Rossi: 24 Volt Battery Input Required to Run QuarkX

We get precious little detail about the QuarkX from Andrea Rossi, but yesterday there was a question and answer on the Journal of Nuclear Physics that might shed a bit of light on the battery requirements:

XL
May 10, 2017 at 1:59 PM
Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,
Which is the voltage you need from the batteries to use them as a power source?

Andrea Rossi
May 10, 2017 at 4:38 PM
XL:
24 V
Warm Regards,
A.R.

It’s not possible to determine input power from volts alone, and we have been told nothing regarding the control system that is used with the QuarkX, so this information does not reveal very much; however, it does indicate that as a practical matter, the battery input would be easy to arrange given the wide availability of batteries of that voltage range.

According to Andrea Rossi there is no difference in the performance of the QuarkX whether the input is AC (grid) or DC (battery), and he stated again recently that his experiments using simple calorimetry confirm the same results as reported in the paper he authored with Carl-Oscar Gullstrom where the power output was calculated using Boltzmann and Wien equations (since temperature was determined by spectroscopy). In that case the calculated COP (based on the reported Watts in v. Watts out) was over 20,000.

  • AdrianAshfield

    From those figures it would seem that significant power is really only required to start the process. Sounds a bit too good to be true but we live in hope.

    • Gerrit

      as we have been living since 2011

      • enantiomer2000

        Has Rossi stated when he plans on commercializing any version of his e-cat?

        • roseland67

          Soon

          • enantiomer2000

            In other words, no. We have had 6 years of soon so far. Soon isn’t soon enough.

          • roseland67

            It was rhetorical amigo

  • Thomas Kaminski

    24 volts is a 6-cell Lion battery. Sized correctly, they can provide a lot of amps to start the process.

  • Pekka Janhunen

    Typo: Wien equations, not Wein.

    • Frank Acland

      Thanks Pekka

      • Omega Z

        Note that-

        From Rossi’s posts, the Rossi effect is not spontaneous and can’t start by itself. However, he also implied that the effect may continue once started without power input should power be lost and I assume it could go into runaway.

        I would speculate that power is needed not just to control the reaction, but to be certain the reaction is terminated when powered down. Thus the safety issues Rossi always talks about when stating the device needs connected to grid power.

        We know these devices could melt down and the temperatures themselves would be a serious safety issue, but are there other more dangerous safety issue.(neutrons etc) Perhaps for safety concern, battery backup may also be a requirement for safety certification.

        • Rene

          The grid power safety claim is silly since the grid can and does go down. Charged batteries in UPS systems is how one ensures power is available to quench a reaction.

          • Axil Axil

            A large amount of power is required to heat the reactor to beyond the melting point of nickel to form a dusty plasma that will then be maintained by a small amount of stimulating input power. The Grid power is required for reactor initialization heating at startup.

          • Rene

            Nope, not in a quark.

          • Axil Axil

            Please explain, I want to understand how this can be. How can nickel be turned into a plasma without substantial power input.

          • Rene

            Please explain how that theory is relevant?
            But what little facts we know is the input power including start up power of both the quarks and the warm cats. It is not “a large amount of power”. For the quark it is somewhere around 1W for the warm cat (singular) it is around 2KW. Are you suggesting now that several thousand watts of electrical power is required to start up a quark or one warm cat?

          • Axil Axil

            Since the QuarkX operates at 2700C which is how hot the filament of an incandescent light bulb gets, it should take about the same input current that is required to drive that incandescent light bulb filament: 100 watts as an estimate. Then the high voltage electrostatic field is applied to get the LENR reaction going.

          • Rene

            Really? I think this is cherry picking on your part. You do know just about all incandescent tungsten standard use bulbs run at roughly 2700K (2400C). That means a 3V flashlight bulb, which runs at 0.3A 3V or 0.9W also operates at 2700K. The small mass of a 3V bulb’s filament is more like what would be in a quark, so you are off by a factor of more than 100X, Axil. For completeness, see photos.

            https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/082f6d1a4cd0ecfe1bfbc0e4cfd5e01162b9787142f55233123b6df069bf1e06.jpg

          • Axil Axil

            The QuarkX produces 247 watts of output power. During the heat up phase, it is reasonable to expect that the same amount of input power infusion must be used to get the reactor core to the 2700C temperature so that self-sustaining energy production can begin with the introduction of the stimulus EMF. Therefore, I would estimate that the power used to heat up the reactor core is equal to the thermal output when the reactor is producing energy through the LENR reaction.

          • Rene

            Going to have to disagree with your conjecture, Axil, especially since Rossi himself gave the input power of the QuarkX both steady state and startup. Look it up!

          • Axil Axil

            Things change with Rossi. That output power figure came from the last theory paper. It looks like the power rating has gone up from 20 to over 200 watts.

          • Rene

            I believe this is more cherry picking, Axil – Rossi say ‘no’ to your startup power conjecture:

            Andrea Rossi
            May 11, 2017 at 9:50 AM

            Frank Acland:
            No.
            Warm Regards,
            A.R.

            Frank Acland
            May 11, 2017 at 9:06 AM

            Dear Andrea,

            Does the QuarkX require significantly more power at startup than during normal operation?

            Many thanks,

            Frank Acland

            ref: http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=892&cpage=235#comments

          • sam

            Andrea Rossi
            June 13, 2017 at 6:22 AM
            Jaroslaw Berm:
            To answer to your comment I’d have to disclose confidential information.
            Warm Regards,
            A.R.

            JPR
            June 13, 2017 at 4:08 AM
            Update?

            Andrea Rossi
            June 13, 2017 at 6:21 AM
            JPR:
            We are still on our way toward sigma 5.
            Warm Regards,
            A.R.

            Jaroslaw Bem
            June 13, 2017 at 3:21 AM
            Dear Dr. Andrea Rossi:
            As you earlier said, internal temperature of the stable working QuarkX is 2700 C. It is pretty high temperature! How is it possible in the facing of fact, that melting point of nickel is 1455 C, and melting point of titanium is 1668 C ? Is possible that Rossi effect occurs in molten Nickel? Could you explain it?
            Best Regards,

          • Stephen

            From what I saw in the published Rossi Gullstrom paper the high COP is indicated by comparison of electrical energy in with the thermal energy out.

          • Omega Z

            Maybe you missed the tail end.

