E-Cat Quark-X LENR in 1956? (Alan Smith)

patent specification


Sources and background

This article is based on an extraordinary patent application that can be found here: A New Apparatus for Producing an Electric Current

It was initially posted on The Rex Research website. (For those who have not come across it before) This is an extraordinary ‘cabinet of curiosities’- an archive containing documents relating to hundreds of obscure, outrageous and extravagant ideas, some of which might turn out to be useful if re-engineered with current technology. Well worth a look.

A first look at this patent called to mind the brief descriptions we have seen of Andrea Rossi’s ‘Quark’ device, particularly in the way that it is claimed to produce heat and electrical energy. Limited further investigation has turned up little more information about the authors of this patent, but tracking other citations referring to their work turns up some interesting material. From time to time this has been raised as a topic of discussion on various ‘odd science’ forums, but I am not aware of any replication attempts. Readers who find relevant information they wish to share are urged to put links etc. into the comments section. As usual my own thoughts and comments are written in italics.


This invention relates to a new apparatus for producing electric current, such apparatus being in the form of a completely novel secondary battery which is considerably lighter than and has an infinitely greater life than any known battery and which can be re-activated as and when required in a minimum of time. It is a small, inexpensive, long-lasting and controllable energy generating device which produces 1kW of electricity (said to be DC) and heat, and becomes radioactive when stimulated with a magnetic field and radio-frequency waves for 15 seconds in every hour.

The Device Described

‘A New Apparatus for Producing an Electric Current’ was patented by Harold Colman and Ronald Seddon-Gillespie on 5 December 1956 (GB763062). Diagrams of the apparatus can be seen in the application pdf. The inventors claimed this tiny lightweight device produces electricity, using a self-powered electromagnet and easily available chemicals and metal powders. The working life of the device before needing refurbishment/refuelling is estimated to be 70 years with an output of about one kilowatt.

Energy production is triggered by a 300MHz transmitter which bombards a special mix of chemicals encapsulated in a small quartz tube around 45mm long x 5mm O.D. Bombardment with radio waves produces energy and radioactive emissions from the core tube for a period of up to one hour. To maintain output the transmitter needs to operate for 15 to 30 seconds once every hour. The operator is shielded by a lead screen around the device to prevent exposure to harmful radiation.

300MHz is now a frequency reserved in the EU for operating (amongst other things) wireless car locking systems, doorbells and so on.

The heart of the power generator unit consists of an electromagnet and the quartz tube containing chemicals. The nuclei of the elements become unstable as a result of the bombardment by short waves. This causes the elements to become radio-active and release electrical energy, the mixture being mounted between, and in contact with, a pair of different metals such as copper and zinc, and a capacitor mounted between those metals.

The mixture is described as containing Cadmium-112, Phosphorus-31 and Cobalt-59 in powder form.(It is described in the patent as costing 3 shillings an ouncesee recipe) It is layered into the quartz tube as described below and compressed between granulated zinc at one end of the tube and granulated copper at the other end, the ends of the tube being closed by brass caps. The tube is supported by a suitable cradle located between the poles of the magnet. The magnet is preferably an electromagnet and is energized by the current produced by the unit. The transmitter unit which is used for activating the generator unit may be of any conventional type operating in the ultra-shortwave band and is preferably crystal-controlled at the desired frequency with the ability to tune it around this frequency.

The system works best if the Quartz tube is made up of a number of small cells (layers of powders) in series. So starting at one end and in contact with the brass cap, there would be a layer of copper powder, then a layer of the chemical mixture, then a layer of powdered zinc, more mixture, then a layer of powdered copper, etc., with a layer of powdered zinc in contact with the brass cap at the other end of the cartridge. With a cartridge some 45 mm long and 5 mm diameter, some 14 cells may be included.

Radio waves are conveyed to the mixture by a pair of antennae (presumably a dipole antenna) which are exactly similar to the antennae of the transmitter unit for producing the waves, each antenna projecting from and being secured to the brass cap at each end of the tube. The transmitter unit which is used for activating the generator unit may be of any conventional type operating on ultra-short wave and is preferably crystal controlled to the desired frequency. (No RF output power is specified, nor the output waveform)
In the illustrations in the patent the unit comprises a base upon which the various components are mounted. The base has a pair of support arms adapted to form a cradle for the quartz tube, preferably made of spring material so that the tube is firmly held in position but can be removed. When in position the tube is positioned between the poles of the magnet so as to be in the strongest part of the magnetic field created. This magnet serves to control the alpha and beta rays emitted by the cartridge when it is in operation.

