Superconductivity in LENR (Axil Axil)

The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil

Hydrogen atoms confined in a cavity just doesn’t behave in the way Ed Storms predicts because of influence of Quantum Mechanics on them. When atoms are confined in a tight cavity, they gain energy because of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

Adding atoms into a confined system such as a cluster is like putting a tiger in a cage. A tiger in a big zoo with open fields will act more relaxed, because he has a lot of room to wander around. If you now confine him in smaller and smaller areas, he gets nervous and agitated. It’s a lot that way with any particle. If they’re free to move all around, they have low energy. Put them together and confine them in a small cavity, they get very excited and try to get out of the structure.

This energy from confinement can be removed by the medal lattice in which the hydrogen atoms are confined.

This heating based energy transfer process is similar to what happens in the refrigeration cycle.

In this refrigeration cycle, a circulating refrigerant such as Freon enters the compressor as a vapor. The vapor is compressed at constant entropy and exits the compressor superheated. The superheated vapor travels through the condenser which first cools and removes the superheat and then condenses the vapor into a liquid by removing additional heat at constant pressure and temperature. The liquid refrigerant goes through the expansion valve (also called a throttle valve) where its pressure abruptly decreases, causing flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of, typically, less than half of the liquid.

In like manor, the hydrogen is compressed inside the cavity and this compression produces heat. The heat is removed from the cavity by the lattice as the hydrogen transfers energy to the walls of the cavity through collision. In this way the energy of hydrogen compression is converted to lattice phonons. The lattice will dissipate the energy produced by hydrogen compression as more hydrogen enters into the cavities.

Over time, the hydrogen will shed all the energy of compression and the hydrogen enters a state of minimum kinetic energy,

According to J. E. Hirsch

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.0139v1.pdf

The origin of the Meissner effect in new and old superconductors

Quote

“I propose that the Meissner effect can only be explained if: (i) superconductivity is driven by lowering of the kinetic energy of the charge carriers [6], and (ii) superconductors expel negative charge from the interior to the surface in the transition to superconductivity [7]. This physics results in a macroscopically inhomogeneous charge distribution [8] and in the existence of macroscopic zero-point motion which manifests itself in the form of a spin current [9] in the ground state of superconductors. Neither BCS theory nor London electrodynamic theory describes this physics. Nevertheless, parts of both BCS theory and London theory are undoubtedly correct. The points (i) and (ii) are intimately connected. Kinetic energy lowering means, e.g. via Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, expansion of the electronic wave function which in turn implies outward motion of negative charge. That outward motion of negative charge explains the generation of the Meissner current is immediately seen from the action of the Lorentz force[10]. That the Meissner effect is impossible in the absence of outward motion of charge is immediately seen from the equations of motion [11] and from the fact that there is no other source of electromotive force[12]. That kinetic energy lowering drives superconductivity follows from the fact that the Meissner effect cannot occur unless there is outward motion of negative charge; outward motion of negative charge implies charge separation, hence increase in potential energy, so the ‘emf’ driving it[12] has to be lowering of kinetic energy.”

http://images.slideplayer.com/24/7089254/slides/slide_35.jpg

The appearance of the Meissner effect produces the configuration that Holmlid has documented through his experiments: a cooper pair of protons surrounded with a spin wave of negative charge.

http://www.e-catworld.com/2016/02/27/implications-of-signal-seeing-into-the-cat-with-x-rays-mfmp-video-on-latest-findings/

The origin 0f the “Signal”

In one of the MFMP experiments, a burst of x-rays were detected just before excess heat was observed to begin in the dog bone reactor.

That burst took the form of Bremsstrahlung but without the characteristic spikes of the x-rays producing the Bremsstrahlung resulting in a total smooth power curve.

This Bremsstrahlung was produced by the onset of the Meissner effect as it expelled electrons from the lithium positive core at a large fraction of the speed of light when Ultra Dense Lithium in the MDMP reactor became a superconductor.