            ->”Perhaps for safety concern, battery backup may also be a requirement for safety certification.”

            That be in addition to grid power. There are many products that require additional safety when it’s available to the general public.

          • Rene

            Nope, did not miss that one at all. The more I see Rossi’s comments like that, the more I get the impression he’s aiming never to deliver a home product. Products that require active cooling or other active measures post power-down or products that have major safety issues on loss of power are not the sort of things that get approved for domestic usage.
            Nonetheless, the main point is that a lot of power is not required to start up the QuarkX, says Rossi. And, the main grid is not as reliable as many microgrids. An enecdote (though, there is much evidence to this) – the main grid where I live has 1-3 outages per year, usually during rainy season. My offgrid power plant has suffered 2 outages in over 17 years. Both were scheduled.

    • Omega Z

      Or it could be Wine, however with that spelling, the equations can quickly become questionable. 🙂

  • Pekka Janhunen

    Typo: Wien equations, not Wein.

    • Frank Acland

      Thanks Pekka

      • Omega Z

        Note that-

        From Rossi’s posts, the Rossi effect is not spontaneous and can’t start by itself. However, he also implied that the effect may continue once started without power input should power be lost and I assume it could go into runaway.

        I would speculate that power is needed not just to control the reaction, but to be certain the reaction is terminated when powered down. Thus the safety issues Rossi always talks about when stating the device needs connected to grid power.

        We know these devices could melt down and the temperatures themselves would be a serious safety issue, but are there other more dangerous safety issue.(neutrons etc) Perhaps for safety concern, battery backup may also be a requirement for safety certification.

        • Rene

          The grid power safety claim is silly since the grid can and does go down. Charged batteries in UPS systems is how one ensures power is available to quench a reaction.

          • Axil Axil

            A large amount of power is required to heat the reactor to beyond the melting point of nickel to form a dusty plasma that will then be maintained by a small amount of stimulating input power. The Grid power is required for reactor initialization heating at startup.

          • Rene

            Nope, not in a quark.

          • Axil Axil

            Please explain, I want to understand how this can be. How can nickel be turned into a plasma without substantial power input.

          • Rene

            Please explain how that theory is relevant?
            But what little facts we know is the input power including start up power of both the quarks and the warm cats. It is not “a large amount of power”. For the quark it is somewhere around 1W for the warm cat (singular) it is around 2KW. Are you suggesting now that several thousand watts of electrical power is required to start up a quark or one warm cat?

          • Axil Axil

            Since the QuarkX operates at 2700C which is how hot the filament of an incandescent light bulb gets, it should take about the same input current that is required to drive that incandescent light bulb filament: 100 watts as an estimate. Then the high voltage electrostatic field is applied to get the LENR reaction going.

          • Rene

            Really? I think this is cherry picking on your part. You do know just about all incandescent tungsten standard use bulbs run at roughly 2700K (2400C). That means a 3V flashlight bulb, which runs at 0.3A 3V or 0.9W also operates at 2700K. The small mass of a 3V bulb’s filament is more like what would be in a quark, so you are off by a factor of more than 100X, Axil. For completeness, see photos.

            https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/082f6d1a4cd0ecfe1bfbc0e4cfd5e01162b9787142f55233123b6df069bf1e06.jpg

          • Axil Axil

            The QuarkX produces 247 watts of output power. During the heat up phase, it is reasonable to expect that the same amount of input power infusion must be used to get the reactor core to the 2700C temperature so that self-sustaining energy production can begin with the introduction of the stimulus EMF. Therefore, I would estimate that the power used to heat up the reactor core is equal to the thermal output when the reactor is producing energy through the LENR reaction.

          • Rene

            Going to have to disagree with your conjecture, Axil, especially since Rossi himself gave the input power of the QuarkX both steady state and startup. Look it up!

          • Axil Axil

            Things change with Rossi. That output power figure came from the last theory paper. It looks like the power rating has gone up from 20 to over 200 watts.

          • Rene

            I believe this is more cherry picking, Axil – Rossi say ‘no’ to your startup power conjecture:

            Andrea Rossi
            May 11, 2017 at 9:50 AM

            Frank Acland:
            No.
            Warm Regards,
            A.R.

            Frank Acland
            May 11, 2017 at 9:06 AM

            Dear Andrea,

            Does the QuarkX require significantly more power at startup than during normal operation?

            Many thanks,

            Frank Acland

            ref: http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=892&cpage=235#comments

          • Omega Z

            Maybe you missed the tail end.

            ->”Perhaps for safety concern, battery backup may also be a requirement for safety certification.”

            That be in addition to grid power. There are many products that require additional safety when it’s available to the general public.

          • Rene

            Nope, did not miss that one at all. The more I see Rossi’s comments like that, the more I get the impression he’s aiming never to deliver a home product. Products that require active cooling or other active measures post power-down or products that have major safety issues on loss of power are not the sort of things that get approved for domestic usage.
            Nonetheless, the main point is that a lot of power is not required to start up the QuarkX, says Rossi. And, the main grid is not as reliable as many microgrids. An enecdote (though, there is much evidence to this) – the main grid where I live has 1-3 outages per year, usually during rainy season. My offgrid power plant has suffered 2 outages in over 17 years. Both were scheduled.

          • There is a difference between actually being “on the grid” versus actually being on a simple distribution line (WHICH most customers are on.)

            AS a big company, you CAN be literally “on the grid” IF you get two high voltage TRANSMISSION circuits (lines) brought in to your own substation. THEN you are truly “on the grid.”

            The difference being, the distribution line is a single fused (or breakered) circuit WHEREAS the TRANSMISSION line is truly part of a gridded (X by Y) topology.

            So, there IS a difference.

            Just sayin …

          • Rene

            In these discussion ‘on-the-grid’ means connected to mains power. This is especially relevant because if the QuarkX (remember this topic is about the QuarkX) is required to be on the grid as you mentioned then it is absolutely not a domestic device. Further even if in the colloquial use of the term on-the-grid, meaning connected to mains power, the QuarkX is required to have active power-down protection from meltdown or other extreme thermal event, that too makes it very difficult to be used in domestic settings.
            But again, I believe this thread was about how much power is required to run the quark in both startup and steady state mode. The unfounded claims that a lot of power is needed to run one, (1!) QuarkX at 100W then 200+W is proven incorrect by what Rossi posted in JONP on May11th. That statement plus previous statements set the input power for startup and standby somewhere around 1W for one QuarkX.
            This must-have-mains-power keeps coming up because of unclear statements by Rossi and his insistence that his family of e-cats, quarks, et-al, require mains power for yet unclear safety reasons. I truly wish he would clarify the situation.