Also connected across the cradles is a lead condenser (?) which may conveniently be housed in the base of the unit and connected in parallel with this condenser is a suitable high frequency inductance coil. The unit is provided with a lead shield so as to provide protection from harmful radiation from the quartz tube as will presently be described. (The purpose of the HF induction coil and its uses are not clear – to this writer at least – from the patent description)

The quartz tube contains at one end a quantity of granulated copper, this copper being in electrical contact with the brass cap at that end of the tube and mounted within the tube and in contact with the granulated copper is the chemical powder form and which is capable of releasing electrical energy. Mounted in the other end of the tube and in contact with the other end of the powdered chemical mixture is a quantity of granulated zinc which is itself in contact with the brass cap on this end of the tube the arrangement being that the chemical mixture is compressed between the granulated copper and the granulated zinc. (See the earlier note about successive layers of materials being used) Projecting outwardly from each brass cap is an antenna corresponding exactly in dimension, shape and electrical characteristics to the antenna associated with a transmitter unit which is to produce the ultra-short waves required to trigger the reaction.

The cradles which hold the brass caps may themselves comprise terminals from which the electrical output of the unit can be taken. Alternatively terminals may be connected across the cradles, these terminals being themselves provided with suitable radio antennae of the kind previously described, and which replace the ones fitted directly to the tube-caps.


Harold Colman Ronald Seddon-Gillespie


The Recipe

The mixture which is contained within the quartz tube is composed of the elements Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt having Atomic Weights 112, 31 and 59 respectively Conveniently these elements may’ be present in the following compounds and where the tube is to contain thirty milligrams of the mixture the compounds and their proportions by weight are as follows: Note- I have reproduced an image of the mixture exactly as shown in the patent document..





Operating the device

With the quartz tube containing the mixture located in position between the poles of the magnet the transmitter is switched on and the ultrashort waves emanating therefrom are received by the antennae mounted in contact with the copper and zinc respectively.  The waves thus pass through the copper and zinc and through the mixture bombarded it with short waves.

The mixture becomes radioactive and also releases electrical energy which is transmitted to the granulated copper and granulated zinc causing a current to flow in a similar manner to the currentflow produced by a thermocouple It has been established that with a mixture having the above composition the optimum release of energy is obtained when the transmitter is operating at a frequency of 300 megacycles per 125 second (sic).

A quartz tube is necessary as the mixture evolves a considerable amount of heat whilst it is reacting as a result of the bombardment by the short waves The tube will become discharged after an hour’s operation, that is to say the radio activeness of the tube will only last for one hour and it is therefore necessary, if the unit is to be run continuously for the transmitter to be operated for a period of some fifteen to thirty seconds duration once every hour.
With a quartz tube having an overall length of some forty-five millimetres and an inside diameter of five millimetres and containing thirty milligrammes of the chemical mix the estimated energy which will be given off from the tube for a discharge of one hour is between 100 and 110 volts at 10 amps.

The current which is given off by the tube during its discharge is in the form of direct current. During the discharge from the tube harmful radiations are emitted in the form of gamma and alpha and beta rays and it is therefore necessary to mount the unit within a lead shield so as to prevent the harmful radiations from affecting personnel and objects in the vicinity of the unit. The alpha and beta rays which are emitted from the cartridge when it is in operation are controlled by the magnet. When the unit is connected up to some apparatus which it to be driven by power obtained from the unit it is necessary to provide suitable fuses to guard against the cartridge being short circuited during discharge thereof, or when it is fully charged, for if such a short circuit should occur the cartridge is liable to explode.

The estimated weight of such a unit including the necessary shielding, per kilowatt hour output is approximately twenty-five percent of any known standard type of accumulator which is in use today and it is estimated that the life of the chemical mixture is probably in the region of seventy to eighty years when under constant use.
It will thus be seen that we have provided a novel form of apparatus for producing an electric current which is considerably lighter than the standard type of accumulator at present known, which has an infinitely greater life than any known type of accumulator and which can be recharged or reactivated as and when desired and from a remote position depending upon the power output of the transmitter.



