Louis DeChiaro of US Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) on Replicating Pons and Fleischmann

Thanks to Adrian Ashfield for sharing this information with me who tells me this information comes from the research notes of Louis F. DeChiaro, Ph.D, a physicist with the US Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), Dahlgren Warfare Center. I am told this text has been cleared for public dissemination.

As for duplicating the Pons and Fleischmann results, we now have a much better understanding of the phenomenon, and the list of prerequisite conditions is rather lengthy. Failure to meet even one of those conditions results in zero excess energy output. The data suggest that there may be more than one initiation mechanism, so I’m most qualified to comment upon what is known as the atomic vibrational LENR initiation mechanism (because my formal background is in Condensed Matter Physics). If one had to summarize the list in a fairly brief manner, I would write it as follows:

1. It is necessary to set up conditions favoring the formation of molecular hydrogen (H2 or D2) inside the solid lattice for a certain range of possible values of lattice constant and for some fraction of the allowed values for electron momentum. This condition alone rules out almost ALL the elemental , because the electron density is just too large to permit molecules to form, except near vacancies in the lattice where a metal atom is absent.

2. The overall hydrogen loading fraction (ratio of hydrogen to palladium atoms, for example) must exceed the minimum threshold of about 0.88, otherwise the “party” never even gets started. Achieving this level of loading in Pd is not trivial.

3. Conditions must be set up (by appropriate choice of materials parameters and achieved by the right kind of alloying) so that these hydrogen molecules can be caused to break up and then re-assemble very rapidly in a periodic time sequence when an appropriate physical quantity such as background electric charge, magnetic field, etc. is made to oscillate periodically over a small range.

4. The critical value of lattice constant at which this break up and reassembly occurs must lie very close to the nominal value of lattice constant for which the ground state energy of the lattice is minimal. This requirement alone rules out essentially all of the elemental lattices and about 99% of the binary and ternary alloys.

5. A departure from equilibrium must be established that will permit an external energy source (eg. the DC power supply in an electrolysis experiment and/or a pair of low power lasers as in the Letts/Hagelstein two laser experiment) to feed energy into the H-H or D-D stretching mode vibrations. The difference in chemical potential that is established in gas loading experiments can also serve very nicely; in this case the flux feeds energy into the stretching mode vibrations.

6. The nature of the lattice must permit these stretching mode vibrations to grow so large (over a period of perhaps many nanoseconds) that their amplitude becomes comparable to the lattice constant. When this occurs, the H atoms oscillate so violently that at the instants of closest approach, the curvature of the parabolic energy wells in which the atomic nuclei vibrate will become perturbed. Thus the curvature of the well oscillates as a periodic function of time. These very large amplitude vibrations are known as superoscillations in the Western literature and as “discrete breathers” in the Ukrainian literature. Under the right conditions, these oscillations can grow without impacting the atoms, which are much more massive than the hydrogens. We explored this computationally via Density Functional Molecular Dynamics runs.

7. When the curvatures of the parabolic energy wells of the nuclei are modulated at a frequency very near the natural resonant frequency, the quantum expectation value of the nuclear wave function spatial spread will oscillate with time in such a way that the positive-going peaks grow exponentially with time. Originally, I found this idea in the Ukrainian literature and was skeptical. So, we verified it by doing a direct numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger Equation for a single nuclear particle in a parabolic energy well. These oscillations in spatial spread will periodically delocalize the nucleus and facilitate the tunneling of adjacent nuclei into the Strong Force attractive nuclear potential well, giving rise to nuclear fusion at rates that are several tens of orders of magnitude larger than what one calculates via the usual Gamow Factor integral relationship.

Almost none of this material was obvious back in 1989. Without knowing what one is doing and why it works, the probability of achieving successful results via the so-called Edisonian method of trial and error is disappointingly low. Reasonable scientists and engineers can be forgiven for their difficulty in believing that there might exist ANY circumstances under which such things could be possible. And to be blunt, it was only in the last few months that the causal chain finally became clear.

An old saying holds that it is easy to appear tall when standing on the shoulders of giants. My colleagues and I are most humbly grateful to have been given the opportunity to stand on the shoulders of such giants, however briefly.

I would also suggest that some praise might be due to people like Andrea Rossi, who (by and large) had little alternative but to employ the Edisonian method and nevertheless appear to have obtained positive results. We have run materials simulations (also known as Density Functional Theory simulations) on our best guess of Rossi’s alloy material. It satisfies all the conditions given above, while pure Nickel does not.

In like manner, the Naval Research Labs (NRL) ran over 300 experiments using pure Pd cathodes, all of them yielding negative results. Then somebody suggested that NRL should try an alloy of 90% Pd and 10% Rh. The very first such alloy cathode they tried yielded over 10,000 Joules of excess thermal energy – all from less than 1 gram of cathode material. I ran Density Functional Theory simulations on that alloy, and it, too, satisfies all the conditions given above, while pure Pd and pure Rh do not.

NRL christened this cathode with the name Eve, after the obvious Biblical analogy. I’m pleased to share the news that Eve had a number of “sisters” who produced equal and even greater excess thermal energy, among a number of other more interesting effects. Finally, I can observe that the materials simulations now make it fairly easy to evaluate any given solid lattice material and estimate its level of LENR activity. We have good correlations between the simulation results and the known levels of experimentally-determined LENR activity in a number of different alloys whose dominant elements come from the Transition Metal Group of the Periodic Table. Hopefully, we will be able to get all the details of this material released for publication to the general public over the next few weeks.

  • catfish

    The information hydrogen loading really starts to explain why it’s been so hard for MFMP and Celani to have consistent replicaitons, but maybe it will become steadily easier, now.

  • US_Citizen71

    “We have run materials simulations (also known as Density Functional Theory simulations) on our best guess of Rossi’s alloy material. It satisfies all the conditions given above, while pure Nickel does not.” – I think this might be the biggest lead yet for replicators. But, what Nickel alloy is it?

    • Sanjeev

      IF he is right, and Rossi uses an alloy rather than pure Ni, then this itself will be a big revelation. I guess it can be Ni-Li or it can be Ni-Fe.

      • ss dd

        Ni-Al ?