    • Omega Z

      Or it could be Wine, however with that spelling, the equations can quickly become questionable. 🙂

  • theBuckWheat

    Typically 24 volt power is specified where the current levels are so high that the I squared R losses become material. It is just easier to handle a lot of watts at 24 volts than at 12.

  • Gerard McEk

    I believe that the 24V is determined by the electronics driving the QuarkX. For starting the plasma a High voltage spark starter will be required. Maintining the plasma a controllable current source is needed at a probably relatively low voltage. The QuarkX control unit looks like a small welding ‘transformer’ if you look to the required electronics and I would not be very surprised that AR uses someting that is already on the market (probably slightly adapted).

    • Thomas Kaminski

      Quote: “looks like a small welding ‘transformer'” Did you see a picture of the control unit?

      24Volts DC is a very common control voltage used in Industrial Automation controls worldwide. 24VAC is the most common control level used in HVAC applications.

  • Dr. Mike

    I agree with Frank that the 24 volt requirement doesn’t mean much, but it is most likely optimized for the control system or the circuitry needed to start up the plasma in the QuarkX. What I don’t understand is that Rossi claims the QuarkX has an output of 20W, whereas Gullstrom calculated an output power of 244W. Now Rossi says calorimetry matches Gullstrom’s results. What is real output power of the QuarkX?

    • Dr. Mike

      Looks like the 24 volt supply is not needed for start up as Rossi has replied to Frank that more power is not needed at start up. The control system must need 24 volts.

  • Dr. Mike

    I agree with Frank that the 24 volt requirement doesn’t mean much, but it is most likely optimized for the control system or the circuitry needed to start up the plasma in the QuarkX. What I don’t understand is that Rossi claims the QuarkX has an output of 20W, whereas Gullstrom calculated an output power of 244W. Now Rossi says calorimetry matches Gullstrom’s results. What is real output power of the QuarkX?

    • Dr. Mike

      Looks like the 24 volt supply is not needed for start up as Rossi has replied to Frank that more power is not needed at start up. The control system must need 24 volts.

  • US_Citizen71

    Coincidentally 24V is also the standard voltage for US military vehicles.

  • US_Citizen71

    Coincidentally 24V is also the standard voltage for US military vehicles.

  • roseland67

    So,

    The control circuit AND the heater are running on 24 volts.
    What is the current draw of the heater at 24 volts?

  • Stephen

    Do we know if the heat in the QuarkX is coming directly from the plasma itself or another source?

    Could the plasma itself be non thermal in nature. But another BB like surface in the device be heated by it somehow to high temperature?

  • Stephen

    Do we know if the heat in the QuarkX is coming directly from the plasma itself or another source?

    Could the plasma itself be non thermal in nature. But another BB like surface in the device be heated by it somehow to high temperature?

  • Stephen

    I wonder if he uses a transformer to achieve very high voltages from the original voltage source?

    • US_Citizen71

      A stun gun can put out a Megavolt from battery power. The technology is small and cheap today, Walton and Cockroft would be shocked.

      • Andreas Moraitis

        I would not be surprised if the E-Cat was in principle a ‘catalyzed’ version of C&W’s experiment.

    • roseland67

      What does he need hi voltage for?

      • Axil Axil

        Rossi’s patent describes a two step process where the first step is the application of a heater that produces the plasma, the next step is the application of the electrostatic field. Rossi never says that he used a flow of current to produce the plasma.

        https://www.lenr-forum.com/attachment/2077-pasted-from-clipboard-png/?thumbnail=1

        • Stephen

          That’s also my interpretation.

          Although I think he could perhaps be using other ways to produce the initial stimulus for the plasma than applied heat in the QuarkX configuration (perhaps directly or indirectly as a consequence of the LENR in “hydrogenated” Nickel nano crystals). It seems to me the electrostatic field is more used to accelerate the ions in the plasma and it is not intended to arc.

          If so perhaps those accelerated ions interact in some way with a surface material such as graphite or something to cause it to heat it to the very high Blackbody temperature in the QuarkX (or perhaps more speculatively to cause that surface to cool in other configurations). Through Exothermic/endothermic hydrogen sorbtion or perhaps some other process.

          • CWatters

            How do you get very high temperatures with just a few mW of power going in? See my other post.

          • Stephen

            The high temperature would need to be generated as a consequence of LENR. Either directly or indirectly through heating from LENR derivatives. In my view due to a component interacting with ions generated from the stimulated source.

            As I mentioned above the initial stimulation may be something else other than thermal. Actually that was part of the point of my post. The high temperature component is located away from the ion source. Indeed if it was thermal it would need to be either a very small “pilot light component” or intermittent or stochastic stimulation or perhaps both. Even though the original ECat may have used thermal stimulation I suspect some other kind of initial stimulation of LENR in the case of the QuarkX. And to me this is completely consistent with Andrea Rossi’s comments.

        • roseland67

          Thanks axil

  • Stephen

    I wonder if he uses a transformer of some kind to achieve very high voltages from the original voltage source? Even from the batteries?

    • US_Citizen71

      A stun gun can put out a Megavolt from battery power. The technology is small and cheap today, Walton and Cockcroft would be shocked.

      • Andreas Moraitis

        I would not be surprised if the E-Cat was in principle a ‘catalyzed’ version of C&W’s experiment.

      • A few thousand volts is sufficient; a Megavolt could not be suitably insulated between two probes on a cheap circuit board (owing to creep leakage path on the surface of board.)

    • roseland67

      What does he need hi voltage for?

      • Axil Axil

        Rossi’s patent describes a two step process where the first step is the application of a heater that produces the plasma, the next step is the application of the electrostatic field. Rossi never says that he used a flow of current to produce the plasma.

        https://www.lenr-forum.com/attachment/2077-pasted-from-clipboard-png/?thumbnail=1

        • Stephen

          That’s also my interpretation.

          Although I think he could perhaps be using other ways to supply the energy required to produce the initial stimulus for the plasma than applied heat in the QuarkX configuration (perhaps directly or indirectly as a consequence of the LENR in “hydrogenated” Nickel nano crystals). It seems to me the electrostatic field is more used to accelerate the ions in the plasma and it is not intended to arc. Especially given the large 1.5cm gap between the Nickel rods in the device.