  • sam
  • sam
  • LindbergofSwed

    Thank you, very interesting. How do you think BLP fits in to this?

  • LindbergofSwed

    Thank you, very interesting. How do you think BLP fits in to this?

  • Zephir

    /* In like manor, the hydrogen is compressed inside the cavity and this compression produces heat. */

    Nonsense, the compression is formed only during adiabatic compression

    • Axil Axil

      Not according to Holmlid. You referenced his diagrams, but you don’t understand what they mean.

      • Zephir

        I didn’t reference his diagrams – you’re just inventing the stuff on fly…

  • Zephir

    /* In like manor, the hydrogen is compressed inside the cavity and this compression produces heat. */

    Nonsense, the compression is formed only during adiabatic compression. The superconductivity applies only to electrons, the protons remain unaffected with it.

    • Axil Axil

      Not according to Holmlid. You referenced his diagrams, but you don’t understand what they mean.

      • Zephir

        I didn’t reference his diagrams – you’re just inventing the stuff on fly…

  • Anon2012_2014

    Axil — you are super creative. Maybe not always correct, but you do have a different way of synthesizing what you read. You look at things differently and always come up with new ideas. You should go back for you physics or chemistry Ph.D. Kudos to your scientific creativity!

    • Zephir

      So far Axil managed to integrate whole existing physics into cold fusion mechanism: tachyons, monopoles, antimatter, dark matter, muons, pions, neutrinos, superconductivity, dense hydrogen, metallic hydrogen, boson condensate, rydberg matter, nanocracks, plasmons and polaritons – and I undoubtedly missed many others.

      Such a speculations can impress only complete laymen. The scientific creativity is in testable predictions, not in postdictions and interpretations.

      • Anon2012_2014

        I am a scientist too. Axil is clearly creative and thinks out of the box. I think that with a formal physics education Axil could make discoveries that other would not. He should pursue it. Why not?

        • Zephir

          Did you hear something about informational noise?

      • Axil Axil

        No antimatter, sorry.

        No dark matter, instead adiabatic reaction force according to Erik Verlinde. Both the weak and the string force is modified by a coherence induced adiabatic reaction force in the same way the Erik Verlinde states that gravity is strengthened by the matter coherent breakage of the phase space of our Universe.

        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1rxAhUl5BE

        • Zephir

          But dark matter is just explained with entropic force and entanglement in last Verlinde theory…

          • Axil Axil

            A force is not matter.

          • Zephir

            Axil Axil: “If LENR is the source of Dark Energy and Dark Matter, one day in our future when we fully understand how to control LENR, we may be able to build galleries to fit our needs, to reposition galactic clusters to suite are whims; humankind my one day have the power to stop the expansion of the universe in places that we may desire. All this power lies in the full embrace of the LENR dream.”

            Source: http://maryyugo.blogspot.cz/2014/07/this-may-be-all-time-dumbest-from-axil.html

          • Axil Axil

            I have changed my mind since then when O understood Verlinder. Dark matter is not produced by particles. It is a weakening in the force of gravity as postulated by Erik Verlinde due to the interference in cosmic entanglement due to matter. The forces of nature can be changed by either increasing or decreasing entanglement. Both the strong and the weak force can also be changed in this way.

            See for background

            http://earthsky.org/space/erik-verlinde-gravity-theory-no-need-dark-matter

          • Zephir

            You just said, that dark matter is “adiabatic force according to Erik Verlinde”

  • Anon2012_2014

    Axil — you are super creative. Maybe not always correct, but you do have a different way of synthesizing what you read. You look at things differently and always come up with new ideas. You should go back for you physics or chemistry Ph.D. Kudos to your scientific creativity!

    • Zephir

      So far Axil managed to integrate whole existing physics into cold fusion mechanism: tachyons, monopoles, antimatter, dark matter, muons, pions, neutrinos, superconductivity, dense hydrogen, metallic hydrogen, boson condensate, rydberg matter, nanocracks, plasmons and polaritons – and I undoubtedly missed many others.

