Q&A With Andrea Rossi about the E-Cat SK

I recently sent some questions to Andrea Rossi about his work on the E-Cat SK. Below are the questions and his responses.

1. You said that the testing took place at a laboratory that was not your own lab. Why did you go to a different lab for this test?

I needed particular instrumentation I do not have and also for safety reasons, due to the fact that the prototype of the SK could have been dangerous. I have paid a specialized laboratory for this test

2. You have said that the test lasted two days and it ran at 100 kW — how did you manage to keep it cool enough not to melt down during that time?

With a heat exchanger

3. What was the average temperature of the SK in your recent test?

Between 1 and 2 eV

4. What are the differences between the E-Cat SK and the E-Cat QX, and what are some of the advantages of the SK over the QX?

Sorry, but these particulars are confidential. I can say that I had to study electronics to understand issues that allowed us to invent components that do not exist in commerce and that resolved many problems, I would say in a very simple way. Most of times things that seem impossible are not impossible, so far you invent something that makes them not impossible. It is hard, also brutal, because you must study for hours glued to a chair and a table for 20 hours without losing the focus, sometimes is frustrating because you do not understand what you are studying , but you must insist until you understand, but at the end it works.

5. It sounds like for many months you have been getting ready for production of the E-Cat QX as your first commercial product. Do you now change your plans and start preparing to produce the SK instead of the QX?

Not instead, but also. Besides, attention: the QX has a story of a Sigma 5, I deem it reliable, the SK is still dangerous, but we have to make a lot of work to make it reliable and at this point it is very worth to try to make it ready by the end of the year. The Customer that already has made with us an agreement to buy the heat possibly will receive an SK instead of a QX. Maybe. Not impossible. Working on it.

6. Do you have any need in your R&D to advance beyond the E-Cat SK?

I always have this need, to advance beyond anything: it is what gives me life.

7. What makes the difference in the higher power output of the E-Cat SK compared to the QX?

The dimension and the circuitry to make the control. The reactor of the 1 kW QX has a volume of several cc, the SK has a volume of about half liter and a much more sophisticated series of inventions inside it.

8. We saw the E-Cat QX at the Stockholm presentation Can you provide some images of the E-Cat SK?

Externally you can see a box 4 times bigger that the one of the video of the Stockholm demonstration.
Internally will remain for ever a closed box, also for our Customers: as you know, the control will be completely made by means of restricted transmission channels from our heaquarter in the USA, wherever in the world the plant will be.

9. What can you tell us about the two other persons who were with you at the E-Cat SK test? What was their reaction to the test that they witnessed?

They are specialists of the matter and PhD in Physics. Thay think the toy can be very useful.

10. Some people think that Andrea Rossi is coming up with a new version of the E-Cat just as way to delay the introduction of a commercial product (which they suppose will never appear). How do you respond to that charge?

I have been also informed that many bet money on the fact that I will never put the Ecat on the market. I hope they did not bet a fortune, because, along the teaching of the Lord, I must love my enemies and I really do. Besides, I am grateful for any expression of sincere opinions. To them who say you “hey, look at Rossi: he pretends to have new models to run away from his promises to put any product in the market!”, it would be proper for you to respond ” Rossi told me to say thank you for your opinion”.
Thanks also to you and your readers for the attention to the work of our team.

  • sam

    I wonder what the two specialists are thinking today.
    Intense study is one of the main reasons
    for A.R. success.

  • georgehants

    frank, check out element 115. Lazar

  • Max Nozin

    Frank also check out Duranium and Tritanium

    • Paul Smith

      He is already applying these elements in the new E-cat with anti gravity.that he is secretly studying.
      It’s just to joke …

  • Monty

    The spectrum of sunlight covers the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through near U.V.
    The spectrum of the Ecat SK covers from 100 nm through 200 nm
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Well let’s forget that the sun covers a much broader spectrum than just infrared to near U.V.
    https://www.windows2universe.org/sun/spectrum/solar_em_spectrum_smoothed_graph.gif

    But how the heck did he see the bright light if all of it (100 nm – 200 nm) is in the UV part of the spectrum and invisible?
    http://www.shadesdaddyblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/are-all-sunglasses-uv-protected.jpg

    • Monty

      well could be (harmonics and) subharmonics…

    • Dr. Mike

      It is possible that Rossi’s SK LENR reaction is emitting energy only in a narrow deep UV band, but this energy is absorbed by some material that is heating to the point where it emits visible light. You are certainly correct that energy in the deep UV spectrum would not have produced a visible bright light.

    • Obvious

      Just imagine the ‘sunburn’ and related cellular damage due to ionizing radiation the witnesses ended up with. Good thing they will still be able to see…

      • Monty

        As far as I know uv radiation doesn’t ionize.

        • Obvious

          The wavelengths of UV Rossi is talking about is
          ionizing. It is higher in energy than typical germicidal UV. Although UV at shorter wavelengths than 180 nm does not transmit far in air (known as “vacuum UV”), if white light was seen and glass broken, then that suggests a wallop of UV in the germicidal range. Oxygen is ionized by UV at wavelengths of 185 nm and less.