        • Axil Axil

          Why is palladium loading so inportant? These is a treshold in loading when reached the begins the production of nanoparticles of hydrogen, In this study, those nanoparticles are called clusters.

          http://www.psc.edu/science/Wolf/Wolf.html

          Quote:

          “Onset of the beta phase in palladium hydride at 300 degrees Kelvin. This phase change occurs as the concentration of hydrogen atoms (yellow) in the palladium (purple) increases. At early stages (the alpha phase), hydrogen atoms randomly populate small interstices in the lattice structure. At a critical point, the lattice expands, allowing hydrogen to cluster at higher density, as visualized here. This image shows the lattice from the (001) direction.”

          http://www.psc.edu/science/Wolf/neat3-sm.GIF

        • Sanjeev

          or Ni-C (carbonyl Ni). All wild guesses at this time.

  • radvar

    Goosebumps!

  • radvar

    The Article
    Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) Phenomena and Potential Applications
    Louis F. DeChiaro, Ph.D. Physicist
    September 23, 2015

    http://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/index.php/Attachment/386-IEEE-brief-DeChiaro-9-2015-pdf/

    Wow!

    • Sanjeev

      That links to the presentation.
      Hopefully we will see an official link somewhere soon.

      • Jarea

        The last sentence is very promising:

        “Hopefully, we will be able to get all the details of this material released for publication to the general public over the next few weeks.”

        Maybe they want to do it before Airbus announce their theoretical breakthrough. Or do they want to do that together?
        Very very good news today!

  • radvar
  • Sanjeev

    I’m pleasantly shocked, this is big. This is bigger than their presentation at IEEE. In fact this announcement is as big as F&P’s and Rossi’s announcement of their discoveries.

    So pleased to see a great breakthrough in theory and simulation of LENR. This will surely make things easier. Bonus is that we have an on demand replication of F&P now.

    • Agaricus

      I agree – this could be an important ‘milestone’, especially if details of the theoretical method for evaluating probable CF activity are released in the promised publication: “…the materials simulations now make it fairly easy to evaluate any given solid lattice material and estimate its level of LENR activity.

      Time to take another look at the analyses of Rossi’s fuel for potential alloyed metals other than those in the alkali group (iron?, copper?).

  • magicsnd1

    I recently found in the GS4 tests that liquid Li or Li-Al alloy will dissolve or etch pure Ni at temperatures far below the melting point of nickel. The image shows the nickel foil fuel capsule removed from the GS4.1 cell after about 12 hours of heating with LiAlH4.

    Analysis of a piece of the foil showed it to be pure nickel, so the surface change is due to material removal rather than added Li or Al metal.This suggests that the active alloy may contain both Ni and Li. Further experiment to explore this is planned.

    • Ecco

      Molten lithium is very corrosive to nickel metal.

      http://i.imgur.com/RVJm4Qz.jpg

      • Bob Greenyer

        So – it could be forming an alloy – with particle / cluster formation.

        As we found in “Bang!” EDX – the coating (Li Al H2) showed dissolved Ni.

        • Ecco

          Perhaps after prolonged exposure of nickel powder in a relatively large amount of liquid lithium at high temperature you will find that it will have completely dissolved in it, with little remaining of the starting material.

          • Bob Greenyer

            and potentially – nano clusters of Nickel may form – in the right lower and upper cluster sizes as per Piantelli.

          • bkrharold

            “Finally, I can observe that the materials simulations now make it fairly easy to evaluate any given solid lattice material and estimate its level of LENR activity. ”

            This is great news. Finally a solid theoretical basis for evaluating lattices for LENR activity. When the results are published we should see an explosion of activity. The fossil fuel industry will become a fossil itself, and any business that is left behind in the coming race to exploit LENR, will soon be extinct. It looks the breakthrough we have all been waiting for is finally happening.

          • bkrharold

            There have been reports that various goverment agencies were working on LENR. They even published some papers on the subject a few years ago. Then they went completely dark, and it was reported they were no longer doing research. I assumed they had been silenced like so many other brave souls. I am delighted with this unexpected turn of events. The depth and scope of their discoveries is breathtaking in its detail. Rossi spent years of trial and error to discover the ecat. This work that is soon to be published should speed up the process, and hopefully help to optimize it to a point where Gigawatts of electricity can be generated safely and cheaply. In a few weeks the mainstream media will be falling over themselves to interview Rossi, and we will have entered the new era. This new branch of physics may also have many other practical applications that will make life better for millions.

          • Axil Axil

            This is a confusing result. Pure palladium does not work here, but is does work 100% of the time for co deposition of palladium hydride. But when 10% Rh is added to palladium, the reaction works. What makes 10% Rh like co disposition?

            Does co disposition produce Discrete Breathers? How does it happen that way?

          • Bob Greenyer

            some of the topics are discussed in our “how to make the right catalyst” and related documents.

          • Ged

            Doping (small percentage of some element mixed with a nearly pure one) a lattice is a well known method to get all sorts of bizarre and unexpected behavior otherwise impossible for the pure material. This is used heavily in the semiconductor industry, for instance. Many times the effect of doping is conferred by the physical deformities and warping of the lattice that the dopant causes. That is likely what is happening here.

        • Da Phys

          Wow. Dubinko’s theory has been one of the most appealing theory because in full continuation of Hagelstein’s approach of the 1990’s with the introduction of anharmonicity as a critical factor to produce large amplitude vibrations. The nice addition here by DeChiaro is the confirmation of this effect through computer simulations and, apparently, experiments as well. The possibility to optimize the system through computer simulations is extremely interesting, this may be a game changer in CF/LENR history.

          A nice aspect of Dubinko’s theory is that it can explain the experimental results found with both PD/D and NI/H systems. Last year I postulated that the adsorption (or even absorption) of Li can facilitate the anharmonicity required to produce these large amplitude vibrations. What is interesting in the Hot-Cat is that H loading, although partial and limited to the Ni surface, is effective at low temperature, while the release of Li happens at a higher temperature when the first layers of Ni are already loaded with H- anions. The thermal decomposition LiAlH4 is perfect in that sense, full credit goes to Rossi for that.

          Now, if we take the best of Piantelli’s theory, that is a lattice composed of H- anions, together with the anharmonic large amplitude vibrations of Dubinko’s (rather than the “H- ejection” assumption of Piantelli), add to this some Li+ ions as first done by F&P but only mastered technically by Rossi, we may find the ultimate theory, and in turn, LENR system.

          • Gerard McEk

            You seem a physisist Da Phys, can I ask you some questions about the article?
            1. What does Louise mean with: ” This condition alone rules out almost ALL the elemental” (point 1)
            2. Is it required that Ni and Li are alloyed, or can also other elements be used?
            3. Is it possible that also hydrogen fuses with hydrogen, or just lithium and hydrogen.
            4. Can you explain the isotopical shift of nickel, (Lugano test), based on this artickel?
            Thanks, Gerard

          • wpj

            If you read Rossi’s interview, he says not to read too much into the Ni isotope shift from the Lugano report as there was only 2mg taken from 1g of sample. He says that there is an on-going analysis of the bulk.