          If so perhaps those accelerated ions interact in some way with a surface material such as graphite, some high temperature metal alloy or something to cause it to heat it to the very high Blackbody temperature in the QuarkX (or perhaps more speculatively to cause that surface to cool in other configurations with other materials). Through Exothermic/endothermic hydrogen sorbtion or perhaps some other process.

          I think the very high temperatures of the QuarkX are much higher than the melting point of the Nickel used for the “two Nickel rods” used in the device so I find it hard to imagine the temperature was that high in that location. ( it may of course still be at a high temperature at that location but lower than that of the quark thermal output location that may come from another “emission ring”, “match head” or “light bulb filament” like location on the device)

          Edit: According to the recent Gullstrom and Rossi paper the emitting surface has an area used of 1cm2. If the QuarkX is 2cm long and has a diameter of 0.6cm as has been posted else where this would give a surface area of the tube = 3.768 cm2 (+ 2 x 0.2826 cm2 for the end caps) so it seems that between 1/4 and 1/3 of the quarks surface is used for the emitting surface. Perhaps just 0.5 cm or 0.7cm of its 2 cm length. (Note incidentally the gap between the Nickel rods is quoted as being 1.5 cm in the Rossi Gullstrom paper)

          There is also a disposition somewhere from Bass I think where he mentions Rossi asked him to find a supplier of small but very high voltage transformers that were urgently needed for activities and processes on the JMP side.

          • CWatters

            How do you get very high temperatures with just a few mW of power going in? See my other post.

          • Stephen

            The high temperature would need to be generated as a consequence of LENR. Either directly or indirectly through heating from LENR derivatives. In my view the heat is probably due to a component interacting with ions generated from the stimulated source.

            As I mentioned above the initial stimulation may be something else other than thermal. Actually that was part of the point of my post. My suggestion was that the high temperature component is probably located away from the ion source. Indeed if it was thermal it would need to be either a very small “pilot light component” or intermittent or stochastic stimulation or perhaps both. Even though the original ECat may have used thermal stimulation for startup and self sustain mode for example. I suspect some other kind of stimulation of LENR in the case of the QuarkX and the electric field is used either continuously, cyclicly or intermittently to accelerate LENR stimulated ions not for thermal heating. This to me is also why the power source is needed continuously in the QX configuration. And to me this is completely consistent with Andrea Rossi’s comments.

          • CWatters

            If no heater is required then perhaps referring to Quarkx having a COP is inappropriate?

          • nietsnie

            I think it’s heated until it gets into the reaction temperature range – and then a lower energy, high frequency, current stimulates the reaction. Once the reaction starts, the heater is no longer needed since the device produces its own heat. But, the reaction is induced and throttled via the high frequency stimulation at chosen, resonant frequencies. His determination of COP is not against the heating current, but rather the stimulating one.

          • nietsnie

            Hmmmm…. I just read Rossi’s reply to Frank regarding whether ‘…the QuarkX require significantly more power at startup than during normal operation.’ On the surface it looks like I must be dead wrong.

          • Stephen

            I think your idea might well be right with regard the classic ECat though.

            But Andrea Rossi and others have said that the QuarkX is something different… maybe its different from the classic ECat in the initial stimulation and control too.

          • Axil Axil

            https://www.lenr-forum.com/attachment/2077-pasted-from-clipboard-png/?thumbnail=1

            Above is the description of Rossi’s patented stimulus

          • Stephen

            Interesting. I missed this detail.

            Is he definitely talking about The QuarkX here?. I agree it looks like he could be. But doesn’t the Quark X contain “2 Nickel rods separated by 1.5cm gap” according to the recent Rossi Gullstrom paper rather than Nickel powder (I suppose the rods could be encapsulated powders)?

            I wonder what gas he is talking about here that supports LENR. Is it Hydrogen, Helium of vaporized Lithium?

            Wouldn’t the Nickel rods need to remain solid ?

          • Stephen

            From what I saw in the published Rossi Gullstrom paper the high COP is indicated by comparison of electrical power in with the thermal power out.

        • roseland67

          Thanks axil

  • roseland67

    Soon

  • interstellar hobo

    I’m beginning to wonder if “Rossi Effect” might be, if it exists, an example of Mach effect, essentially exciting hydrogen molecules in a nickel lattice substrate causing their capacitance to change in motion (in this case convection current of the hydrogen), essentially a liquid woodward drive. As the thrust cannot be focused, the output is either heat, or depending on how the nickel-lithium “fuel” (it is not fuel) is a thermo-electric generator.

    • There is also the chance it is a Hydrino reaction effect; Early Hydrino device used nickel and Hydrogen as reactants too.

      • US_Citizen71

        I will believe in the hydrino just as soon as Mills is able to capture one and show it off to the world. I’ll even accept one being captured by another researcher. Until then he might as we call them midichlorians.

        • Well, you have not been paying attention to recent events in the field. Mills looks to have something ready and primed for the market this coming year. I wish Rossi luck, but I think Mills and his group are going to walk away with the ‘big prize’ in the alternate energy field.

          • US_Citizen71

            I have been watching Mills for a long time. He has reached the I’ll believe it when I see it stage. I hope he is right the world needs a new source of power. But until it’s installed somewhere making more electricity than it uses I won’t get excited. He has cried wolf too many times for me.

          • The ISSUE, had you been paying full attention all this time is the same one facing Rossi, one of SCALING UP a device up to make it economical to producible for commercial sale to end users. You will note, had you been paying attention to Mills for the last 20 yrs would be the fact that he HAS had operational devices, but, they did not scale economically in their developed form. That has changed now with the SunCell.

            I still wish Rossi well, as there is room for all to participate with these new energy sources.

          • US_Citizen71

            My prediction, in 5 years when the company name is changed to ‘Blinking Light Power’ he will claim he is just months away from commercialization and will claim all flashing lights are his proprietary IP and any research into them are theft of IP. Time will tell whose prediction is closer to reality.