          • Monty

            true that. Wiki says “UV radiation above 10 eV (wavelength shorter than 125 nm) is considered ionizing. However, the rest of the UV spectrum from 3.1 eV (400 nm) to 10 eV, although technically non-ionizing, can produce photochemical reactions that are damaging to molecules by means other than simple heat. Since these reactions are often very similar to those caused by ionizing radiation, often the entire UV spectrum is considered to be equivalent to ionization radiation in its interaction with many systems (including biological systems).”
            Still a bit strange what he wants to sell here… I believe it when I see it installed.

    • Gerard McEk

      Just ask him Monty!

    • Axil Axil

      The range that Rossi gave us was 100 to 200 nm for the SK spectrum. The heat produced is infrared so the heat is just a very small faction of the total energy output. So is the visible light generation. A good example of how the EMF spectrum falls is the SunCell where most of the energy is also produced in the XUV range. Unlike Mills, Rossi is choosing to waste that XUV and visible energy.

      https://brilliantlightpower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Spectrum-071416.jpg

      • Monty

        Nice explanation. But how do you know that the reactions in the sk and the sun cell are similar?

        • Axil Axil

          Please observe the saw tooth pastern of the spectral lines. This is not produced by many ionized elements in the plasma but by coherent light generation from a Bose condensate. For details and references, see my post above on coherent light generation witnessed by the Mollow triplet.

  • SG

    I’ve usually given Rossi the benefit of the doubt, but this really is getting kind of annoying where he seems to forever delay release of the product due to yet another improved version of it.

    • artefact

      Rossi told me to say thank you for your opinion 🙂

  • artefact

    New post by Russ George on his blog with a picture of his fuel:

    Madame Curie’s Nuclear Science 101 + Cold Fusion

    http://atom-ecology.russgeorge.net/2018/05/29/madame-curies-nuclear-science-101-cold-fusion/

  • Dr. Mike

    So will Rossi build a 1MW reactor out of 13,000 QX devices and 1000 controllers or will he build it out of 10 SK reactors and 10 controllers? How would he justify putting together a automated production line to build QX modules and controllers when the line might be made obsolete within months? My prediction for the future is that Rossi eventually will claim the SK reactor is so promising that the QX will not proceed to the manufacturing stage. Who knows when the SK reactors will be ready for production? How long will it take to verify the SK reactor is reliable, including verifying that automated manufacturing does not introduce new reliability issues (something that has not even been done for QX devices). I’m sure everyone hopes Rossi has continued success with his SK reactor experiments, but don’t expect a reliable commercial product ready by the end of 2018.

    • causal observer

      “How would he justify…?”
      Spreading his bets.
      > Relative to the costs of Rossi’s project there are huge amounts of loose investment money sloshing around out there, and considering the enormous potential upside, Rossi’s investors would be happy to spend double to make sure that something gets to market soon
      > Selling only heat he can swap out the QX units with SX units if/when they become available
      > Proceeding with the QX means he CAN get to market relatively soon
      > Rossi cannot be oblivious to people’s thoughts about the “next one”, and probably knows it’s time to put up or shut up
      > He’s watching the big clock in the sky as much as the one on the wall, and understands the risk of running out of time entirely

      • Dr. Mike

        I hope that you are correct and certainly agree that all of your arguments as to why the QX should come to market are valid. One factor we don’t know is what the relative COP’s of the two reactors are. If the system COP for the QX reactor was only 10-20 (50-100W for each controller) and the system COP for the SK reactor was close to 100 (~1KW for the controller), there would be less incentive to bring the QX system to market.

        • Axil Axil

          Rossi is inclined to only use the infrared portion of the energy spectrum that the SK is generating. But almost all(99% or more?) of the energy produced by the SK is in the XUV and the visible portion of the energy spectrum. The COP can be many things; it’s a matter of how the engineering can extract the energy that the SK reactor is producing, This situation is very much like the SunCell.

          • Dr. Mike

            Rossi has stated that all of the energy coming from the SK reactor is in the XUV band (which of course does not explain the visible light he claimed to see). There is no infrared portion of the spectrum that the SK is generating from what I have heard from Rossi’s comments. It does appear that the SK reactor has to absorb the XUV energy generated, then deliver this energy to a heat exchanger. This is different from the SunCell which has XUV energy absorbed in the graphite, heating it to ~3000K, then using the light from the graphite sphere to create electricity in concentrator photovoltaic cells or to be captured by a heat exchanger. It does seem that for a SunCell produucing only heat, a better design would be to replace the graphite sphere with a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger would need a very special design that to be able to maintain a very high internal temperature while being able to transmit a large heat flow to whatever medium was being heated in the heat exchanger. I would think that one of Rossi similar challenges would be in the design of a heat exchanger that would permit an extremely high heat flow. It seems that interrupting the water flow (or other heat transfer medium) in the heat exchanger even for a few seconds would result in a melt down of the material which was supporting the high heat flow.
            If the SK reactor is generating energy only in the XUV band (and not high energy particles that could pass through a reactor) and the reactor is surrounded by a heat exchanger, then the heat exchanger should capture all of the SK’s generated energy. The system COP should be determined by only the electrical power used to drive the reactor (for a given reactor output power).