      Such a speculations can impress only complete laymen. The scientific creativity is in testable predictions, not in postdictions and interpretations.

      • Anon2012_2014

        I am a scientist too. Axil is clearly creative and thinks out of the box. I think that with a formal physics education Axil could make discoveries that other would not. He should pursue it. Why not?

        • Zephir

          Did you hear something about informational noise?

          Will Rogers: The problem ain’t what people know. It’s what people know that ain’t so that’s the problem. It isn’t what we don’t know that gives us trouble, it’s what we know that ain’t so.

      • Axil Axil

        No antimatter, sorry.

        No dark matter, instead adiabatic reaction force according to Erik Verlinde. Both the weak and the string force is modified by a coherence induced adiabatic reaction force in the same way the Erik Verlinde states that gravity is strengthened by the matter coherent breakage of the phase space of our Universe.

        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1rxAhUl5BE

        • Zephir

          But dark matter is just explained with entropic force and entanglement in last Verlinde theory…

          • Axil Axil

            A force is not matter.

          • Zephir

            Axil Axil: “If LENR is the source of Dark Energy and Dark Matter, one day in our future when we fully understand how to control LENR, we may be able to build galleries to fit our needs, to reposition galactic clusters to suite are whims; humankind my one day have the power to stop the expansion of the universe in places that we may desire. All this power lies in the full embrace of the LENR dream.”

            Source: http://maryyugo.blogspot.cz/2014/07/this-may-be-all-time-dumbest-from-axil.html

          • Axil Axil

            I have changed my mind since then when I understood what Verlinder was talking about. Dark matter is not produced by particles. It is a weakening in the force of gravity as postulated by Erik Verlinde due to the interference in cosmic entanglement due to matter. The forces of nature can be changed by either increasing or decreasing entanglement. IMHO, both the strong and the weak force can also be changed in this way.

            See for background

            http://earthsky.org/space/erik-verlinde-gravity-theory-no-need-dark-matter

          • Zephir

            You just said, that dark matter is “adiabatic force according to Erik Verlinde”

      • Chapman

        I am still amazed at how Axil manages to cram so much nonsense into such a tiny space! His frantic “Jargon-Packing” pushes Tardis level space bending.

        Axil’s comedic writing always reminds me of L. Ron Hubbard’s classic, but undeniably spastic, Sci-Fi “Battlefield Earth”. A simple idea smothered in a bunch of fake physics.

        I always preferred Asimov or Clark, where the actual science was real. But Hey, that’s just me…

  • Axil Axil

    http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MileyGHcondensedm.pdf

    Abstract

    In this paper we first point out evidence for condensed matter cluster formation based on thin-film electrolysis. Next, measurements of superconductivity in condensed matter deuterium “clusters” in dislocation sites loaded-deloaded palladium thin films are briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of techniques under study to increase the number of such sites per unit volume of the electrodes. Estimates for resulting “cluster reaction” rates – flow enhanced Pycnonuclear fusion are given. If successful, this approach offers a “Roadmap” for future power unit based on thin films and clusters.

    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Leif_Holmlid/publication/228623342/figure/fig1/AS:302067659886592@1449029950157/Fig-1-Color-online-Cluster-with-more-than-100-hydrogen-atoms-squeezed-in-palladium_small.png

  • Axil Axil

    http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MileyGHcondensedm.pdf

    Abstract

    In this paper we first point out evidence for condensed matter cluster formation based on thin-film electrolysis. Next, measurements of superconductivity in condensed matter deuterium “clusters” in dislocation sites loaded-deloaded palladium thin films are briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of techniques under study to increase the number of such sites per unit volume of the electrodes. Estimates for resulting “cluster reaction” rates – flow enhanced Pycnonuclear fusion are given. If successful, this approach offers a “Roadmap” for future power unit based on thin films and clusters.