I think it necessary to add to this that neither this writer or www.Lookingforheat.com accepts any responsibility for anyone exploded or irradiated while replicating this patent. This is merely an account, not a recommendation.


Alan Smith.  

  • E.M.Smith

    I note the question mark after “condenser”. That is an old word for “capacitor”.

  • artefact

    Very interesting similarities! Good find.

  • Lou Pagnucco

    Perhaps related to the “Branly Effect”. Refer to —

    Understanding Branly’s effect through Induced Tunneling
    A quantum evaporation effect

    • if linked to Branly’s Coherer effect frequency may not be so critical.

      having pure isotopes of what is in the patent may be difficult ?
      does anyone check the respective prices?

      • Slad

        I bet it’s not six shillings/ounce any more

        • DrD

          hmmm £10 a kg.

  • Andreas Moraitis

    Interestingly, 59Co and 31P are the only stable isotopes of their elements, whereas the list of stable (or almost stable) isotopes for Cd is long:


    112Cd is not even the most abundant one.

    • radvar

      “Why was it suppressed?”
      I was going to include a smiley face, and changed my mind.

    • artefact

      But it is the heaviest one .. mhh

  • Gerard McEk

    Maybe this inspired Andrea also?
    What is your opinion about this Alan?
    I guess it does not work, otherwise it would it would be all around, I am sure.

    • Andre Blum

      Funny last sentence for a frequent e-catworld poster. Suddenly you are in the “not seeing = not believing” camp? 🙂
      subtle, actually. Not sure all of a sudden if it was possibly meant as sarcasm.

      • Gerard McEk

        Yes, all my latest posts are a bit skeptical/cynical/sarcastic lately Andre. I believe after five years the Andrea Rossi followers deserve a clear and undoubted test. It is about time now.

        • Gerald

          I agree Gerard, can’t be the never ending story.
          But the last hour i’ve been looking at old old patents from Tesla, and what did strike me that the last years(from 1986) a lot of patents where linked to the old patents.


          and the famous energy tower patent


          So I quess it isn’t bad to look at old patents, maybe they looked not possible at the time or where in Tesla’s case from a man out of time but not so weird after all.

          • Gerald

            1986 has nothing to do with Fleischmann en Pons, just coincedence. Most pattents links are from 2008 and later. probably has to do with wireless energy transmission.

        • Bernie Koppenhofer

          There is no such thing as “a clear and undoubted test”.

          • Andreas Moraitis

            This application is cited by FR19910010472, “Activator for isotopic mutation”, published in 1993:


            Maybe of interest since they are using a completely different approach. They claim that 56Fe can be transmuted by a strong magnetic field and a much weaker oscillating EM field into 54Fe (and two neutrons which beta-decay subsequently into hydrogen).

          • Axil Axil

            Cobalt(II) nitrate hexahydrate (Co(NO3)2·6H2O) is the hydrated cobalt salt. Its step-wise thermal degradation has been investigated. It affords anhydrous cobalt(II)nitrate as decomposition product

            Cd Cl2- Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine, with the formula CdCl2.

            3Ca(Po3)2+10C =
            This sounds a lot like a historical recreation of the synthesis of phosphorus. Concentrated horse urine was used as the phosphate source and I think, charcoal provided the carbon.


            Also see


            Hennig Brand’s recipe was:

            Boil urine to reduce it to a thick syrup.

            Heat until a red oil distills up from it, and draw that off.

            Allow the remainder to cool, where it consists of a black spongy upper part and a salty lower part.

            Discard the salt, mix the red oil back into the black material.

            Heat that mixture strongly for 16 hours.

            First white fumes come off, then an oil, then phosphorus.

            The phosphorus may be passed into cold water to solidify.

            The chemical reaction Brand stumbled on was as follows. Urine contains phosphates PO43−, as sodium phosphate (i.e. with Na+), and various carbon-based organics. Under strong heat the oxygens from the phosphate react with carbon to produce carbon monoxide CO, leaving elemental phosphorus P, which comes off as a gas. Phosphorus condenses to a liquid below about 280°C and then solidifies (to the white phosphorus allotrope) below about 44°C (depending on purity). This same essential reaction is still used today (but with mined phosphate ores, coke for carbon, and electric furnaces).