          • Axil Axil

            I remember where Rossi states that the heat is…

            3. What was the average temperature of the SK in your recent test?

            Between 1 and 2 eV

            This means that the temperature cannot be black body, It is too hot. Any XUV conversion would be way under 1 ev. More like .25 ev.

      • Toussaint françois

        Yes you are resuming well the situation, and I think I have seen in his comments, talking about a possible successor.

      • Axil Axil

        More than 60% of all Stage IV melanoma patients will develop brain metastases at some point but certain factors can increase that risk: The primary tumor was on the head, neck, trunk, or abdomen.

        Rossi’s melanoma was on his head.

    • AnthonyRepetto

      Hmm… at first, you say that the QX “might be made obsolete in months” to justify Rossi not making any QXs, yet your failure case later relies on “how long will it take”. That is a contradiction – either Rossi completes the SK quickly, making QX obsolete, or the SK has a long development time, so that QXs would have plenty of time on the market, and bring the cash flow needed for development of the QX. The second option seems to be Ross’s plan.

      • Dr. Mike

        It seems very possible that Rossi will decide sometime in the near future that the QX will not go to market because the SK appears to be so promising, then for the next year or two claim there are just a couple of technical issues that need to be resolved with the SK before it is ready for commercialization.

        • Omega Z

          It doesn’t really matter which device comes to market. There is no 1 battery fits all purposes. All that I care about is that he has something in production even if limited by the end of 2018 or 1st half of 2019. After that I don’t care if it requires another 5 or 10 years to get things up to speed.

  • sam

    Steven N. Karels
    May 29, 2018 at 6:53 PM
    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You asked the basis of my estimates of dimensions. As a product’s thermal output grows, normally the size must grow to maintain a certain temperature. Usually the heat generation grows as the cube of the linear dimension while the heat transfer increases as the square of the linear dimension. You appear to have a different technology between the two eCat reactors.

    From your description, I would guess that the SK reactor is essentially transparent, emitting its thermal energy as blackbody radiation with the majority of the energy in the 100 to 200nm range. A heat exchanger surrounding it would need to be large enough to safely capture this energy and exchange it to the outside world for useful work.

    Also from you comments, it appears you are running an arc in which the reaction is occurring. It is unclear to me how you are containing the reaction space, if my understanding is correct.

    Can you comment on the SK technology to clarify?

    Andrea Rossi
    May 29, 2018 at 9:15 PM
    Steven N. Karels:
    You are right on the fact that the technology of the Ecat SK is different from the technology of the QX and it is not just a dimensional issue related to the heat exchange.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Chuck Davis
    May 29, 2018 at 6:09 PM
    Dear Andrea,
    in your discussion with Frank Acland I love your attitude, but, like others before me, I am concerned you are driving yourself too hard and may be damaging your health.
    Please take care of yourself, what you are doing is SO important!
    Chuck Davis

    Andrea Rossi
    May 29, 2018 at 9:00 PM
    Chuck Davis:
    Thank you for your concern, thanks to God my health is great now.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • cashmemorz

    Some of that extra work is to make sure that you don’t put a version of the item that is too easy to copy or modify in some way that takes the market away from you. You find or keep developing it til you have the best version that is very difficult to improve on. That makes your item as competitive as possible and still in your hands. This requirement also makes your version look as good or better than anything else that might come along later. The later version put out by others will have a niche but yours will be the Cadillac ,while the others will have a LADA. And the competition still might find a way to make theirs better still. That is how competition can keep a life saving item like the ecat out of the market for longer than seems needed at first glance.

  • Axil Axil

    Andrea Rossi
    May 29, 2018 at 9:15 PM
    Steven N. Karels:
    You are right on the fact that the technology of the Ecat SK is different from the technology of the QX and it is not just a dimensional issue related to the heat exchange.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    A new patent is required. This patent is best prepared after Rossi figures out how the SK reactor works.