            Point (1) of yours is that, probably, the lattice with pure elements is too regular while the alloys have the lattice broken up with other metals incorporated. This makes the processes easier to take place.

            Point (3) is also discussed in the Rossi interview.

          • Da Phys

            I’m indeed a physicist but no expert in this field.
            1. A word is probably missing after the adjective elemental: elemental lattices ?
            2. I’m not sure I understand your question because Ni and Li don’t “alloy”. This theory suggests that the hydride or deuteride sponge must fulfil some conditions, something not surprising because we most probably have a resonant system. IMO it is not by chance that the ratios of the atomic masses H/Ni and D/Pd are similar, we need a light atom that vibrates in a lattice formed by heavier atoms.
            3. Don’t know. WOuld love to know the answer to that question.
            4. The isotopic shift mentioned in the Lugano report cannot be (readily) explained by this theory, at least not without additional assumptions. On a side note, I don’t trust much the results of the Lugano test.

          • Gerard McEk

            Thanks.
            Regarding 2: I would assume that lithium is also in the DB, how else can a proton fuse with the lithium? BTW, an interesting remark regarding the ratio/resonance frequencies.
            Regarding 3: I assume that these DB resonances will also bring the Ni atoms very near together. Maybe so near that also neutrons may ‘tunnel’ from one to the other Ni atom. Because Ni62 is the most stable, I just thought they may all tend to Ni62. Is that a bad idea?

  • pg

    I don t want to sound bad, but it feels like Prof. DeChiaro is giving a personal reading of the LENR field, not a NAVSEA one.
    I hope I am wrong

    • Agaricus

      I doubt he did the work on which his report is based on his kitchen table.

      • pg

        Ok, I am just saying that it does not look like it is a NAVSEA endorsed LENR position, but the personal opinion of a person that is working inside NAVSEA. That’s all.

        • Warthog

          Look at the header in his slides. Use of that logo basically constitutes an endorsement by NAVSEA of what he is presenting as representing NAVSEA’s position on the subject.

          • My opinion, on navsea, Navy, Nasa, Airbus, ENEA, INFN, Shell, STMicro who have their logo on LENR presentations is not that it mean an endorsement of what is in the slides.
            To be clear in all big organisations there is massive opposition to LENR
            it is a tolerance granted to “executive” or “fellow executives” to give their opinion in public, not because everybody agrees, but because the competence of the authors are so much recognized that the company as a human structure agrees that it may be wrong in opposing.
            Privilege of the King’s Jester

            There is massive opposition against LENR scientists in ENEA, INFN, but also Nasa, Airbus, STM… but there is also noticeable supports by insiders, discretely…
            Big organisations should not be considered as a coherent entity.
            it is a network of selfish interests, sometime converging, sometime coordinated more or less locally, sometime supported by ideology and altruism…

            Navy don’t support LENR. the executives of Navsea, the Darpa funding committees, Nasa executives, agreed to let few maverick authors experiment and publish on LENR.
            Some may even lobby the opponents to let it happen, negotiating discretion.

          • Warthog

            I can’t agree. Look at the “footer” as well. This means that the contents of the talk have been vetted by NAVSEA upper management and approved for release.

            There may be opposition (of a certainty), but this indicates strong support on the part of at least “some” high level players.

          • the content have been approved by NavSea PR you are right., but this does not mean a positive endorsement, a general strategy.
            It just meant they let it be published…
            Maybe cowardly, maybe to avoid trouble, maybe to avoid being judged as deluded later… But this does not mean that LENR is a main plan.

            It is tolerated, but not used in most decisions.

            I am shocked to see many company, many governments, who clearly invest in LENR, watch LENR, are godwilling for LENR startups, have a clearly LENR-unaware big strategy in the newspapers.

            see:
            http://www.economist.com/events-conferences/emea/energy-summit-2015

            pathetic, no?

            I know they know, but… they behave as if their don’t know.

  • Ecco

    Pd-Rh, as in catalytic converters?
    Good job, but I can’t help but feel that they’re complicating the uncomplicated.

    • Agaricus

      I think that is DeChiaro’s thesis – that the conditions for CF ARE complicated. That would certainly explain why meticulous researchers such as MFMP tend to produce null results, while ‘Edisonian’ experimenters sometimes get lucky.

      • Ecco

        Storms’ conclusions on his ‘nano-crack’ theory testing performed in the past three months suggest otherwise, even with pure Pd cathodes seemingly impossible to activate in the case of DeChiaro:

        http://lenrexplained.com/2015/10/conclusion-key-to-understanding-fpe-is-temperature/

        • Ged

          DeChiaro does say there seems to be multiple initiation methods, and his work is focused on a specific one. So, possibly apples to oranges.

  • Curbina

    Upon finishing reading this, I can’t help but saying that it seems that this means that LENR has been taken farm more seriously and subject to far much more research than would have been obvious from an outsider point of view. The summary given reads like it was developed after painstakingly researching all material properties. I wonder what other researchers think of these points, I bet MFMP team is salivating (in the good way). 🙂

    • Bob Greenyer

      Oh yeh. I expect Pons knows by now. Mathieu Valat > J-P B >…

      And Martin’s granddaughter will know soon enough as she is an avid follower of the MFMP FB.

      Happy day

  • bkrharold

    Yes it is extremely exciting. O happy day. Dr DeChario wrote that it is possible to run materials simulations (also known as Density Functional Theory simulations) on any alloy to reliably predict LENR activity.

  • Stephen

    The more data that gets released a shared like this the closer we get to understanding what underlies LENR and its potential and the better prepared we become for its arrival. Thank you Louis DeChiaro and Adrian Ashfield for sharing this.

    It gives me real hope to see that this work is done at top level like this and the and serious research and models have been successful applied in your investigations. Really great news.

  • AdrianAshfield

    I wish! I just ran across some stale posts of his on http://ownshrink.com/skeptopathy and replied. Had’t seen him around for a while.

    • EEStorFanFibb

      He’s squirming I’m sure. I hope he’s lurking around here and sees how nicely you broke a whopper!