            Brand’s process yielded far less phosphorus than it could have done. The salt part he discarded contained most of the phosphate. He used about 5,500 litres of urine to produce just 120 grams of phosphorus. If he had ground up the entire residue he could have got many times more than this (1 litre of adult human urine contains about 1.4g of phosphorus salts, which amounts to around 0.11 grams of pure white phosphorus).

          • Ophelia Rump

            Curious here is a US Patent which refers to GB763062.
            I have no idea if that is significant.


    • Alan Smith

      I sent it to Rossi, who declared:: “Interessante comunque. Però non è stato concesso, questa è un’applicazione, non una concessione.

      (“In any event, interesting. But it wasn’t granted, this is an application, not a patent grant”.)

      • sam

        For the the less educated can you tell
        me what A.R response means.

        • Alan Smith

          The translation is in the brackets below…’not a patent yet’

    • Zephir

      /* I guess it does not work, otherwise it would it would be all around, I am sure.*/

      Never say never. IMO the global warming could have origin in LENR of potassium in soil and marine water, catalyzed by dark matter cloud at the galactic plane.

  • kdk

    Neat find, thanks for sharing the link. It’s also fascinating to go through military patents sometimes, the unclassified ones, and see some of the clear attempts at replicating technological demonstrations by ET.

  • SG

    Yes, current through the fuel is partly responsible for the “Rossi effect” and is disclosed in WO2016018851A1 and in particular, the underlying provisional application 61/999,582, also publicly available from the WIPO website.

    • Alan Smith

      I plan to post a short video in the ‘Research Notes’ section of Lookingforheat this week showing how to build s simple reactor with some technigues for direct High Voltage stimulation of the fuel. A fun project!.

  • Alan Smith

    Indeed it was. My question mark was because the condenser and the HVAC source mentioned sort of ‘disappear’ from the description after one ention.

  • Andrew

    I agree CMEs causing havoc on earth are just that. However I think there is more going on in the sun than what we understand, including the lithium mystery.

  • Andreas Moraitis

    300 MHz is one of the NMR frequencies of light hydrogen:


    Hydrogen is not mentioned explicitly in the recipe, but it could be produced from crystallization water.

    • Axil Axil

      There are many more elements in the soup than mentioned in the writeup including water.

      • Stefan B

        Difficulty reading? The text sais “300 megacycles per 125 second”– that is not 300 MHz as some have interpreted it, but 300/125 = 2.4 MHz, which is why the term “short wave” is used in this text, not UHF.
        And making a 2.4 MHz generator is both simple and cheap, so maybe someone with spare time and the necessary mechanical equipment could try a replication. Don´t forget the lead shielding…

        • Pekka Janhunen

          Good notice. Another point: what is common between the isotopes 31P, 59Co, 112Cd? We have:

          31P : Z=15, N=16
          59Co: Z=27, N=32
          112Cd: Z=48, N=64

          That is, in each listed isotope the number of neutrons is a positive power of two. To expand on it, in the following I list all stable isotopes that have a positive power of two number of neutrons, with their natural abundancies:

          He4 Z=2, N=2 (100%)

          Li7 Z=3, N=4 (92%)

          N15 Z=7, N=8 (0.4%)
          O16 Z=8, N=8 (99.8%)

          Si30 Z=14, N=16 (3%)
          P31 Z=15, N=16 (100%)
          S32 Z=16, N=16 (96%)

          Fe58 Z=26, N=32 (0.3%)
          Co59 Z=27, N=32 (100%)
          Ni60 Z=28, N=32 (26%)

          Pd110 Z=46, N=64 (12%)
          Cd112 Z=48, N=64 (24%)
          In113 Z=49, N=64 (4%)
          Sn114 Z=50, N=64 (0.7%)

          Li-7, Ni-60 and Pd-110 are in the list. (Not Ni-62, but Ni-60.)

          Although not mentioned, O-16 is of course part of the patent’s powder as well.

          What does this imply, if anything? I don’t know. But it seems an interesting pattern.