    • Vinney

      We looking forward to some application with an Ecat related technology this year.
      As he is selling ‘heat as a service’, he can work forever using industrial secrets.
      He claims to have a high level of protection measures and controls against reverse engineering, on top of having the only ‘authorised’ personnel even to go near them.
      I would like to even offer a vertical market with good PR for the Ecat, that is keeping North American airport runways operational throughout much of winter.
      This by using Ecats boiling water in tanks (all below ground along service roads beside each runway) with automated tankers spraying the runway (from middle outward, from both sides).
      The tanker section is driven by an electric hauler, with additional haulers delivering newly filled tankers as required for continuous operation.
      The benefits are the Ecats are safe and near where their heat is required (few heat losses).
      This is far cheaper than heating runways with either electricity or steam pipes (which requires huge expenditure on infrastructure) under the runway. It is safer than using gas heating of water anywhere near the runways.
      Leonardo could be the lead contractor (as the Ecat is the star of the show), with dozens of companies able to provide the automation using electric vehicles (incidentally, the easiest way to recharge these vehicles is to swap battery packs). The plumbing and tanks can be supplied by hundreds of companies.
      For security, the Ecats near the runways are removed during summer months, except for a few supplying hot water to the airport services.
      A smaller system to the above can be used to ‘deice’ planes, before being protected with solutions that prevent ice buildup.
      Nearly all airports are secure facilities, with no ‘unauthorised’ personnel allowed within 100’s metres of the runway.
      Nearly all airports today recycle water for everything apart from drinking water.
      The public will get to know that they are landing safely courtesy of the Ecat.

      • Vinney

        I would like to add, there are dozens of autonomous vehicle and automation companies that would likewise offer their portion of the contract as a service.
        They would dearly like to offer their solution to a closed secure system like an airport.
        Further fine tuning their technology for other markets.
        Furthermore, should the airport operators not pay, in one afternoon with a convoy of low loaders and a laptop show up to retrieve all their vehicles.

        • frank

          We all should wait first for a reliably working product outside Rossi’s lab that delivers continuous steam, before all this wishful thinking. Once done there might be room for other applications. I am still very doubtful to see such a customer installation before end of 2018, if I read all his promises on the new SK model…

          • Omega Z

            From the Start, It was determined by Rossi and Partner that it would take 1 to 2 years to bring the E-cat to market. Rossi then said it was his intention to Try and do it within 1 year although that would be very hard to accomplish. Should it pass into sometime in 2019, Rossi is still within the initial time frame forecast.

          • frank

            So why does he continue to promise something for 2018? So far all questions related to this were answered with yes. Maybe you better should doublecheck with him again…

          • Omega Z

            You know it only takes a few minutes every few days to keep up with Rossi’s posts on the Rossi Blog Reader.
            http://rossilivecat.com/
            OR this will list all his JONP posts back until March 3rd, 2010 at 7:08 AM (Over 40,000 posts)
            http://rossilivecat.com/all

            This IS what Rossi said shortly after the QX presentation.
            “It was determined by Rossi and Partner that it would take 1 to 2 years to bring the E-cat to market.”

            Rossi also said that “HE” intended to try and accomplish this by the end of 2018, but that would be very hard.
            Sooo It is Not set in Stone.
            ——————————————–
            Postie-> Michel– May 27, 2018 at 6:18 AM
            I just wanted to know if other 1MW reactors (the same generation that was tested for a year at a customer) were sold.

            Rossi-> No, we did not. We hope will start the deliveries within the end of this year. (We hope)
            ——————————————–
            Postie-> Nadira– May 23, 2018 at 2:39 AM
            At this point we are close to half year: do you still think it is possible you will start the industrial production of the Ecat within the end of 2018?

            Rossi-> Yes.I still hope.
            ——————————————–
            Postie-> Viktor Shipachev– May 17, 2018 at 9:30 AM
            I have a question: did you already deliver Ecats to Customers?

            Rossi-> Answer: no, the deliveries will start between the end of 2018 and the first quarter of 2019, I think.
            (I think)

          • Vinney

            I am just saying, it is a ‘vertical’ market they could enter if all other avenues are slow or fail. Offer a turn-key solution.
            Entrepreneurial startups are huge risk takers, they will enter with the automation and autonomous vehicles, I mean many have spent tens of millions with no return, because they are way ahead of the markets.
            I am just trying to get the ball rolling here.

  • Buck

    Rossi is resolute. He is focused upon developing the necessary control module, reactor module, and specialized heat exchange superstructure and wont let go. Time will tell what his expanded team is capable of designing and testing.

    ==========================================

    Carmelo Pietsch
    May 30, 2018 at 4:24 AM

    Do you think that the first Ecat SK will be put in operation and where?

    Thank you for your work,

    C.P.
    ________________________________________

    Andrea Rossi
    May 30, 2018 at 5:18 PM

    Carmelo Pietsch:

    yes, perhaps this year, in the USA.

    Warm Regards,

    A.R.

  • Axil Axil

    Sounds very much what R. Mills does.

    • Omega Z

      Rossi and R. Mills have both ran into the same issues.
      Control of the reaction and extraction of the excess energy produced.

  • Axil Axil

    Rossi will commercialize the QX because it has be extensively characterized over years of testing.

    The SK must also be tested extensively. But the SK can be commercialized by producing heat and at the same time, undergo testing similar to the I.H. test. The QX could back up the SK if the SK has problems that require attention.

  • Omega Z

    E-cat energy for residential use will be for heating purposes.