  • RLittle

    I
    would like to note that these steps (with computational verifications) proposed
    by Dr. DeChiaro in Sept 2015 are totally consistent with the prior 2005
    published mechanism of Reginald B. Little.
    I note such below by considering DeChiaro’s seven steps and quoting
    prior such in the publication (http://arxiv.org/ftp/cond-mat/papers/0608/0608071.pdf
    ). I am happy that Rossi has developed
    such mechanism into an application; I am also happy for his patent. I am happy that the calculations noted by
    DeChiaro are consistent with such prior mechanism of RBL. I am very pleased that my theory and
    mechanism are consistent. My prior
    conceptual theory are peaceful and happy with the applications, recent
    experimental evidence and these calculated steps:

    1.
    It is necessary to set up conditions favoring the formation of
    molecular hydrogen (H2 or D2) inside the solid lattice for a certain range of
    possible values of lattice constant and for some fraction of the allowed values
    for electron momentum. This condition alone rules out almost ALL the elemental
    , because the electron density is just too large to permit molecules to form,
    except near vacancies in the lattice where a metal atom is absent.

    “The electrochemical effects between dense e- and p+ and
    metal nuclei cause pycnonuclear reactions at the lower kinetic energy densities
    relative to the much higher energy densities within the neutron stars and
    magnetars. “ page 14

    “1.) under the prevailing conditions hydrogen uptake by the
    metal lattice and the high current density allow the formation of some amount
    of a hydride species (H-);”.
    This first is totally consistent with RBL prior conceptual model in
    2005. As the large uptake involves
    protons , hydride and electrons in side the metal lattice in s and d orbitals
    and bands of the metal as noted in RBL in 2005.

    2.
    The overall hydrogen
    loading fraction (ratio of hydrogen to palladium atoms, for example) must
    exceed the minimum threshold of about 0.88, otherwise the “party” never even
    gets started. Achieving this level of loading in Pd is not trivial.

    Such large H2 absorption is
    captured by the existence of hydride and proton and electrons inside the s and
    d bands of the metal at or below the density of the ground state of the metal.

    3.
    Conditions must be set up
    (by appropriate choice of materials parameters and achieved by the right kind
    of alloying) so that these hydrogen molecules can be caused to break up and
    then re-assemble very rapidly in a periodic time sequence when an appropriate
    physical quantity such as background electric charge, magnetic field, etc. is
    made to oscillate periodically over a small range.

    “2.) the thermal and pressure fluctuations and magnetization
    cause the electronic rehybridization of the background Cu-Ag lattice with
    consequent sporadic localization and delocalization of these electrons and
    protons of hydride species (H-) within the Cu-Ag lattice;” Note the small range is equivalent to localization
    and the later (step 5 below) larger oscillations in departure from equilibrium is
    equivalent to the delocalization in the prior RBL.

    Also “An external magnetic
    field organizes (as in this work) the (eeor pa-p+b-) and metal
    nuclei for more favorable weak interactions, leading to enhanced cross-sections
    for fusion events. In zero applied magnetic field, the proper spin and
    orbital orientations for such fusion processes are much more random and less
    likely. The important of such left-right symmetry during weak processes has
    been demonstrated by Yang and Lee [40]. Yang and Lee determined that within an
    external magnetic field, the nuclear spin oriented such that during the beta
    process the release of electron has specific momentum relative to the nucleus
    that released it. Here on the basis of the Little Effect, it is demonstrated
    that an external magnetic field can orient the e and nucleus for the reverse
    process of reverse beta for greater probability of such rare fusion events. The
    external magnetic field in this way organizes the spins for such symmetry for
    the reverse beta process and e- + capture process by the metal nucleus for
    greater rates and reproducibility of the pycnonuclear reactions. Without the
    external magnetization, the cross-section and probability are much lower. “

    4.
    The critical value of lattice constant at which this break up and
    reassembly occurs must lie very close to the nominal value of lattice constant
    for which the ground state energy of the lattice is minimal. This requirement
    alone rules out essentially all of the elemental lattices and about 99% of the
    binary and ternary alloys.

    “3.) these protons and electrons of this hydride species
    exist delocalized in the 4d-like orbitals of the Cu-Ag lattice; 4.)
    localization of protons and electrons produces this hydride species in the
    metal lattice by the rehybridization of 3d, 4d, 4s, and 5s orbitals of the
    metal lattice; 5.) such localization by lattice rehybridization and confinement
    of H- within
    sd hybrid orbitals contribute to greater s character of the interacting
    electrons and protons in the form of (ea-p+eb- ) or
    (hydride species) within the sd hybrid orbitals within the metal lattice;” – Note in order for the proton and electrons
    of hydride to exist in the d and s electrons of the metal lattice the lattice
    constant must be near the lattice constant of the ground state of the metal.

    5.
    A departure from
    equilibrium must be established that will permit an external energy source (eg.
    the DC power supply in an electrolysis experiment and/or a pair of low power
    lasers as in the Letts/Hagelstein two laser experiment) to feed energy into the
    H-H or D-D stretching mode vibrations. The difference in chemical potential
    that is established in gas loading experiments can also serve very nicely; in
    this case the flux feeds energy into the stretching mode vibrations.

    “Having
    spin and orbital momenta and magnetic moments, these e-, p+, and
    metal nuclei are organized by external magnetic field such that these
    pycnonuclear reactions are enhanced by the strong external magnetization. The
    magnetic field may contribute to faster more reproducible effects, of such
    pycnonuclear reactions.” – page 15

    It is important to note this model previously noted the
    phonons exciting both electrons and protons from orbital to virtual states (called
    continuum states by RBL in 2005) and within the continuum states the protons
    exist in stable negative regions about nuclei of more classical nature but with
    relativistic motions. This allows step
    wise excitation of protons and electrons across the virtual states by lattice
    phonons. “The Little Effect
    introduces the organization of heat by fermion motion by spin interactions for
    torque of orbital states for exciting virtual states with the consequent antisymmetry
    of the aligned fermion spins within the virtual states preventing their
    relaxation from these intermediary virtual states by the release of phonons. So
    that the adiabatic multi- phonon excitation of upper level high spin organized
    virtual orbital states is stabilized so that further stepwise multi-phonon
    excitation can yield a high spin organized stationary upper level orbital state
    for the overall adiabatic stepwise spin induced orbital excitation. The Little
    Effect thereby determines an adiabatic spin, induced orbital excitation of
    fermions.” It is impotant to note
    that the phonons are noted in 2005 for exciting the electrons and protons of
    the localized and delocalized states in the d and s orbitals of the lattice
    just as here de Chiaro notes the vibtations excite, the prior RBL gives a
    mechanism for how the vibrations excite the delocalized and localized states of
    the electrons ad protons.. Note
    exciting electrons away from nucleus is consistent with exciting protons inward
    toward nucleus and the two couple for localized and delocalized protonic and
    electronic states and with higher energy excitation this model notes the
    excited electrons into core eventually couple with nuclear states and this can
    promote the delocalization of the quantum states of the nucleus into the
    electronic lattice. It is important to note that the proposed gamma exchange
    between the core electrons and protons and the nucleons prevent not only gamma exchange
    between the electrons and protons of the core but gamma exchange with the
    nuclei nearby thereby extending the wavefunction of nuclei into the core of the
    atom.