  • LION
    • LION
    • cashmemorz

      TVO television, Channel 19, in Ontario, Canada

      is scheduled to show what mathematicians conclude about climate change. It was advertised to be aired Monday in May. It is not on TVO’s schedule for May 15, 2017 so it must be May 22. Curious what the math people conclude about this some times controversial topic. It is available on You Tube and twitter after it has been aired over antenna/cable

  • LION
    • LION
    • cashmemorz

      TVO television, Channel 19, in Ontario, Canada

      is scheduled to show what mathematicians conclude about climate change. It was advertised to be aired Monday in May. It is not on TVO’s schedule for May 15, 2017 so it must be May 22. Curious what the math people conclude about this some times controversial topic. It is available on You Tube and twitter after it has been aired over antenna/cable

    • Can they PLEASE improve the five day forecast? Thank you.

  • CWatters

    If quarkx is a 20w device and the COP is 20,000 then the battery only needs to deliver 1mW. At 12v I make the current just 83uA. That means the control circuit will have to be low power or it will dramatically effect the COP number. For example if the control system also used 1mW the COP falls to 10,000.

    PS…You cannot “heat” much matter with 1mW. So if the fuel needs to get very hot it must be really tiny and wrapped in insulation. Might loose a lot of that 1mW via conduction down the heater wires?

    • Axil Axil

      The QuarkX produces 245 watts out stimulated by 11 milliwatts input.

      The QuarkX act more like a capacitor that is draining current in the milliwatt range than like a reactor.

      • Andreas Moraitis

        Even with 11 mW continuous power it would take more than 11 hours to heat 1 g iron (just to give an example) up by 1000 degrees – losses neglected. Either the ‘activation zone’ is very small and lightweight, or heat is no longer required to initiate the reaction. (AR said recently that the QX needs no extra power at start-up.)

        • Axil Axil

          Rossi’s patent update states that heat must be applied to the reactor BEFORE it can be activated. Gas heating can be used to heat the reactor. Once the reactor has reached operating temperature, the reactor can be stimulated to begin producing over unity power. What Rossi states is true only if the reactor have been preheated to the proper operating temperature. If the reactor has not attained that proper operating temperature, the reactor will not startup when stimulated by the high voltage electrostatic field.

          • Andreas Moraitis

            The main parameter appears to be particle energy. If you heat matter up, you basically increase the average kinetic energy of its particles – a waste of resources if only a tiny fraction of the material needs to react. Selective acceleration by electric or magnetic fields will be much more effective.

            Heat might have been needed mainly to release and to ionize hydrogen, maybe also to create a properly structured substrate. But in principle all this could as well be done by other means which do not require high temperatures.

  • CWatters

    If quarkx is a 20w device and the COP is 20,000 then the battery only needs to deliver 1mW. At 12v I make the current just 83uA. That means the control circuit will have to be low power or it will dramatically effect the COP number. For example if the control system also used 1mW the COP falls to 10,000.

    PS…You cannot “heat” much matter with 1mW. So if the fuel needs to get very hot it must be really tiny and wrapped in insulation. Might loose a lot of that 1mW via conduction down the heater wires?

    • Axil Axil

      The QuarkX produces 245 watts out stimulated by 11 milliwatts input.

      The QuarkX act more like a capacitor that is draining current in the milliwatt range than like a reactor.

      • Andreas Moraitis

        Even with 11 mW continuous power it would take more than 11 hours to heat 1 g iron (just to give an example) up by 1000 degrees – losses neglected. Either the ‘activation zone’ is very small and lightweight, or heat is no longer required to initiate the reaction. (AR said recently that the QX needs no extra power at start-up.)

        • Axil Axil

          Rossi’s patent update states that heat must be applied to the reactor BEFORE it can be activated. Gas heating can be used to heat the reactor. Once the reactor has reached operating temperature, the reactor can be stimulated to begin producing over unity power. What Rossi states is true only if the reactor have been preheated to the proper operating temperature. If the reactor has not attained that proper operating temperature, the reactor will not startup when stimulated by the high voltage electrostatic field.

          • Andreas Moraitis

            The main parameter appears to be particle energy. If you heat matter up, you basically increase the average kinetic energy of its particles – a waste of resources if only a tiny fraction of the material needs to react. Selective acceleration by electric or magnetic fields will be much more effective.

            Heat might have been needed mainly to release and to ionize hydrogen, maybe also to create a properly structured substrate. But in principle all this could as well be done by other means which do not require high temperatures.

      • roseland67

        COP of 31,000?

  • Stephen

    Hi frank I just noticed it’s possible to accidentally flag as inappropriate or block a comment on the touch screen of my phone if you accidentally tap twice near the little arrow on the right of the comments. At least I see a yellow bar on the left of the comment now. But it does not seem possible to unflag it I think. A bit frustrating as actually I like that comment a lot.

  • Stephen

    Hi frank I just noticed it’s possible to accidentally flag as inappropriate or block a comment on the touch screen of my phone if you accidentally tap twice near the little arrow on the right of the comments. At least I see a yellow bar on the left of the comment now. But it does not seem possible to unflag it I think. A bit frustrating as actually I like that comment a lot.

  • nietsnie

    I think it’s heated until it gets into the reaction temperature range – and then a lower energy, high frequency, current stimulates the reaction. Once the reaction starts, the heater is no longer needed since the device produces its own heat. But, the reaction is induced and throttled via the high frequency stimulation at chosen, resonant frequencies. His determination of COP is not against the heating current, but rather the stimulating one.

    • nietsnie

      Hmmmm…. I just read Rossi’s reply to Frank regarding whether ‘…the QuarkX require significantly more power at startup than during normal operation.’ On the surface it looks like I must be dead wrong.

      • Stephen

        I think your idea might well be right with regard the classic ECat though.

        But Andrea Rossi and others have said that the QuarkX is something different… maybe its different from the classic ECat in the initial stimulation and control too.

    • Axil Axil

      https://www.lenr-forum.com/attachment/2077-pasted-from-clipboard-png/?thumbnail=1

      Above is the description of Rossi’s patented stimulus

      • Stephen

        Interesting. I missed this detail.

        Is he definitely talking about The QuarkX here. I agree it looks like he could be. But doesn’t the Quark X contain “2 Nickel rods separated by 1.5cm gap” according to their recent apparent rather than Nickel powder?

        I wonder what gas he is talking about here that supports LENR. Is it Hydrogen, Helium of vaporized Lithium?

        Wouldn’t the Nickel rods need to remain solid?

