The following is a guest post written by E-Cat World reader Gordon Docherty
Frank Znidarsic is a physicist and electrical engineer who has been investigating new sources of energy for twenty years, examining research done in cold fusion and antigravity, looking for common themes and elements in that research.
The eventual product of his investigation has been the development of a startling new theory of quantum reality, the Z-theory, which states that “The constants of motion in a Bose-Einstein Condensate tend toward the electromagnetic, when stimulated at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters”. In deriving this theory, Znidarsic paid particular attention to what, over the years, has tended to be ignored by the physics community – the (local) magnetic component of the gravitational, electrical and nuclear forces, that is, the magnetic component of the gravito-magnetic, electro-magnetic and spin-orbit forces.
He has published several essays on the subject that he hopes will one day be peer reviewed – if any physicists care to do so (an example paper may be accessed through the following URL):
Until now, whilst his theory is undoubtedly brilliant, it has languished somewhat “in quiet waters” due to Znidarsic’s own quiet nature. Now, however, a physicist who has enthusiastically looked into Znidarsic’s work, Lane Davis, has put together an informative set of excellently produced 20 x 10-to-15-minute YouTube videos, the first of which is shown below:
A full list of the videos can be found here.
All the videos are well worth watching, and are presented in a form that is accessible to both young and old, lay person and expert alike (although the background music is likely to be appreciated more by younger viewers than older ones!). Still, the main aim of Lane in producing these videos is not to produce a set of dry tombs lacking in any form of inspiration, but a set of videos to help inspire and speed understanding, by stimulating multiple senses in the “viewer” to make a deeper, even lasting, impression, in order to encourage viewers to think about Frank Znidarsic’s theories and so help “spread the word”.
The YouTube videos start by reviewing the story of “cold fusion” as it has unfolded since Pons and Fleischmann’s initial announcement in 1989, before moving on to “Plasmonics” (Plasmons being electrons stimulated by an external source such as a laser or heat source to form coherent waves), Bose-Einstein condensates and the vibrational stimulation of Bose-Einstein condensates with a dimensional frequency of 1.094 MHz-metres (1.094 million m/s), and eventually onto the subject of the “quantum transition”.
In the process, the videos look into the 100% energy transfer seen when a photon transitions after striking other particles, and the importance of matching impedance in attaining this 100% (loss-less) energy transition, before considering how cohering the (local) magnetic components of the gravitational, electrical and nuclear forces can be used to induce localized lossless impedance on the macro scale (think of stepping from one vehicle to another when both vehicles are twisting and turning in unison – it doesn’t matter if one is big and one is small, the rate of change in their relationship is at all times 0, so the step is easy and “time forgiving”, requiring little effort or haste).
Particularly covered in the videos is the importance of matching the speed of light (normally around 300 million metres per second in a vacuum, but variable in Bose-Einstein condensates in particular, where photons has been slowed down to around 17 metres per second without an overall loss of energy) with the speed of phonons in a material (induced by plasmonic stimulation). Of particular significance to this “slowing down” is the transitioning of photons from “open” waves to “closed” virtual particles of diameter lambda (the frequency of the wave), as they collide with other particles or light waves in the Condensate. From this, Znidarsic goes on to observe that photons, with a positive and negative part, form a natural capacitor when they collapse to virtual particles, and, using the relation between energy and capacitance, and the speed of phonons stimulated in the Bose-Einstein state to achieve the observable effects on gravitational and nuclear forces, derives a value that has, until now, just been a number “magically produced out thin air” – Planks’ Constant. All this Znidarsic does within a classical physics framework, without breaking any laws (including conservation of energy): the videos by Davis also go on to stress how quantum physics should be seen as a subset of classical physics, not the other way around.
Most importantly for LENR, Davis covers Znidarsic’s observation that, as magnetic components are local in nature, they can be changed up and down without violating any of the laws of the conservation of energy, and it is manipulation of the magnetic component of the three forces of electro-magnetism, gravito-magnetism and spin-orbit forces that produces the apparently “magic” effects. In particular, for LENR, manipulating the magnetic component of the spin-orbit (strong nuclear) force allows the forces to be magnified outside of the Coulomb barrier without the need for massive brute force.
Instead of using brute force to overwhelm the Coulomb barrier, in other words, by amplifying the magnetic component of the spin orbit force, the range of this strong nuclear force can be expanded out beyond the Coulomb barrier, so allowing adjacent nuclei to reach out “and reel each other in”.
To illustrate this effect, Davis shows an “everyday” example from the equivalent effect seen with electro-magnetic forces: Davis presents the example of how a (passive) iron bar, inserted into an electrical coil with a hitherto “air” core, magnifies the magnetic component (the “magnetism” of the electro-magnet) without requiring any more current to be drawn or voltage increase in the electro-magnet, something that is demonstrated day-in, day-out in school physics labs around the world. Davis then goes on to apply the same concept to the gravitational force (however that is understood), pointing out that amplifying the gravitational field of a cluster of atoms can produce an effective artificial gravity force (or repulsion, depending on geometrical configuration), as has been claimed in several, independent experiments that all involved gyroscopic rotation in one form or another.
Davis also mentions that, at least to date, we have been unable to produce large clusters of atoms (Bose-Einstein Condensates) where photonic and phononic speeds are equivalenced, except initially at very low temperatures (2K), where Helium was used and, later, at 90K, for another more complex material. It would appear, however, that small, localized Bose-Einstein Condensates can be induced more easily, by applying the correct plasmonic stimulation frequency to (faceted) granular powders, provided the dimensions of the granules and the plasmonic stimulation frequency combine to produce a dimensional frequency of 1.094MHz-metre.
So, for example, when using granules in the 50 nanometre range, a plasmonic stimulation frequency of 10^14 Hz produces the dimensional frequency of 1.094MHz-metre. This is exactly as is seen in the e-Cat, Defkalion and Blacklight Power devices (Znidarsic recognized the significance of matching size to frequency BEFORE work by the likes of Rossi empirically showed up this relation).
According to Znidarsic, a Nickel powder placed under pressure (to allow transmission of phonons created through plasmonic stimulation) and then loaded with monatomic Hydrogen, is likely to produce significant excess heat — exactly as seen in the E-Cat, Defkalion and Blacklight Power devices. Of course, heat and some form of catalyst is required to increase the dissolution and mobility of the Hydrogen atoms and their absorption into the Nickel lattice and, likely as not, some form of heavy electron shielding is also playing a significant part, but it would appear that what is being described by Znidarsic does come into play in a significant way: indeed, this multiple combination of engineered factors is a likely reason why a glass of water, when poured over an old, worn, EPNS fork, does not cause a spontaneous increase in heat, nor why this effect is not readily observed in nature.
Now, like all ideas and theories, there is plenty of room for discussion, debate, argument and reframing, but the observations, theory and mathematics that flow from Frank Znidarsic’s work and ideas does provide a set of useful concepts, tools and models – as the saying goes, a (mental) picture is worth a thousand words.
Finally, for those who are worried about the (measurable, observable and calculable) dimensional frequency of 1.094 million m/s being somehow just another “magic number”, remember that it is a number derived from observation and measurement, a number that is, in every way, a factor as solid and reliable as “c”, the speed of light, and so much preferrable to a “truly magical number” such as Plank’s constant, produced just to make the equations work. This having been said, by using this dimensional frequency to derive Plank’s constant, Plank’s constant is, itself, now also elevated to a solid, derivable value, rather than just a magic trick to make things work.