    6.
    The nature of the lattice
    must permit these stretching mode vibrations to grow so large (over a period of
    perhaps many nanoseconds) that their amplitude becomes comparable to the
    lattice constant. When this occurs, the H atoms oscillate so violently that at
    the instants of closest approach, the curvature of the parabolic energy wells
    in which the atomic nuclei vibrate will become perturbed. Thus the curvature of
    the well oscillates as a periodic function of time. These very large amplitude
    vibrations are known as superoscillations in the Western literature and as
    “discrete breathers” in the Ukrainian literature. Under the right conditions,
    these oscillations can grow without impacting the atoms, which are much more
    massive than the hydrogens. We explored this computationally via Density
    Functional Molecular Dynamics runs.

    “Such low frequency pycnonuclear reactions and the magnetic field
    enhancement are here predicted, explored and demonstrated here on the basis of
    the Little Effect, whereby the magnetic organization of dense electrons,
    protons and metal nuclei within the metal lattice and thermal and pressure
    fluctuation cause oscillations between delocalized and localized electronic and
    protonic states, involving the already demonstrated s-d rehybridization and
    nuclear coupled intersystem crossing characteristic of Cu and Ag lattice under
    prevailing magnetic and thermal conditions such that e- and p+ become
    localized into s orbitals of the Ag with the strong electric field of the Ag
    nuclei strongly disrupting gamma exchange between the e- and p+ and e- —Ag
    nuclei for electron capture by the proton (reverse beta) and/or e- and/or
    p+ capture
    by Ag nuclei.” – Page 14

    I also point out the coupling of such electronic to nuclear
    oscillations as noted in this 2005 mechanism: “

    7.
    When the curvatures of the
    parabolic energy wells of the nuclei are modulated at a frequency very near the
    natural resonant frequency, the quantum expectation value of the nuclear wave
    function spatial spread will oscillate with time in such a way that the
    positive-going peaks grow exponentially with time. Originally, I found this
    idea in the Ukrainian literature and was skeptical. So, we verified it by doing
    a direct numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger Equation for a
    single nuclear particle in a parabolic energy well. These oscillations in
    spatial spread will periodically delocalize the nucleus and facilitate the
    tunneling of adjacent nuclei into the Strong Force attractive nuclear potential
    well, giving rise to nuclear fusion at rates that are several tens of orders of
    magnitude larger than what one calculates via the usual Gamow Factor integral
    relationship.

    “12.) the proximity (less than 0.5 Angstroms) of the ea- — p+ to the
    eb- and
    the metal nucleus (M47+) within the s orbital allows huge local magnetic fields
    within the s orbital for extremely strong spin torque of ea- into
    the p+ thereby
    preventing gamma exchange as in isolated hydrogen thereby allowing the ea- — p+ to
    form a neutron. It is within the s orbital with finite nonzero probability of
    the ea- — p+ and eb- having
    very close proximity to the metal nucleus that length scales of 10-10 m
    such that the magnetic forces within the s orbital are on the order of 1/(10-5) 2 times
    the magnetic forces between lattice electrons in the domain of say a
    ferrometal.”

  • Herb Gillis

    Now we seem to have entered the predictive phase of LENR. It will be important to get the simulation model widely distributed.

    • Bob Greenyer

      Yes – very much so

  • Alan DeAngelis

    Question:
    Can this explain the Mitsubishi transmutations?

    Answer:
    No.
    http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-iNy47-PKxoQ/T2ziOYJ2RvI/AAAAAAAASLo/OcvAZx1OnVo/s1600/LENRJapantransmute.png

    • Alan DeAngelis

      PS
      The assumption is that d-d fusion is taking place but could palladium be transmuted in a F&P cell (as heaver elements are most definitely being transmuted in the Mitsubishi experiments)?

      Pd + 2d > Cd* > Pd + He (a fusion-fission reaction)
      Overall:
      2d > He 24 MeV (no gamma rays)

  • Private Citizen

    Adding nothing to the discussion, just this: a positive and believable explanation of LENR above. This reads like reputable journals must publish the theory or look ridiculous in the very near future.

    • Axil Axil

      Release of this information will be a non event. Co-disposition of palladium hydride produced the LENR reaction 100% of the time. When those results were released, nothing happened.

      Rossi is right, when there is a “must have” LENR product on the market, then people will take notice.

      • Bob Greenyer

        It is true that a product will be the big news.

        Was Co-Deposition in Science/Nature – because NRL have the clout to get there and co-deposition wasn’t vindicating P&F, this is.

        Also co-deposition wasn’t about measurable excess heat like this is as far as I know – though the PD deposit was shown to melt!

  • MasterBlaster7

    WTF did I just read?! Did they just crack the theory?! Or, at least part of the theory?!

    A point for Swartz and Hagelstein with their atomic vacancies. Not so much for Storms and his nano-cracks.

    So, this is molecular hydrogen vibrating so violently (within the atomic vacancies) that they release energy? Any physicist want to explain the nuances to me?

    • Axil Axil

      At this juncture, all LENR theory is just a guess. We don’t have access to the instrumentation to see what is really happening on the nano-scale.

    • Bob Greenyer

      The important thing is that following information, most likely from ENEA and a more spelt out paper discussing Anharmonic Oscillations that Piantelli says is critical, by Dubinko at ICCF19 – they have shown repeatable excess heat and vindicated Pons and Fleischmann.

      This is coming from the NRL that have been dogged in their determination by vocally sceptical in the fruits of their research until now.

  • Owen Geiger

    So you expect government agencies to reveal what they’re secretly working on???