  • I couldn’t agree more. I’ve been intermittently banging on about this since 2011, when I speculated that one of the two ‘heaters’ in the benchtop prototype was redundant and may have been used to generate the ‘frequencies’ – oscillating EM fields. My guess at the time was that Rossi may have tried induction heating of the core at some point, and found that this was the ‘secret sauce’ that made the difference.

    Louis DeChiaro (NAVSEA) practically spelled out the importance of ‘resonant frequency matching’ in matrix-based LENR systems (Research notes, published on this blog: http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/10/06/louis-dechario-of-us-naval-sea-systems-command-navsea-on-replicating-pons-and-fleischmann/ ).

    I’m continually puzzled by the lack of attention given to Rossi’s mentions of ‘frequencies’ and to the apparent reluctance of replicators to incorporate a suitable EM coil in their designs, and to feed it with various waveforms at different amplitudes during their experiments. Like you I wish I had the time and resources to try it for myself.

    • Alan Smith

      Hi Agaricus. Us chaps at Lookingforheat are well aware of the importance of ‘frequencies’. LFH AFAIK did the first analysis of (for example) the Lugano paper with its image of the PC-830 square wave output running at around 100kHz. Always aware that Rossi had no need to use 3-phase power to supply a >2kW heater and an awareness of the similarities between the way the Lugano dogbone was wired and the stator of a 3-phase motor we have been enxperimenting with various systems to drive our heater coils -and also various ways of wiring the coils themselves. So- in brief- sure that you are correct about the significance of this part of the ‘great mystery’.

      • Hi Alan. Thanks for the update – its encouraging to know that you are experimenting with ‘frequencies’ in the heater drivers of your reactors.

        A cheeky question from someone who is not contributing to this research, but have you considered separating heating from EM driving functions – i.e., two separate (concentric?) coils, so that the effect of EM arising from AC or pulsed DC can be studied independently of heat applied using constant DC resistance? This would allow the creation of much more intense fields than are possible by ‘piggy-backing’ the oscillation onto the heater current, and the certainty that any observed effects are independent of the heating system.

        In any case, good luck with your ongoing efforts.

        • Alan Smith

          Nonsense! Of course you are contributing, the beauty of places like this is that thoughts and ideas can be shared. So your thoughts are very useful and welcome.
          With regard to using separate coils for heating and triggering, in theory at least this isn’t necessary. There is no reason why one could not overlay a triggering frequency voltage onto a DC heating coil using simple diode protection to avoid cooking the signal generator..
          As for magnetic field intensity, don’t forget that the B-field created by the solenoid heating coil is proportional to ampere-turns. So if I use a 10A coil with 10 turns = 100 amp-turns – the field strength is identical to a 1A coil with 100 turns.
          Rossi’s long coils had quite a lot of turns- and the high resistance the long wire gives enabled him to use a higher current too.
          All the info we need is in here somewhere- just a question of picking through the many goodies on offer in the hope of finding the right combination.

      • US_Citizen71

        Just a suggestion:

        I was talking with a friend who is big into flying quad rotor drones about LENR and the replications that are being done. He suggested a brushless DC speed controller might be useful to produce the power waveforms that have been suggested lately. With your kit power supplies being DC I thought this might interest you.

        An informative product review including oscilloscope data : http://multirotorforums.com/threads/product-review-jeti-hicopter-30a-opto-esc.18559/

        Links to data sheets from one of the manufacturers: http://www.jetimodel.com/en/katalog/Speed-Controllers/@od/20/

        Pricing for speed controllers: https://www.electricwingman.com/jeti-multicopter-esc.aspx

        • Alan Smith

          Hi. Thank you so much for this- funnily enough we had been discussing the possibilities of using this type of wave generator – but I haven’t seen such a good concise analysis of the outputs. The linked controller certainly looks as if it would be useful for some set-ups. Much food for thought!

  • Eyedoc

    Very interesting find….a lot of vessel/construct similarities here….but how does Cadmium, Phosphorus , Cobalt and Copper/Zinc fit in with the current Nickel, Lithium, Hydrogen model ?? Does anyone see any type of parallel processes there? the recipes are just so different

    • Stefan B

      Well, you can make pancakes with milk or water, with or without eggs, and use margarine instead of butter — they are still pancakes… ;.)

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