    The reason people don’t currently produce their own electricity today is that it costs more then grid power. All the same elements/limitations will still apply with E-cat technology. It will still be cheaper from the grid then producing your own.

  • Frank Acland

    Here are a couple of new comments from Andrea Rossi on the color/quality of the light he has reported coming from the SK

    Andrea Rossi
    May 30, 2018 at 5:14 PM
    Warren Oken:
    You mean what we saw: blinding white, like when you try to look directly at the sun. But attention: we did not look directly at the plasma, it is too dangerous for the eyes, so we were protected by due screening; what we looked at was the area around it .
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Andrea Rossi
    May 30, 2018 at 5:08 PM
    Rick57:
    We measured the peaks in the area between 100 and 200 nm, but the spectrum had lower values also through the whole visible spectrum. When you look at the spectrum of a plasma you do not see a peak perpendicular to a flat line with y=0, but a sawteeth like graph. Another reason of the white light, that is the result of all the visible lambda combined, can be the ecceleration of the electrons of the atoms around the plasma. We were, obviously, not looking where the spectrometer eye was ( too dangerous for the sight ).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Stephen

    These recent updates about the spectrum are interesting.

    If i understand correctly it’s it as a kind of black body or other broad spectrum emission with “emission lines” that due to this broad spectrum appear more as a saw tooth like pattern rather than than spikes in the UV region between 100 nm and 200 nm.

    This UV characteristic seems potentially interesting and may be being missed by the replications or similar LENR devices where optical and/or gamma spectra are being observed.

    If these are emission lines from inner orbital electron transitions for example it could give information about the atomic composition independent of the gamma. It would be interesting to see if we have particular isotopes of Helium or Lithium and other light elements present. Which would not be apparent in the Gamma.

    I would expect line emission spectra to be spike like and irregular. saw tooth pattern may imply broader lines and if it is regular another kind of process.

    I wonder if Alan, Alan and Russ, and LION and Bob could get hold of enquipment that shows the UV spectra.

  • Axil Axil

    Regarding: “sawtooth-like“ patterns in the SH spectrum

    Marrying superconductors, lasers, and Bose-Einstein condensates

    http://phys.org/news/2016-06-superconductors-lasers-bose-einstein-condensates.html

    Bose condenses emit EMF based on the density of the polariton population.

    See

    https://www.nature.com/articles/srep25655

    High-energy side-peak emission of exciton-polariton condensates in high density regime

    Bose condensates radiate light as

    Mollow-type triplets

    https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Mollow_triplet.pdf/page1-1654px-Mollow_triplet.pdf.jpg

    This spectral pattern is the sign of coherant light generation (aka laser light)

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autler%E2%80%93Townes_effect

    “In spectroscopy, the Autler–Townes effect, named after American physicists Stanley Autler and Charles Townes, is a type of the dynamical (also known as AC) Stark effect, corresponding to the case when an oscillating electric field (e.g., that of a laser) is tuned in resonance (or close) to the transition frequency of a given spectral line, and resulting in a change of the shape of the absorption/emission spectra of that spectral line.

    It is the AC equivalent of the Stark effect which splits the spectral lines of atoms and molecules in a constant electric field. Compared to its DC counterpart, the fields in the AC effect are typically much larger, and the effects are harder to predict.[1]”

  • Axil Axil

    https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89562594

    “Researchers say that adding charcoal to soil may provide more benefits for long-term soil quality than compost or manure. It could also be used to sequester carbon captured from carbon dioxide emissions. Mingxin Guo discusses new applications for the technique, used more than 1,500 years ago in the Amazon basin.”

    I beleive that the production of paralytic carbon fertilizer using the heat from a LENR reactor will solve the climate change issue in short order.

    Here is how paralytic carbon fertilizer production could work. A crop harvesting vehicle now discards crop residue such as stocks and leaves back onto the field. This crop residue will decompose in short order thereby releasing its carbon content back to the atmosphere.

    If that crop residue is treated using high heat (500C) from a LENR reactor, the gas content of the crop: hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, etc will be vented back into the air and what remains is paralytic carbon fertilizer that could then be directly deposited onto the field and plowed into the soil.

    Through this method, the excess carbon in the atmosphere could be readily sequestered and at the same time greatly add to the fertility of low grade farming lands.

    The carbon so sequestered will stay in place in the soil for many thousands of years as witnessed by the presence of paralytic carbon fertilizer still in the soil after 1500 years in the Amazon basin.

    • Omega Z

      Carbon fertilizer should be in addition to compost & manure. Compost & manure add a large amount of additional nutrients to the soil including bacteria and the necessary nitrogen. Human excrement should also become a standard fertilizer practice.

      Currently, Human excrement is considered a toxic stew of pollution. Most of which is discarded in specially lined waste dumps that in time will leach out and contaminate ground water. There was a time when this excrement was a part of the natural state of nature. That changed when we started crowding large numbers of people into large cities. Hopefully, with LENR we can process this waste and instead of being a financial drain can become a sellable crop fertilizer eliminating an eventual massive problem down the road.