      • sam

        Translate
        Carol
        June 15, 2017 at 11:58 PM
        Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
        Is the QuarkX made by materials off the shelf, or by meterials you had to invent?
        Thanks,
        Carol

        Translate
        Andrea Rossi
        June 16, 2017 at 6:08 AM
        Carol:
        By new material I had to invent and make.
        Warm Regards,
        A.R.

        JPR
        June 15, 2017 at 10:08 PM
        Update?

        Andrea Rossi
        June 16, 2017 at 6:08 AM
        JPR:
        We are proceeding well with our R&D with the QuarkX.
        Warm Regards,
        A.R.

        Steve

  • BATTERY VOLTAGE should be immaterial, except perhaps in the case where HIGH PEAK currents are required (as in cranking an engine which may be referred to as a momentary high current draw. A switching supply would require sizing to handle this high current draw so normally straight battery power is used for cranking engines.)

    OTHERWISE switching power supplies are able to provide ANY voltage required, whether it is higher or lower than the battery voltage conveniently available.

  • Rene

    In these discussion ‘on-the-grid’ means connected to mains power. This is especially relevant because if the QuarkX (remember this topic is about the QuarkX) is required to be on the grid as you mentioned then it is absolutely not a domestic device. Further even if in the colloquial use of the term on-the-grid, meaning connected to mains power, the QuarkX is required to have active power-down protection from meltdown or other extreme thermal event, that too makes it very difficult to be used in domestic settings.
    But again, I believe this thread was about how much power is required to run the quark in both startup and steady state mode. The unfounded claims that a lot of power is needed to run one, (1!) QuarkX at 100W then 200+W is proven incorrect by what Rossi posted in JONP on May11th. That statement plus previous statements set the input power for startup and standby somewhere around 1W for one QuarkX.
    This must-have-mains-power keeps coming up because of unclear statements by Rossi and his insistence that his family of e-cats, quarks, et-al, require mains power for yet unclear safety reasons. I truly wish he would clarify the situation.

  • US_Citizen71

    Then someone should be able to clean up very well on false advertising claims.

    https://www.google.com/search?q=1000000+volt+stun+gun

    • Tradenames are one thing. advertised specs are another .

  • US_Citizen71

    I will believe in the hydrino just as soon as Mills is able to capture one and show it off to the world. I’ll even accept one being captured by another researcher. Until then he might as we call them midichlorians.

    • Well, you have not been paying attention to recent events in the field. Mills looks to have something ready and primed for the market this coming year. I wish Rossi luck, but I think Mills and his group are going to walk away with the ‘big prize’ in the alternate energy field.

      • US_Citizen71

        I have been watching Mills for a long time. He has reached the I’ll believe it when I see it stage. I hope he is right the world needs a new source of power. But until it’s installed somewhere making more electricity than it uses I won’t get excited. He has cried wolf too many times for me.

        • The ISSUE, had you been paying full attention all this time is the same one facing Rossi, one of SCALING UP a device up to make it economical to producible for commercial sale to end users. You will note, had you been paying attention to Mills for the last 20 yrs would be the fact that he HAS had operational devices, but, they did not scale economically in their developed form. That has changed now with the SunCell.

          I still wish Rossi well, as there is room for all to participate with these new energy sources.

          • US_Citizen71

            My prediction, in 5 years when the company name is changed to ‘Blinking Light Power’ he will claim he is just months away from commercialization and will claim all flashing lights are his proprietary IP and any research into them are theft of IP. Time will tell whose prediction is closer to reality.

  • GiveADogABone

    It seems that a 24volt battery is needed to start a Hydrogen filled gas tube. This enables the space charge to be cleared by the protons. The Quarkx is a hot-cathode, Hydrogen gas filled, gas diode IMHO.

    http://www.talkingelectronics.com/Download%20eBooks/Principles%20of%20electronics/CH-03.pdf
    3.2 Conduction in a Gas
    A gas under ordinary pressure is a perfect insulator and cannot conduct current. However, if the gas pressure is low, it is possible to produce a large number of free electrons in the gas by the process of ionisation and thus cause the gas to become a conductor. This is precisely what happens in gas filled tubes. The current conduction in a gas at low pressure can be beautifully illustrated by referring to the hot-cathode gas diode shown in Fig. 3.5. The space between cathode and anode of the tube contains gas molecules. When cathode is heated, it emits a large number of electrons. These electrons form a cloud of electrons near the cathode, called space charge. If anode is made positive w.r.t. cathode, the electrons (magenta dots) from the space charge speed towards the anode and collide with gas molecules [H2] (cyan circles) in the tube.

    Fig. 3.5

    If the anode-cathode voltage is low, the electrons do not possess the necessary energy [Hydrogen requires 5.03ev thermionic work function, half of 4.52ev for dissociation and 13.6ev for ionisation per electron totalling 20.9ev] to cause ionisation of the gas. Therefore, the plate current flow in the tube is only due to the electrons emitted by the cathode. As the anode-cathode voltage is increased, the electrons acquire more speed and energy and a point–called ionisation voltage is reached, where ionisation of the gas starts. The ionisation of gas produces free electrons and positive gas ions [protons in the case of Hydrogen] (cyan circles with +ve signs). The additional free electrons flow to the anode together with the original electrons, thus increasing plate current. However, the increase in plate current due to these added electrons is practically negligible. But the major effect is that the positive gas ions [protons] slowly drift towards the cathode and neutralise the space charge. Consequently, the resistance of the tube decreases, resulting in large plate current.

    Hence, it is due to the neutralisation of space charge by the positive gas ions [protons] that plate current in a gas tube is too much increased.
    [The neutralisation of the space charge allows further protons to be neutralised on the cathode surface and that deposits energy directly on the cathode surface which increases its temperature and thus its thermoionic emission according to the Richardson-Dushman equation. When hot enough, the LENR reaction starts on or near the cathode surface IMHO.]

    The following points may be noted regarding the conduction in a gas at low pressure :
    (i) At low anode-cathode voltage, the ionisation of the gas does not occur and the plate current is about the same as for a vacuum tube at the same anode voltage.
    (ii) At some anode-cathode voltage, called ionisation voltage, ionisation of the gas takes place. The plate current increases dramatically to a large value due to the neutralisation of space charge by the positive gas ions. The ionisation voltage depends upon the type and pressure of gas in the tube.
    (iii) Once ionisation has started, it is maintained at anode-cathode voltage much lower than ionisation voltage. However, minimum anode-cathode voltage, called deionising [It is maintaining the deionising voltage that consumes the Quarkx electrical power in normal operation IMHO.] voltage, exists below which ionisation cannot be maintained. Under such conditions, the positive gas ions combine with electrons to form neutral gas molecules and conduction stops. Because of this switching action, a gas-filled tube can be used as an electronic switch.