  • magicsnd1

    A good deal of credit is due Ukranian theorist V.I.Dubinko. His talk at ICCF19 was the high point of the technical sessions. See pg. 93 of:
    http://www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol14.pdf

  • Axil Axil

    Holmlid states in his patent as follows:

    “The hydrogen transfer catalyst may further be configured to cause a transition of the hydrogen into the ultradense state if the hydrogen atoms are prevented from re-forming covalent bonds. The mechanisms behind the catalytic transition from the gaseous state to the ultra-dense state are quite well understood, and it has been experimentally shown that this transition can be achieved using various hydrogen transfer catalysts, including, for example, commercially available so-called styrene catalysts, as well as (purely) metallic catalysts, such as Iridium and Palladium.”

    Palladium and Iridium produce Hydrogen Rydberg matter. The cause of LENR in palladium is due to Rydberg matter production at high loading, and not Decrete Breathers.

    • Bob Greenyer

      I think the key point about the post above is that repeatable excess heat has been seen in a system similar to the ENEA P&F analogue by an organisation that has been very vocal about never seeing excess heat in pure Pd – that is the real news

  • Bob Greenyer

    I would propose that this model be posted as a sort or “Seti at home” java app that anyone could screen elemental and structural permutations on their phone / laptop / desktop into a public database.

    The model would produce candidate materials that would then be tested for activity, the results of which would adjust the model for another permutation of distributed simulation.

    This would be like the guy that used a learning system – analysed 10,000s of top songs and then let it create millions of new melodies with chart potential.

    • When in the paper all mathematical equations are revealed, this should not be the problem 🙂

    • Enrique Ferreyra

      I think isnt a Java app but C++ anyway you mean BOINC platform:

      http://boinc.berkeley.edu/

      Good idea if you are very sure on what models simulate.

  • tobalt

    Hope they release a paper about the DFT results. This is what i always told that solid state simulations should be used to analyze the behaviour and not single particle crossections such as for colliders or plasmas.

    excellent news

  • wpj

    Wonder what the “other more interesting effects” are? More interesting than excess energy……..

    • GreenWin

      Nanomaterials can make you question what you see with your own eyes. Good fun.

  • This is good. I always had a feeling that resonance was part of the explanation. And I believe we will see more in this direction shortly. Will try to report as soon as I can.

    • Isn’t the Widom Larsen Theory using resonance effects of electrons (aka
      “collective motion”) to produce high energetic (large) electrons which
      could be easily captured by the hydrogen proton?

      Maybe they were already on the right track?

      • Ged

        This stuff here is quite different, though conceptually similar (electrons not having such a role and no electron-proton capture, but atomic resonance still involved). This is more like Dr. Kim’s linear two body bose-einstine condensate method of LENR. However, it may not be the same of even that, but yet again just conceptually similar; as I don’t think super oscillations leading to nucleus displacement tunneling was part of Dr. Kim’s theory.

        • GreenWin

          Resonance has also been the mechanism for energy transfer in much of Randell Mills’ hydrino theory. Mills has been on the ground flood of excess heat (CF) even before P&F’s 1989 announcement.

          • Ged

            Basically, nuclear resonance is the key to whatever mechanism, as there doesn’t seem to be a theory without it.

            Probably since resonance allows a very small input to compound and exponentially build within the limit of a system. See mythbusters vibrating a huge bridge with a 5 lb Tesla resonance device as an example.

          • LCD

            Resonance without a strong dampening mechanism would build energy over time which would explain why low energy is needed.

            But key in this theory that lois had summarized is that this is not enough to explain everything. For example lack of radiation.

            So louis AFAIK posits a perturbed wavefunction which is like saying (loosely) that a low energy back door opens up.

            This is key because you needed something to put into the “fusion” equations that allow for the lack of radiation observation.

  • wpj

    His bio says that he is a civilian worker there, not a member of the military

    • Ged

      Wouldn’t stop his work from getting classified and exempt from FIOA either.

      • wpj

        No, but maybe he was “grateful” for the freedom to do the work.

  • blanco69

    Ok. Yesterday, I posted a comment about Prof DeChiaro spending the past 6 years working on a Powerpoint presentation on what the key LENR players were up to. The material above goes some way to dispell that somewhat mean appraisal. The notes above do raise an interesting proposition regarding materials modelling and the possibilty of engineering non metalic lattice structures from, say, graphene to maximise the effect. However, I’m still stightly puzzled at the slide pack presented by Navsea. My hope is that the presentation was a “LENR for Dummies” pack where Prof DeChiaro opens the door to the uninitiated. Or that there are a whole set of juicy slides as yet unrevealed detailing the more of the Profs own work as hinted at above.

    • Ged

      Since it is the Navy, some of or the key parts of his work may well be considered classified. Mastering LENR would give the US a serious and significant tactical advantage; very much worthy of classified status.

      • JIPelsor

        Some???! I guess. LOL

        • Ged

          Just speculation! It is within the Navy’s right and power; and makes sense from a national security perspective. But maybe they haven’t; hopefully.

  • Zephir

    /* The Naval Research Labs (NRL) ran over 300 experiments using pure Pd cathodes, all of them yielding negative results */

    According to my informations, the Italian ENEA lab achieves the cold fusion with palladium cathodes with roughly 70% reproducibility. But these cathodes must be machined in a specialized manner, probably for to introduce a sufficient amount of dislocations and defects into them, which would serve in similar way, like the foreign rhodium atoms. At any case, each system which will move the cold fusion effects closer to full reproducibility will open them for research with mainstream physics, which uses the irreproducibility as an evasion for lack of research. The majority of mainstream physicists isn’t inquisitive at all – they just look for reliable job which would warrant their effort.

    /* The overall hydrogen loading fraction must exceed the minimum threshold of about 0.88, otherwise the “party” never even gets started. Achieving this level of loading in Pd is not trivial.*/

    This is also what prof. Hagelstein and Swartz at MIT have found before many years already. Also the success of ENEA experiments depends on sufficient saturation of palladium with hydrogen.

    • Roland

      SPAWAR claimed 100% replicability after they began deposing palladium directly by electroplating rather than relying on bought palladium wire.

      There was a short documentary posted on this site that interviewed the participants and explained the conceptual evolution required to achieve consistent results.

      • Zephir

        Yep, I know about it. The codeposition is the most reliable method for various homebrew experiments.

  • rocky172534

    where’s mary yugo to shoot this down lol

  • BroKeeper

    ·
    Nero

    October 7th, 2015 at 2:50 AM

    Dear Andrea,

    is the old 1 MW plant (shipped from Italy to USA) still in function? Can you now
    disclose the costumer or at least your goal with this operation? Best regards…
    E che muoia la balena dopo averlo… Eh, eh, eh

    ·
    Andrea Rossi

    October 7th, 2015 at 7:39 AM

    Nero:

    The old 1 MW plant has been used to make experiments.That’s all I can say.