      • Axil Axil

        compost & manure does not sequester carbon. The carbon content of compost & manure is totally released back into the atmosphere.

        Carbon fertilizer is just as effective as compost & manure in the production of fertile soil.

        Animal Manures:
        From cows, pigs, chickens, etc. This one shouldn’t shock anyone. I think we’ve all walked by a yard that had the tell- tale odor of “fresh manure-based fertilizer”. Did you know though that the manure you buy at your local gardening store may contain livestock-grade hormones and antibiotics that can be readily absorbed by the plants you are growing?

        “….Minnesota researchers planted corn, green onion and cabbage in manure-treated soil in 2005 to evaluate the environmental impacts of feeding antibiotics to livestock. Six weeks later, the crops were analyzed and found to absorb chlortetracycline, a drug widely used to treat diseases in livestock…”

        Then there is e-coli

        https://www.wsj.com/articles/effects-of-e-coli-outbreak-in-lettuce-ripple-through-u-s-food-supply-chain-1527681604

        Effects of E.coli Outbreak in Lettuce Ripple Through U.S. Food-Supply Chain

        Then there is water pollution from manure-based fertilizer into drinking water sources…

      • MikeP

        Human fertilizer led to the spread of parasites, endemic in parts of the world. We’re lucky in that only the big, cosmopolitan cities see parasitic worms. They’re the only place in the US where doctors have had experience with them. Doctors in the rest of the country have never experienced infected patients, don’t expect to see them, and don’t really know how to recognize or treat. Presence of worms is diagnosed by finding eggs in stool, but they don’t shed eggs every day. So a negative test is not definitive. Sometimes it takes many samples to find one egg from an infected person. For example, in Eastern Europe all children (and some adults) get worms (meter long worms). Treatment with poisons is the standard but is not completely effective, some worms survive and are at least partially resistant. There are countless other examples from other parts of the world (Vietnam has the biggest worms, I believe).

        Modern sanitation, which we take for granted in the US, has relieved us of many of these ills. Going back to the “natural state of nature” is not a really wonderful example. If you’ve ever had a near relative who’s suffered after being infected, I think you’ll understand. The mental side of knowing these things are inside you is reason enough. Having one come out, which happens on rare occasions, is a nightmare I’d not subject anybody to.

        • Omega Z

          ->” Doctors in the rest of the country have never experienced infected patients”

          You’re misinformed. Pathogens and parasites are everywhere, predate humans and they inhabit all living species. I live in a rural farm community. There are a number of parasitic worms,(Tapeworm, Hookworms, Pinworms, Trichinosis worms etc) that are commonly treated for. Most are opportunistic(any host will do) and in western society are usually contracted through animal feces both pets and wild. Always wear gloves when working in the yard & garden, keep hands away from mouth and practice good hygiene.

          Both human and animal feces need to be “treated” and handled properly and never applied raw. It is also a high value fertilizer as it is putting back in the ground the same nutrients from where they came from. It’s part of the circle of life. Nutrients are like water. Endlessly recycled. Bury them(Running out of places for that) and you will soon be out of them.

  • Axil Axil

    Farming red tide for Pyrolitic carbon fertilizer

    http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/5000/5071/Florida_Sea_2004304_lrg.jpg

    http://scienceburger.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/red-tide-thebigwobble-org.jpg

    An unnamed and completely automated robotized ship can skim the coastal waters to farm red tide to convert this organic matter to Pyrolitic carbon fertilizer. LENR could provide the power source. The ship could produce fertilizer as well as liquid hydrocarbons.

  • Albert D. Kallal

    Well, like many, I have followed this story for what, 8 years now?

    I really don’t give much “concern” about Rossi “hiding” how his machine works. Really, once a unit is delivered to a paying customer, then that is the “start” of the LENR revolution. And like a few here, there is “worry” about that “new” thing just around the corner from Rossi – that does seem to be a re-occurring theme.

    And I suppose we can look at the whole IH mess, and say that’s what delayed Rossi.

    However, really, all those claims and issues are really not much of a issue to me. The ONLY real issue is that POINT in time when a working device is delivered. Once that process starts, then I suspect there will be a “stampede” of others looking at LENR with greater interest.

    It was MOST interesting to see the progression of aircraft. Some of the “designs” were copied by just looking at other planes – some had flat wings! – (they did not grasp how the wing works). The result was aircraft with 5 or even 10 times the power of the Wright brothers could not get off the ground! And everyone wanted in. Edison dabbled, Grham Bell (phones I believe), and JP Morgan – the list of folks looking to “cash” in on the new aircraft industry was rather amazing.

    And look at the boom in the personal computer industry – every company eventually wanted “in” on this new industry.

    To me, all smoke and mirrors until such time Rossi delivers a working machine. When that occur then the interest in LENR will occur on its own, and others will follow rather quick to “crack” the high power LENR trick that we all “hope” Rossi has.