  • GiveADogABone

    It seems that a 24volt battery is needed to start a Hydrogen filled gas tube. This enables the space charge to be cleared by the protons. The Quarkx is a hot-cathode, Hydrogen gas filled, gas diode IMHO.

    http://www.talkingelectronics.com/Download%20eBooks/Principles%20of%20electronics/CH-03.pdf
    3.2 Conduction in a Gas
    A gas under ordinary pressure is a perfect insulator and cannot conduct current. However, if the gas pressure is low, it is possible to produce a large number of free electrons in the gas by the process of ionisation and thus cause the gas to become a conductor. This is precisely what happens in gas filled tubes. The current conduction in a gas at low pressure can be beautifully illustrated by referring to the hot-cathode gas diode shown in Fig. 3.5. The space between cathode and anode of the tube contains gas molecules. When cathode is heated, it emits a large number of electrons. These electrons form a cloud of electrons near the cathode, called space charge. If anode is made positive w.r.t. cathode, the electrons (magenta dots) from the space charge speed towards the anode and collide with gas molecules [H2] (cyan circles) in the tube.

    Fig. 3.5

    If the anode-cathode voltage is low, the electrons do not possess the necessary energy [Hydrogen requires 5.03ev thermionic work function, half of 4.52ev for dissociation and 13.6ev for ionisation per electron totalling 20.9ev] to cause ionisation of the gas. Therefore, the plate current flow in the tube is only due to the electrons emitted by the cathode. As the anode-cathode voltage is increased, the electrons acquire more speed and energy and a point–called ionisation voltage is reached, where ionisation of the gas starts. The ionisation of gas produces free electrons and positive gas ions [protons in the case of Hydrogen] (cyan circles with +ve signs). The additional free electrons flow to the anode together with the original electrons, thus increasing plate current. However, the increase in plate current due to these added electrons is practically negligible. But the major effect is that the positive gas ions [protons] slowly drift towards the cathode and neutralise the space charge. Consequently, the resistance of the tube decreases, resulting in large plate current.

    Hence, it is due to the neutralisation of space charge by the positive gas ions [protons] that plate current in a gas tube is too much increased.
    [The neutralisation of the space charge allows further protons to be neutralised on the cathode surface and that deposits energy directly on the cathode surface which increases its temperature and thus its thermionic emission according to the Richardson-Dushman equation. When hot enough, the LENR reaction starts on or near the cathode surface IMHO.]

    The following points may be noted regarding the conduction in a gas at low pressure :
    (i) At low anode-cathode voltage, the ionisation of the gas does not occur and the plate current is about the same as for a vacuum tube at the same anode voltage.
    (ii) At some anode-cathode voltage, called ionisation voltage, ionisation of the gas takes place. The plate current increases dramatically to a large value due to the neutralisation of space charge by the positive gas ions. The ionisation voltage depends upon the type and pressure of gas in the tube.
    (iii) Once ionisation has started, it is maintained at anode-cathode voltage much lower than ionisation voltage. However, minimum anode-cathode voltage, called deionising [It is maintaining the deionising voltage that consumes the Quarkx electrical power in normal operation IMHO.] voltage, exists below which ionisation cannot be maintained. Under such conditions, the positive gas ions combine with electrons to form neutral gas molecules and conduction stops. Because of this switching action, a gas-filled tube can be used as an electronic switch.

  • iconoclast421

    If it only needs 11mW, then why not just use a few AA batteries with a DC-DC converter to bring it up to 24V? The smaller you make the batteries, the easier it is to convince people what you have isnt some sort of scam or hoax.

  • Paul

    As a battery of a Quark X can be recharged by another Quark X (at least in a public test) a simple public test could be performed, but it should be enough long. So, the COP would be virtually infinite and the power of the battery does not matte so much for us/them.

  • Paul

    As a battery of a Quark X can be recharged by another Quark X (at least in a public test) a simple public test could be performed, but it should be enough long. So, the COP would be virtually infinite and the power of the battery does not matte so much for us/them.

  • sam

    JPR
    June 8, 2017 at 4:09 AM
    Update?

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    June 8, 2017 at 7:55 AM
    JPR:
    The temperatures are stable, the COP is stable both with spectrometry and with calorimetry, I am satisfied.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Bill
    June 8, 2017 at 7:02 AM
    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    During this period of litigation and sigma-5-quest with the QuarkX, do you have also time to think about the industrialization of your products?

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    June 8, 2017 at 7:54 AM
    Bill:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • sam

    JPR
    June 8, 2017 at 4:09 AM
    Update?

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    June 8, 2017 at 7:55 AM
    JPR:
    The temperatures are stable, the COP is stable both with spectrometry and with calorimetry, I am satisfied.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Bill
    June 8, 2017 at 7:02 AM
    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    During this period of litigation and sigma-5-quest with the QuarkX, do you have also time to think about the industrialization of your products?

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    June 8, 2017 at 7:54 AM
    Bill:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • sam

    Andrea Rossi
    June 13, 2017 at 6:22 AM
    Jaroslaw Berm:
    To answer to your comment I’d have to disclose confidential information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    JPR
    June 13, 2017 at 4:08 AM
    Update?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 13, 2017 at 6:21 AM
    JPR:
    We are still on our way toward sigma 5.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Jaroslaw Bem
    June 13, 2017 at 3:21 AM
    Dear Dr. Andrea Rossi:
    As you earlier said, internal temperature of the stable working QuarkX is 2700 C. It is pretty high temperature! How is it possible in the facing of fact, that melting point of nickel is 1455 C, and melting point of titanium is 1668 C ? Is possible that Rossi effect occurs in molten Nickel? Could you explain it?
    Best Regards,