    Warm Regards,

    A.R.

    Hmmm, I wonder what entity that could be?
    Experiments performed on proven experiments = theory? What would Rossi do without theory?
    BroKeeper

    • Gerard McEk

      I asked him a similar question a week ago. I know it was shipped to a military entity and asked about the status of that plant. AR replied he was not authorized to give any comment. So time will tell hopefully.

      • Kneebiter

        AR is not in a hurry to answer your latest question on his blog. Seems the (E)-cat’s got his tongue or something.

        • deleo77

          Now if Rossi would only answer the 64,000 dollar question, has he ever exchanged any information or given a reactor to Louis DeChiaro to study? The answer to that could be the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

        • Alan DeAngelis

          This may be totally different from what F&P did and more like what Mitsubishi did where elements are transmuted in the presence of palladium. Even if deuterium is being consumed and helium is being formed we can’t assume d-d fusion is taking place. Maybe the following fusion-fission reaction is taking place. And the alloy would need to be fully saturated to take place.

          Rh + 2d > Ag* (silver in an excited state)

          Ag* > Rh + He
          _____________
          Overall:
          2d > He 24 MeV (no neutrons, no tritium and no gamma rays)

          • Alan DeAngelis

            PS
            Even in the F&P experiment it’s assumed that d-d fusion is taking place because deuterium is being consumed and helium is being formed. The absence of large amounts of neutrons, tritium and gamma rays indicates that a fusion-fission reaction is taking place.

            Pd + 2d > Cd* (cadmium in an excited state)

            Cd* > Pd + He
            _____________
            Overall
            2d > He 24 MeV (no neutrons, no tritium and no gamma rays)

            No need to dream up a complicated mechanism to explain away why there aren’t any

            24 MeV gamma rays.

          • bachcole

            According to Wikidpedia, who has no reason to be biased in this case, rhodium (Rh) cost $350,000 per kilogram in 2008. That would be $350 per gram, $5600 per ounce, and $159,090.91 per pound. Obviously rhodium is pretty impractical for “our” purposes.

          • Obvious

            5 year chart from Kitco

        • Gerard McEk

          Yes…..I guess it may be diffucult to give a comment without revealing too much details of the Ecat.

  • as I said, it came from Albert Opdenaker,
    who clearly stated it was ok for publication (agreed by the Navsea),

    both him and DeChiaro have co-authored few article and presentations about LENR…

    this presentation shows nothing really new.

    It is great, but it is great since very long ago.

    • Brent Buckner

      Did you say that about the IEEE presentation slides only, or also about the “research notes” of this post? Please advise!

      • only the slides.

        good precision, thanks.

  • bfast
  • Ged

    Close! It is closer to 1/3rd actually, assuming it is 100% hydrogen being referenced. Put in Pd in the calculation and it is quite a bit more than max chemical.

    But, it all depends on what they mean by “excess” (e.g. Excess over all possible chemical energy), how much “over 10000” is, and how much “less than 1 gram” is.

    These guess saw nothing for so long and undoubtably know what they are doing, but we’ll see.

  • Herb Gillis

    If we take this paper at face value it indicates that an alloy is required for both Pd based and Ni based LENR systems. I would be very interested to see what the model will tell us about the relationship between the atomic mass of the alloying metal and the LENR effect. For example; what would happen if a small amount of a very high mass element were included in the alloy (such as W or Pb)? Would this amplify or reduce the LENR effect?

    • Axil Axil

      In his patent, Holmlid identifies palladium and iridium are catalysts that produce hydrogen rydberg matter. I sited research below that confirms this observation. Palladium does so at very high loading. The addition of rhodium might reduce the loading requirements needed to produce rydberg matter by allowing voids to form more easily in the crystal structure of palladium to open at a lower hydrogen loading level. These lattice imperfections are the sites on the surface of palladium were the hydrogen rydberg crystals form.

      In early palladium experiments, it was found that certain lots of palladium were more LENR active than other lots. This could be due to the presents of other noble metal contaminants alloyed in the palladium. I would try ruthenium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum as platinum family contaminates alloyed in palladium in addition to rhodium.

      • Ecco

        He is not saying that palladium and iridium are catalysts on their own, but that certain catalysts, including metallic ones comprising Pd or Ir, can also work for RM production.

        • Axil Axil

          If you would be kind enough to look at this study on palladium showing void formation and associated hydrogen crystal formation in those voids, it looks like hydrogen rydberg matter formation in palladium to me.

          http://www.psc.edu/science/Wolf/Wolf.html

          Your opinion as alway is welcome.

          • Da Phys

            What makes you think that a metal hydride such as PD-H would produce H Rydberg matter? Same theory as Pekka Soinonen?

          • Axil Axil

            There may be the same cluster formation mechanism for hydrogen aggregation at work between rust and palladium. Miley has verified that Hydrogen rydberg matter forms inside the voids present in rust. The same void forming process occurs in palladium at high loading. Co disposition of palladium hydride may also form hydrogen Rydberg matter which produce perfect LENR replication results.

          • Da Phys

            Interesting indeed but, if the case, how do you explain that Pd-D works but not Pd-H?

          • Axil Axil

            The photonic stimulation by heat is not strong enough to elicit a reaction using protium in palladium as a bulk material. I suspect that if the palladium was used as nanoparticles in water, a reaction in light water would be successful, Gold nanoparticles in water irradiated with a laser will be successful in producing the LENR reaction in both light and heavy water.

          • Ecco

            What I’m saying is that a lump of solid Pd metal by itself isn’t going to work off the bat unless its lattice structure gets heavily modified. In cold fusion experiments like the ones by DeChiaro (as reported in this blogpost) this is usually performed through deuterium loading and electrolysis over prolonged periods of time. This process can radically alter the lattice and with much luck eventually produce the nano vacancies needed for excess heat production.
            Alloying Pd with a different metal might further increase chances that right vacancies form in the process, but it still might not be enough in some cases.

            What Leif Holmlid’s research suggests is that by employing a prepared (or commercially available) heterogeneous catalyst one might be able to produce Rydberg Matter Hydrogen (possibly the culprit for excess heat in cold fusion experiments) reproducibly and immediately. Besides using potassium-iron oxide catalysts, he suggests in his patent that metallic catalysts could also be used. These usually include a dense micro/nano dispersion of a reactive metal (like Pd) on a porous ceramic support like alumina for structural stability and increased area, so they might already have the needed nano vacancies from the get-go.

