the catalytic dynamics?

      Further, there does not appear to be the abundance of ‘spheres’ forming on the surface of the diamond.

      It could be that Nickel catalytically splits D2O releasing some O that forms some CO with the diamonds C and this in turn chemically transports some of the Ni via the Mond process that then deposits itself on the diamonds and nano nickel particulates subsequently leading to a similar process to that which is cited in this paper – however, this does not account for the other elements and ‘spheres’ found.

      There does not appear to be any ‘molten nickel’ type structures (see attached image) https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/622d40455203e0fdf3ef01cbd59cfefc025033e3b6ab6e9c75ec4d3a27d16dc5.png as shown in Fig. 2 (b1), which one might expect if this was the process, especially since no acid washing process was done in an attempt to remove metals.

      What is also interesting is that, of the diamonds that remain – they seam to have been wholly or in part, turned ‘black’ could this mean they have turned into graphite structure? Have the LION diamonds been fully converted to graphite? The process in the paper is a surface effect.

      “In Nickel structure (Fig. 1S), the edge length of the equilateral triangle formed by the three adjacent atoms on (111) plane is 2.49 Å. While that of three atoms in diamond structure is 2.52 Å. Because their edge lengths are very close, Ni atoms on (111) plane can be vertically aligned with diamond atoms. As shown in Fig. 2S [18] , three Ni atoms are vertically aligned with diamond atom 1, 3, 5. With two unpaired d electrons, Ni atoms will attract electrons of diamond atom 1, 3, 5 and simultaneously compress atom 2, 4, 6. Then, diamond structure is convertedto hexagonal graphite structure with the inner triangle length is 2.46 Å”

      • Stephen

        Hi Bob,

        I agree with all you say here I had similar if less in depth thoughts about it.

        I don’t think the paper is an explanation for what you see but maybe the process play some role.

        I wonder if the particular combination of influences on the diamonds in the LION reactor cause similar but super enhanced processes occur. Could micro particles be being produced by some process that then are energized in some way that are much more voracious than one would normally expect but still need to follow a signature defined by the underlying materials. I wonder.

        Ahlfors is very smart and connects things from different sources very well like you do but from more purely an engineering angle. I’m always glad to see his findings and data. I think he may have raised this paper as useful possibly relevant data rather than an alternative explanation. The scale of the effect in the paper is relatively small features on surfaces is certainly not as powerful and wide spread as seen in the disks from the LION reactor.

        Those discs with a few remaining blackened diamonds are really intriguing too. Why were some diamonds on those discs completely eroded away and others hardly eroded at all but blackened.. really curious. If it was a chemical effect wouldn’t we expect all the diamonds to be affected equally? Or were those particular diamonds initially much larger than the others? I wonder though if the alignment plays a role and the alignment of those remaining ones is non optimum for some reason.

        • Bob Greenyer

          I think you will find it is related to field and position in that field in combination with the form of the particular diamonds faces.

          There is interaction between the diamond and nickel as you will see. I suggest one potential ‘Mond’ related process that may play a role – there are likely others – but that is not the core process.

  • Bob Greenyer

    LION 2 – Replication update + sample handling

    https://youtu.be/2CJVkWLsFWc

    link to Alan Goldwater’s calibration chart

    https://goo.gl/BYG3Lc

    • magicsnd1

      There seems to be a problem with the link Bob posted above. Here’ s the Calibration 2 chart as a jpg.

      AlanG

      https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/8e5bb6d76c7f35cf7fe5986c38749ab7f80b56fb0b2e655c4d09b23917418c2a.jpg

      • Bob Greenyer

        Very odd – Not sure how this graph violated Googles terms and conditions or why it is considered spam!

        • Omega Z

          Your link above worked for me.

          • Bob Greenyer

            I replaced the link – it seams that goo.gl shortened links are not not permitted to be connected to zip files on google drives – which will have created a LOT of historical orphaned links. As such – will be changing approach.

  • magicsnd1

    LION-AG active run started at 23:50 UTC on 7 April. The streaming data is available at
    https://plot.ly/~QuantumHeat/33/lion-ag-temperature-power/

    Plotly update is pretty slow, so be patient and it will eventually show the moving graph of temps and power.

    More files and data will be made available as the experiment progresses.

    AlanG