  • sam

    Steven N. Karels
    June 15, 2017 at 1:48 AM
    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Assuming the QuarkX commercial unit has a nominal lifetime of one year of continuous operation and an application requires only one month of continuous operation per year, will the lifetime of a single QuarkX unit then be good for 12 years? Are there other lifetime limiting restrictions besides fuel exhaustion?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 15, 2017 at 6:38 AM
    Steven N. Karels:
    Good point. It should last 12 years, as far as I know, but I do not have experience about this issue, I can only make projections on the base of what I can theorize.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    JPR
    June 15, 2017 at 6:31 AM
    Update?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 15, 2017 at 6:37 AM
    JPR:
    Still toward sigma 5.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • sam

    Steven N. Karels
    June 15, 2017 at 1:48 AM
    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Assuming the QuarkX commercial unit has a nominal lifetime of one year of continuous operation and an application requires only one month of continuous operation per year, will the lifetime of a single QuarkX unit then be good for 12 years? Are there other lifetime limiting restrictions besides fuel exhaustion?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 15, 2017 at 6:38 AM
    Steven N. Karels:
    Good point. It should last 12 years, as far as I know, but I do not have experience about this issue, I can only make projections on the base of what I can theorize.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    JPR
    June 15, 2017 at 6:31 AM
    Update?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 15, 2017 at 6:37 AM
    JPR:
    Still toward sigma 5.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • sam

    Translate
    Carol
    June 15, 2017 at 11:58 PM
    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Is the QuarkX made by materials off the shelf, or by meterials you had to invent?
    Thanks,
    Carol

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    June 16, 2017 at 6:08 AM
    Carol:
    By new material I had to invent and make.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    JPR
    June 15, 2017 at 10:08 PM
    Update?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 16, 2017 at 6:08 AM
    JPR:
    We are proceeding well with our R&D with the QuarkX.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Steve

  • sam

    Bernie Koppenhofer
    June 22, 2017 at 3:26 PM
    Dr. Rossi: You recently said the new control system will help industrialization. Can you predict when industrialization will start and what industries will be first to implement.

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 9:27 PM
    Bernie Koppenhofer:
    I foresee to make the presentation of the QuarkX this year, start the industrialization after it and start from heat eating industrial concerns.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Tom Conover
    June 22, 2017 at 3:41 PM
    Dear Andrea,

    Great to hear that your efforts on assembly theory and design are coming together with the new breakthrough that you mentioned today. Very nice indeed!

    Perhaps do you think that a 1MW plant with heat transfer technology included
    A) Would fit into a 1 cubic meter?
    B) Might fit into a 2 cubic meters?
    C) Probably will be larger…

    I hope that all goes well in the near future, so your plans might be formed…

    Warm regards,

    Tom
    (Thank you for your answers to our questions! Great job!)

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 9:21 PM
    Tom Conover:
    The QuarkXes in themselves would occupy 50 liters/MW, the volume of the heat exchanger depends on which kind of it is and what you want to achieve.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Andrea
    June 22, 2017 at 3:43 PM
    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    How’d you define gluons in few words?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 9:18 PM
    Andrea:
    resonances between quarks generated by their isospin.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Frank Acland
    June 22, 2017 at 9:18 AM
    Dear Andrea,

    I understand you can’t provide details regarding your improvement of the control system, but in general terms, does this improvement make the control system:

    1. Smaller
    2. Cheaper to build
    3. More durable

    Thank you,

    Frank Acland

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 12:49 PM
    Frank Acland:
    1, 2, 3.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Gianvico
    June 22, 2017 at 11:44 AM
    Reddite quae sunt Caesaris Caesari et quae sunt Dei Deo.
    I read your response to Anonymous of 17 June; with pleasure I see that living in America hasn’t changed and will continue to be a nice person.
    Ciao Andrea
    Gianvico

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 12:48 PM
    Gianvico:
    Thank you
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 8:30 AM
    Frank Akland:
    We resolved a big problem connected with the control system that made much easier the mass production.
    I cannot enter in particulars, for obvious reasons.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 8:27 AM
    Ribert Curto:
    Yes, that is true.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

    JPR
    June 22, 2017 at 1:12 AM
    Update?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 8:25 AM
    JPR:
    Update OK
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • sam

    Bernie Koppenhofer
    June 22, 2017 at 3:26 PM
    Dr. Rossi: You recently said the new control system will help industrialization. Can you predict when industrialization will start and what industries will be first to implement.

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 9:27 PM
    Bernie Koppenhofer:
    I foresee to make the presentation of the QuarkX this year, start the industrialization after it and start from heat eating industrial concerns.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Tom Conover
    June 22, 2017 at 3:41 PM
    Dear Andrea,

    Great to hear that your efforts on assembly theory and design are coming together with the new breakthrough that you mentioned today. Very nice indeed!

    Perhaps do you think that a 1MW plant with heat transfer technology included
    A) Would fit into a 1 cubic meter?
    B) Might fit into a 2 cubic meters?
    C) Probably will be larger…

    I hope that all goes well in the near future, so your plans might be formed…

    Warm regards,

    Tom
    (Thank you for your answers to our questions! Great job!)

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 9:21 PM
    Tom Conover:
    The QuarkXes in themselves would occupy 50 liters/MW, the volume of the heat exchanger depends on which kind of it is and what you want to achieve.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Andrea
    June 22, 2017 at 3:43 PM
    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    How’d you define gluons in few words?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 9:18 PM
    Andrea:
    resonances between quarks generated by their isospin.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Frank Acland
    June 22, 2017 at 9:18 AM
    Dear Andrea,

    I understand you can’t provide details regarding your improvement of the control system, but in general terms, does this improvement make the control system:

    1. Smaller
    2. Cheaper to build
    3. More durable

    Thank you,

    Frank Acland

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 12:49 PM
    Frank Acland:
    1, 2, 3.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Gianvico
    June 22, 2017 at 11:44 AM
    Reddite quae sunt Caesaris Caesari et quae sunt Dei Deo.
    I read your response to Anonymous of 17 June; with pleasure I see that living in America hasn’t changed and will continue to be a nice person.
    Ciao Andrea
    Gianvico

    Translate
    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 12:48 PM
    Gianvico:
    Thank you
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 8:30 AM
    Frank Akland:
    We resolved a big problem connected with the control system that made much easier the mass production.
    I cannot enter in particulars, for obvious reasons.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 8:27 AM
    Ribert Curto:
    Yes, that is true.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

    JPR
    June 22, 2017 at 1:12 AM
    Update?

    Andrea Rossi
    June 22, 2017 at 8:25 AM
    JPR:
    Update OK
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.