            It seems therefore possible that one could shortcut the entire loading and electrolysis process, needed with pure metals or alloys, by using a properly prepared catalyst. Some (like iron oxide Fischer-Tropsch/Styrene catalysts) might work better than others.

          • Axil Axil

            Thanks for your long and well considered response. We are of like mind on this subject. I adhere to the single causation modality in LENR theory, IMHO, pursuant to this belief, it is important to show a common LENR mechanism across many seemingly dissimilar LENR methods.

            For example, rust, palladium, and Fischer-Tropsch/Styrene catalysts, all use the same LENR generation mechanism: the formation of hydrogen Rydberg matter.

  • Bob Greenyer

    We have published a statement from NRL source on their position, re their data, cited in the recent Louis F. DeChiaro, Ph.D (NAVSEA) report

    https://www.facebook.com/MartinFleischmannMemorialProject/posts/1051219568242075

    • Omega Z

      Bob
      You have people leaving themselves a little wiggle room I believe. No one will fully come forward.

      NRL has been involved in Multiple LENR projects since P&F or is it just 1 long spread out project. They worked in collaboration with ENEA for at least 3 years.

      • Bob Greenyer

        Leaving doubt is the mark of a true scientist – that is what makes them so easy to challenge.

        We published what was said verbatim – read into it what you will.

    • Jarea

      Bob could you ask your source why do they know about Eve? I thought you said NRL and NAVSEA are completely different sections.
      Is NRL a competitor of NAVSEA regarding funding?, i don’t understand why they try to diminish the achievements of NAVSEA.

      • Bob Greenyer

        NAVSEA have taken a look at historical data from NRL – I have no idea if NAVSEA have conducted their own research.

  • psi2u2

    How interesting it is that this is being released now. We must be nearing some big public breakthrough for LENR.

  • Sandy

    These reports make me wonder if fixing a palladium wire, maybe ten feet long, in a jig and then stretching the wire until it starts to make little snap and crackle noises, might create discontinuities in the palladium lattice that can become sites where Rydberg matter forms. It might also help to twist the wire 90 degrees one way, and then 90 degrees back the other way, while the wire is being stretched.

  • we need no public money, we are economically viable, provided we use good organizations (LENRG style) to bootstrap the market.

    we need no academic support, we have scientific evidence.
    we need no journalist support, we have good news.
    we need no political support, it is safe and cheap energy.

    all we need is they shut up, journalist, editors, scaremongers politicians, and academic, and let LENR scientists work, engineers develop, blogger inform, and investors invest, without being systematically attacked by FUD, mindguards scaremongers and conspiracy theorists.

    “Laissez nous faire !” (F**k)

    • Roger Barker

      Hi everybody, Roger Barker here. I’ve posted on ecatnews before but got banned from there because I was taking it to Popeye, Mary Yugo and co. They didn’t like that much.

      This particular finding from navsea is very interesting. Where are they with their research now?

  • Alan DeAngelis

    I don’t get it. I’m too feeble minded. If it is d-d fusion, why doesn’t have the same branching ratios of products as muon catalyzed fusion (the other cold fusion)?

    • Alan DeAngelis

      Pardon me. I meant to ask: …why doesn’t this tunneling
      reaction have…

      I just think the theorists have been making the wrong assumptions since 1989. I think there is something going on that resembles d-d fusion in that deuterium is going in and helium is being created but it’s not d-d fusion.

      2d + ? > He + ?
      Overall:
      2d > He 24 MeV

    • Axil Axil

      If it was D-D fusion, we would see 50% tritium. No tritium is seen.

  • Sanjeev

    I suggest attaching a microphone (on a cold spot) to one of the reactors and plot the sound data. Probably we will see something interesting.

  • Jarea

    Hi Frank,

    Next Big Future says that NASA subsonic ultra green aircraft reasearch has announced a report looking LENR.

    http://nextbigfuture.com/2012/08/subsonic-ultra-green-aircraft-research.html

    That deserves an article too XD

    • BroKeeper

      Published May 2012. But does not negate their goals.

  • Stefan Israelsson Tampe

    I think that Mills theory for two atom molecules can be used to explain an increase in
    cross-sections that I’ve not seen mentioned when discussing the recent notes from
    Louis DeChiaro.

    The short story is that one of the factors that demand such high energies in standard theory
    is that any small deflection from a perfect hit will deflect the trajectory if the incoming nucleus is
    at small energies, so you you not only need to overcome the energy barrier to hit the target, you must also have such high momentum so that the repulsion have less impact on the deflection.

    What I can argue from reading Randell Mills GUTCP and perhaps one can copy the idea over
    to QM is that essentially the electron field and an interplay with angular momentum enable a focusing effect of the incoming nucleus at lower energies meaning that cross-section increases many orders of magnitude. If you then consider a condensed matter you could realize that this aiming is aligning the movements more and more for each oscillation and resulting in a nucleus
    hit at high rate. Also note that for high energy hits are at large relative speeds. But if we have
    an aiming effect in condensed matter we tend to have much lower relative speeds at an hit. Could this low relative hit mean that we have a more spherical symmetric interaction and much more balance essentially enabling other kinds of radiation phenomena then what is expected from high energy fusion experiments. Remember most of our experience is at high energy collisions.

    What is this aiming. Well, as the nucleus approach the target the most energy efficient electron distribution for the combined cluster is that of a cigar or ellipsoid with the angular momentum axis along the long axis of the ellipsoid. If the in-coming nucleus is missing the target we would essentially get an angular momentum that is varying if we assumed the minimal energy distribution if the electron field for each radial distance, but the system preserve the angular momentum. So a less energetically electron distribution must be the reality. In an oscillation the best energetically period is
    one that does a perfect hit e.g. there is a force that aims the nucleus to align perfectly. At least that
    is how I picture it myself the reality is more complex, but you get the principle from my argument.

    Enjoy!

  • Optist

    What’s the relationship between magnetism and localised high energy oscillations?

  • Slad

    The wig got full

  • Slad

    I have no problems with a sticky wig…

  • sam

    It is interesting that that they comprare Rossi method to Edison
    hunt and try method.
    This is exactly what AR has been doing.
    The fact they did 300 experiments before they had positive results
    is interesting.
    The person who wrote this sounds sincere to me.