The following post has been submitted by ‘The Director’.
The SAFIRE project has announced in their 2019 update that they have produced both significant excess thermal power and copious transmutation of elements with their test system. This is to be expected. For the past hundred years or longer, a long series of inventors have built systems utilizing plasmas and electrical discharges that have produced these same anomalies. The common link between them all is the EVO (Exotic Vacuum Object) phenomena re-discovered by Kenneth Shoulders and his team (which included Dr. Harold Puthoff) during the 1980s. Ubiquitous in nature and capable of broad range of seemingly impossible feats, these self organizing plasma structures – forming double layers that exchange energy and matter with their environment – are the key to understanding our universe at potentially all scales.
EVOs have been referred to by countless names over the past several decades: electron clusters, high density electron clusters, micro-ball lightning, erzions, and a half dozen others. Kenneth Shoulders produced micron sized EVOs by utilizing a super simple device consisting of a sharp tipped cathode, an anode (sometimes with a target plate), a gap between them, and a power supply. When he pulsed the device, the electric field would amplify at the tip of the cathode and the matter at the apex would be vaporized. The result would be a cloud of positive ions, electrons, and nano-particles. A self generated magnetic field produced by the motion of these charged particles would make filaments self organize out of the plasma “soup” that had been produced. In less than micro-seconds, these filaments would form torodial or spheroidal plasma structures – a higher level of self organization. These Exotic Vacuum Objects had a negative exterior and a positive interior resulting in a double layer which would act like a cellular membrane, allowing matter and energy to be absorbed and emitted from this structure.
Immediately after starting his research, Ken Shoulders observed that these EVOs could produce a wide array of anomalies. When they hit targets they could produce transmutations, they could bore through various materials, liquify metal in a non-thermal manner, be accelerated for very little input energy (a warp drive effect), produce x-rays and gamma-rays upon impact on targets, produce EMPs upon self-destruction, and even emit longitudinal scalar waves: these EVOs were producing anomalies that would be considered impossible by mainstream science.
Kenneth Shoulders EVOs were tiny and transitory. As far as the author of this article is aware, he never scaled them up or produced macro-scale versions. However, now, years after his passing, we know much more about how and why they form. For example, mainstream papers describe how the negative resistance regime of a plasma discharge produces a complex space charge configuration (a macro-scale EVO with double layers) that collects energy from the environment and converts it into electrical current to power the circuit while the voltage to current relationship is flip flopped. Looking back, we can see how inventors over the past hundred years have produced EVOs to produce anomalous excess energy and transmutations. A short list would include Paulo and Alexandra Correa and their Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge device, Alexander Chernetsky’s Self Generating Discharge Tube, Thomas Henry Moray’s various generators, Edwin Gray’s motors and generators, and even Nikola Tesla’s spark gap based systems.
In the SAFIRE device, they are generating a complex space charge configuration (a macro-EVO) around the anode. When they reach a certain level of self organization and a proper fuel mixture is added, enormous excess heat is produced. This is very similar to what Andrea Rossi alleges to be achieving with the E-Cat SK. In his system, he produces a complex space charge configuration that starts to produce ion acoustic oscillations that can be detected on an oscilloscope. By tuning the system into resonance, the amplitude of these ion acoustic oscillations can be maximized and multiple mechanisms may be triggered that can either induce nuclear reactions and/or tap energy from the zero point energy field.
Although Andrea Rossi has not specified the fuel mixture he is using, I highly suspect it is a mixture of hydrogen (perhaps with a certain percentage of deuterium), lithium, and a small quantity of noble gases like argon. Kenneth Shoulders and his friend William Bostic both observed that noble gases helped a plasmoid form and sustain itself more easily. Even the addition of five percent argon to an atmosphere of hydrogen could have a large effect. I’m guessing that the SAFIRE project is using a similar mixture.
This is not a complicated setup; the know how to produce these self-organizing plasma structures is well explained in the literature. In extremely simplified form, here is the overall process.
1) Put a cathode (perhaps sharp tipped or even a sharp tip within a hollow area to reduce the voltage needed to trigger the plasma) in a discharge tube with an anode on the other side. The cathode/anode material can vary, but my guess is that Andrea Rossi at least at one point used a platinum coated nickel cathode, high in manganese, which would not degrade rapidly when pulsed.
2) Vacuum out the discharge tube and insert a fuel mixture of hydrogen, deuterium, noble gases, lithium, or whatever other elements you wish to experiment with. The higher the pressure the lower the frequency of ion acoustic oscillations you will produce once the negative resistance regime is started. Also, the greater the distance between electrodes the lower the frequency of ion acoustic oscillations will be produced.
3) Apply a well designed power supply and control board. Most likely you will need a sufficiently high voltage to trigger the plasma discharge and then you’ll need to immediately lower the voltage and make sure there is enough resistance in the circuit that the current will stay under a critical level so the discharge will remain in the negative resistance regime.
4) Once in the negative resistance regime, a complex space charge configuration should form. There are multiple levels of self-organization that will take place if you have attached a highly resonant circuit. First, the complex space charge configuration will form on the anode or cathode, depending if either is biased with an additional voltage. Next, at a higher level of self organization and resonance the complex space charge configuration will start to leave the electrode but will remain attached by a tether. By this time copious ion acoustic oscillations should be taking place. Finally, at the highest level of self organization, the complex space charge configuration should totally detach from the electrode and float freely between the electrodes somewhere between them. This is called a “free floating fireball” in some documents.
5) If you have a highly resonant circuit, a discharge in the negative resistance regime, a complex space charge configuration, ion acoustic waves, and a suitable fuel mixture you should be producing excess energy in the form of light, heat, electricity, and longitudinal waves.
Some have speculated that a system such as the above would be producing energy via Randell Mills hydrino reaction. To respond to that, I’d like to state that it’s my guess that there are multiple phenomena taking place at once that are producing energy. If literal hydrinos exist (hydrogen atoms with the electron below the ground state) then this configuration could indeed produce them. But at the same time there is a great deal of evidence from a large number of systems that such EVOs can induce LENR reactions and possibly extract energy from the vacuum.
This is the key to a world with access to unlimited clean energy. I hope people will pay attention.
PS. I’d also like to say that the key to getting this technology out to the world is openness. Every company currently working on utilizing a complex space charge configuration and/or a negative resistance to produce excess energy is keeping secrets to themselves. Even the SAFIRE team admitted in their latest video that there are aspects of “how they got there” and “catalysts” (gaseous components they placed in their system) that they won’t reveal. This is a path that will lead everyone to failure exactly like it has over the past hundred years. If we want to get this technology PROVEN to be real to the mainstream scientific community and commercialized EVERYONE must share ALL their info. Once a couple systems are on the market, THEN companies can keep info to themselves.