    Like planes, computers, smartphones – it not be owned and run by one company – it just someone has to come along and prove that such machines are possible (that we quite sure of), but the REAL tipping point will be delivery of something of use and something that people are willing to pay for. Once that occurs, then LENR will come to its own – and I doubt that any one company will own this technology for that long of a period of time.

    I am still at the wait and see stage. Even if Rossi has what he claims, the only point that matters will be that start of delivering machines – I think “most” are in this same boat as me.

    Regards,
    Albert D. Kallal
    Edmonton, Alberta Canada

  • Axil Axil

    http://www.techtimes.com/articles/228999/20180531/new-human-subspecies-likely-to-emerge-as-martian-planners-tries-to-establish-red-planet-colony.htm

    New Human Subspecies Likely To Emerge As Martian Planners Try To Establish Red Planet Colony

    It is now recognized that the radiation environment in space and on extraterrestrial colonies need permanent protection from long term exposure to radiation.

    A LENR reactor could provide this protection by generating a radiation proof shield around space travelers and colonists.

    The method for generating this shield is based on the chirality of the particles that are produced by the LENR reaction. A fluid running through the LENR reactor would be chiral polarized to left handedness. The fluid could then circulate inside a network that would carry this polarization to the outer shell that enclosed the living volume of the spacefarer​. The chiral polarized fluid would transfer its left handed particle properties to the material that makes up the protective environmental shell in which the spacefarer is enclosed.

    This radio-protective environment could be included in spacesuits, space stations​, vehicles both ground and space​, ​and living areas in general.

    This technology would protect the humans species form high rates of mutation, associated genetic diseases​ and possible evolution into divergent species.

    • Vinney

      How can they know this without landing anyone on Mars.
      The space scientists originally thought we wouldn’t survive in space, but now hundreds of people have been to space and about 10 have stayed a year on space stations. NASA scientists should acknowledge the importance of the Ecat for space exploration soon after the public launch.
      The Ecat will make possible new propulsion systems and the energy to build and maintain with life-support systems, a habitat on Mars.
      To counteract the effects of microgravity, the occupants would have to be exercising whilst they are performing many secondary activities or using computers. The radiation would be shielded by living underground, and using lead or magnetic induced shielding.
      A similar magnetic field (induced by the Ecat reaction) could shield the spacecraft.
      We will know if NASA is on the ball with an announcement soon.
      Plus, the men and women that have been in space have always been very fit.

    • LION

      Hi Axil,
      These links may be of interest;

      https://www.livescience.com/62000-scott-kelly-dna-twin-study.html

      https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0213cjj

      Extrodinary professionals, brave and courageous too.

  • Simon Morris

    Question. In light of the global failure of the Visa network today is Mr Rossi’s plan to have all e-cats managed/monitored by a central US based control centre now a disincentive to invest in the technology?

    • Axil Axil

      The new LENR reactor as a source of heat is not mission critical. The customer is required to provide a backup heat source. The advantage to the customer is that the customer saves on reactor management. But this savings may involve a reduced availability of the LENR reactor heat source. The percentage of this availability is assumed to be high even through the reactor could be tampered with by a bad actor. The time it takes to determine who this actor is and remove him from the net is assumed to be low(aka rapid apprehension).

  • sam

    Mellie Julian
    June 1, 2018 at 1:39 PM
    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I have understood that the experiments you will make with Carl-Oscar Gullstrom will be made using the Ecat QX.
    Why not with the SK?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 1, 2018 at 4:03 PM
    Mellie Julian:
    because the QX is ready to be industrialized and reliable. while the SK is still immature for a long experiment.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea

  • LarryJ

    Rossi did not own the ecat between 2012 and 2017, Industrial Heat did. Now he owns it again since July 2017. It makes a differerence. You are unloading on the wrong guy.

  • sam

    KN
    June 2, 2018 at 3:56 AM
    Dear Andrea
    will the billing of the heat be made by Leonardo Corp or outsourced?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 2, 2018 at 9:07 AM
    KN:
    We will do it directly.
    Already organized.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Vinney

    He is only building 100 1MW plant initially, most of these will be absorbed by North America.
    I cannot believe he is going to leave his native Europe out of this revolution, his next quota or any remainder would go to Europe. Looks like Rossi is playing the long game. He will have Ecat SK units in production before China or Russia will see any Ecats.

  • causal observer

    Reasonable projection, however, the key word is “critical”. Rossi’s heat services will not be critical either initially on a per unit basis or for a significant time at a national level.

