The following post has been submitted by Anthony Repetto, it is also published on Medium here.
A moiré is a special kind of pattern, formed by overlaying two grids or fields of curves. It has gained attention, recently, because overlaying graphene and boron nitride with a slight off-set radically alters the material’s conductive properties. Moiré of graphene seem to have numerous properties, depending upon the tilt of the second layer. That’s because, as you increase the tilt of the overlay, the macro-scale pattern enlarges or shrinks. You can see that happening here:
So, if there is a pattern at the micro-scale, and you form an overlay with a slight tilt, that micro-scale pattern is magnified. This is the critical concept behind moiré and the elusive, repeatedly derided field of cold fusion research. How? I’ll need to give some background, first…
Back in ’89, Fleishman and Pons performed an experiment, where they seemed to fuse deuterium and generate heat — heat which might boil water, and power a turbine, generating electricity. When these heavy hydrogen fuse, they form helium, and there is no radioactive waste, no radiation emanating from the reactor. Fusion, unlike fission, is a completely clean and super-abundant energy source. The world was on fire, for a moment.
Then, other labs replicated the experiment, yet they saw no heat, no fusion. Fleishman and Pons were discredited, and cold fusion died.
However, those replications did not meet one critical aspect of F&P’s experiment: the adsorption of deuterium needed to exceed 80%, which happened in F&P’s setup, while the replications only loaded deuterium to 60% at best. When other researchers, years later, began loading their deuterium to 80%, they did see excess heat!
Each replication of these results was declared a hoax. Yet, the evidence for some unknown nuclear reaction quietly grew.
Today, though still disregarded by news media as pseudoscience, various academics, militaries, industrialists, and investors are boarding the cold fusion boat. SRI, Stanford’s lab, has verified excess heat. Toyota and Mitsubishi have successfully transmuted various elements, using the techniques developed by cold fusion researchers. And, at a special conference of the EU, the US navy presented their own work. MIT researcher Peter Hagelstein has been giving presentations on his own theoretical work for years, now.
The Barrier to Cold Fusion
Why does cold fusion still sound impossible to the public? It’s the Coulomb Barrier.
Each atom is surrounded by a halo of electron probability. When two atoms get close, those electron clouds repel each other, and the atoms bounce away. That’s the Coulomb Barrier. And, the barrier is so strhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4nn1MqCMa1Mong, to overcome it you must smash atoms together at incredible pressures — inside the sun, for example, or using a barrage of lasers. You couldn’t possibly push past the Coulomb Barrier at atmospheric pressure and room temperature!
Unless you could weaken that electron repulsion somehow.
That’s where moire come into play. Every subatomic particle is a wave function, a ripple in space-time. And, those waves overlap and interfere. So, if two wave functions are overlayed with a slight tilt or displacement, the cumulative wave function is a moire!
And moire magnify their micro-scale pattern. We have a pathway to overcome Coulomb! Form a moire of the wave functions of the atomic nuclei, so that they are magnified, effectively ‘smearing them out’ over a larger area. Now that they are smeared, they can interact outside the radius of the Coulomb Barrier, and they are able to fuse. There are numerous ways to create a moire of the wave functions, leading researchers to uncover a variety of techniques for generating these Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (the modern name for cold fusion, LENR).
As the wave functions bounce around a crevasse, they can ripple like a Jacob’s Ladder:
And, when confined to a molecular lattice which is being shaken by phonons, those wave functions overlap into a moire, again (Hagelstein describes this phonon coupling quite well in his MIT classes). Same goes for a plasma that is pulsed at resonant frequencies — the wave functions ripple, overlapping in an oscillating moire which enlarges their range of interaction. Even enmeshed ‘snowflakes’ of hydrogen can ripple together and fuse!
Another artifact of these moire is the appearance of toriodal corrosion of the reaction chamber. It is as if a smoke ring was caught by the metal surrounding the reaction, and examination of the boreholes shows transmutation occuring at those sites, as well. These toroids are the halo that forms around a moire pattern; as the moire ripples, its outer edges form coherent rings, areas where the wave function of the nuclei concentrate again, generating additional nuclear reactions. Understanding this process could allow the design of more durable reaction chambers, which is currently a difficult problem.
(There have also been observations of muon-like interactions at great distance from the reaction chamber, and resonance with electronics in the vicinity, which seem to be the result of massively magnified and reactive muon wave functions…Muons don’t live long enough to have traveled as far away as they were observed, but they can interact at great distance when they form as a magnified moiré.)
Moiré and More
Detailed simulations of these moiré effects might allow us to control matter in new ways, and their magnification power could let us observe interactions that were previously beyond the power of our equipment. Artificial Intelligence is proving itself capable of designing parts that meet specific engineering constraints, whether those are drone bodies or car parts, and that same technique could allow us to supply AI with a moiré effect that we wish, and receive the design which best generates that moiré. Nano-scale fabrication could create billions of moiré-lasers on a chip, with ions pumped to reaction sites, for massively parallel, controlled transmutation. Carbon nanotubes’ phonon transmission and hydrogen trapping may be key to generating these beams of moiré wave functions.
Such devices may be critical to LENR’s future. Not only does cold fusion produce heat, for power generation — the transmutation reaction can provide you with useful new elements. That was the thrust of Mitsubishi’s experiments, turning cheap, abundant tungsten into rare, industrially important palladium. If we have controlled LENR transmutations, we don’t need to mine asteroids for our future material needs! We can turn aluminum and silicon and oxygen here on Earth, our most abundant elements, into all the various isotopes necessary for a high-tech super society. Free energy, and free rare earth elements! Understanding the moiré of atomic wave functions can liberate us from scarcity, forever.