  • sam

    Ludwig
    June 2, 2018 at 10:49 PM
    Dear Andrea:
    when do you think you will have real evidence about the validity of the theory you and Gullstrom are working upon?
    All the best,
    Ludwig
    Andrea Rossi

    June 3, 2018 at 2:05 AM
    Ludwig:
    We will have the results of an experiment on course by half August.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • LION

    With respect this is not so.—–‘No one country allows critical power generation capabilities to be subject to control outside of their borders. ‘

    There was uproar in Europe not so many years ago when it became known how reliant we had become on Russian Gas Supplies and they increased prices and threatened to cut supply. People were rightly concernned their National Interests in Energy had effectively been ceeded to a foreign power who could effectively use it as a weapon to harm/ cripple their economies. It again reignighted the whole debate of the importance of the UK maintaining a robust Nuclear programme.
    One of the joys of LENR for me is that it will bring Energy independence for all and help remove forever one of the tensions between Nations that leads to war for scarce resources. This fear lay behind much of the debate about Peak Oil.

  • Bear1145

    Mr Rossi’s plans to have all e-cats managed/monitored by a central US based control center, will this not limit its opportunities of distribution. If it will be dependent on a wired system,internet, how can ships or locomotives or other types of industrial uses where internet access is limited be controlled?

    • Monty

      To me this “plan” of his is very naive at best.

    • causal observer

      Later?

      • Vinney

        Another ‘vertical’ market, which may be possible with the Ecat SK 100kw modules, is to generate electricity directly, either himself or via third parties into the grid.
        He could sell ‘electricity’ generating franchises across North America and Europe all on his contractual terms (ie. Central remote control, NDA’s, 24/7 security and surveillance and anti-theft measures).
        Obviously these plant are most economical in remote and small communities at first.
        A lot of community based groups may be interested in forming organisations/co-operatives to operate these smart grids.
        The Ecat SK plant are a more ecologically friendly backup to renewables than batteries, and more economical as well.
        I don’t see any reason why Rossi wouldn’t permit a ‘carbon footprint’ audit of his machinery and fuel.
        Especially if he has to only show the volume of fuel to the assessors. Because even if that volume was deemed as ‘gold’, it would still be way in front. These auditors are really not able to process the IP or processes, and these figures would be invaluable to the ‘environmentallly’ conscious communities.
        The other benefit to the communities, is that once their plan is approved, they are ‘leasing’ the plant, thus less capital outlay and immediate returns.
        Even better would be if they paid for the kW’s they used.
        Rossi will be seen as a modern day ‘Robin Hood’ of energy, giving from the bounty of the Ecat.

  • sam

    Anonymous
    June 7, 2018 at 4:19 PM
    Dear Andrea,
    You still in schedule to start the deliveries by this year?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 8, 2018 at 4:04 AM
    Anonymous:
    While the Ecat QX is ready, the SK needs much work, therefore presently we are working mire with the SK.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    Iggy Dalrymple
    June 8, 2018 at 12:12 AM
    Dear Dr Rossi,
    I agree that it is a win-win deal for buyer to not have to invest and to buy cheaper heat.
    To justify your investment, you would need to obligate the buyer to purchase a minimum quantity of heat, correct?
    Iggy

    Andrea Rossi
    June 8, 2018 at 3:55 AM
    Iggy Dalrymple:
    Correct.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    • frank

      So instead of going all in with the Ecat QX and start manufacturing and selling and earn money like hell – he focuses still more on the ongoing R&D for his new baby? Can’ help, but to me this sounds already like an early excuse to not meet his time-to-market promises for this QX product…:-(

  • sam

    Steven N. Karels
    June 10, 2018 at 4:16 AM

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    On the SK variant of eCat reactors:
    1. What is the turn-on time from a cold start: (minutes, seconds…)?
    2. Is the control problem more difficult than your other reactor types?
    3. Is the anticipated operational lifetime the same as your other reactor types? (about a year?)
    4. Is the effective COP similar to your other reactor types?
    5. Is the required power input type only electrical or can you use other energy sources (e.g., natural gas) to power it?
    6. Is the SK reactor more dangerous than your other reactor types (explosions, destructive failures, etc.)?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 10, 2018 at 9:31 AM

    Steven N. Karels:
    1- seconds
    2- yes
    3- if you mean the charge: yes
    4- yes
    5- only electricsl
    6- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • sam

    Dana
    June 20, 2018 at 5:03 AM
    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    How are going the tests with the Ecat SK?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 20, 2018 at 7:05 AM
    Dana:
    The work on the SK is going on well.
    We already built a gas turbine by used spare parts.
    More important tests are coming.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • sam

    Gerard McEk
    June 20, 2018 at 4:21 PM
    Dear Andrea,
    I read in another comment that you are actively testing a gas turbine in combination with an Ecat SK.
    1. Can you tell if you have the combination already in operation for testing?
    2. You said it will be tested to generate electricity, so it is combined with a generator. Have you had this combination running already?
    3. Is the purpose of the coming test to prove that the whole combination generates more electricity than it uses?
    Thank you for answering our questions. Kind regards, Gerard

    Andrea Rossi
    June 20, 2018 at 5:17 PM
    Gerard McEk:
    1- not yet
    2- not yet
    3- obviously the measure of the COP is the main issue
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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