    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Leif_Holmlid/publication/228623342/figure/fig1/AS:302067659886592@1449029950157/Fig-1-Color-online-Cluster-with-more-than-100-hydrogen-atoms-squeezed-in-palladium_small.png

    Quote
    Miley et al. , 2007, 2008) is important. For surface states on metal oxides, the measurement of the ultrahigh ion densities Rydberg matter was predicted and measured in gases where a of 10 29 cm 2 3 was directly evident from the ion and neutral static clustering of protons or deuterons to comparably high densities is generated with densities up to 10 23 cm 2 3 emission by laser probing. These surface states were produced involving catalytic techniques (Badiei et al. , 2009). (Badiei & Holmlid, 2006). In contrast to gases, the appear- The distance d between the deuterons was measured to be ance of ultrahigh density clusters of crystal defects in solids were observed in several experiments, where such con- d 1⁄4 2 : 3 + 0 : 1 pm, (1) figurations of very high density hydrogen states could be detected from SQUID measurements of magnetic response and conductivity (Lipson et al. , 2005), indicating a special compared with the theoretical value of 2.5 pm derived from state with superconducting properties. These high density the properties of inverted Rydberg matter. The energy release clusters have a long life and with the bosonic nature of of the deuterons from the surface layer was measured as deuterons—in contrast to protons—should be in a state of 630 + 30 eV. The difference between protons and deuterons Bose-Einstein-Condensation at room temperature (Miley was directly observed and the deuteron state called D(-1) et al. , 2009). indicate well the bosonic property against the fermionic While these clusters were measured in metals at the inter- protons. face against covering oxides (Lipson et al. , 2005), the gener- The material used in the experiments (Badiei et al. , 2009) ation of these states within the whole volume of a metal as a catalyst for producing the ultradense deuterium is a (palladium, lithium, etc.) with crystal defects (Fig. 1; highly porous iron oxide material similar to Fe 2 O 3 doped with K, Ca, and other atoms. Thus, the number of defects or adsorption sites is very high relative to a metal

  • LindbergofSwed

    Can you say that both Rossi and Millsl is using the cavitation fenomena but with different materials?

  • LindbergofSwed
  • Axil Axil

    Speaking about crazy ideas:

    Its ironic, but LENR produced the biggest disaster in the history of nuclear energy: chernobyl. A short in one of the generators at that reactor produced two huge electrical discharges that in turn produced a huge muons flux that when added to the neutron flux in the #4 reactor, put that reactor into a supercritical state. Muons and transuranic elements don’t mix.

    Rossi shielded his early reactors with lead but it must have been confusing to him that the more lead that he used, the more radiation that he saw. He does not use any shielding now and with his latest unshielded reactor, all the radiation when away.

    Nobody has asked Rossi why he does not use radiation shielding anymore.

    See for background:

    https://arxiv.org/ftp/nucl-ex/papers/0304/0304024.pdf​

    • Zephir

      Do you have some source – or is it just another informational noise from axil? Did I asked here to label all categorically sounding yet unsupported speculations with IMO phrase?
      Which short did ever produce the muon flux documented in literature? If none, why just Chernobyl short should did it?

    • LION

      I thank you for posting this link Axil, I am sure I would never of heard of it otherwise, Very important paper. THANK YOU.

      • Axil Axil

        Holmlid has defined all this theory in his experimental research, but it is not commonly understood and properly connected with Hole superconductivity. Holmlid mentions J.E. Hirsch only in a passing reference.

        Yes, I have gotten my take on his experiments through his associates, and to Holmlid’s credit, he has changed his tune on LENR. He not states that the causation of LENR power is NOT coming through fusion.

  • Axil Axil

    Speaking about crazy ideas:

    Its ironic, but LENR produced the biggest disaster in the history of nuclear energy: chernobyl. A short in one of the generators at that reactor produced two huge electrical discharges that in turn produced a huge muons flux that when added to the neutron flux in the #4 reactor, put that reactor into a supercritical state. Muons and transuranic elements don’t mix.

    Rossi shielded his early reactors with lead but it must have been confusing to him that the more lead that he used, the more radiation that he saw. He does not use any shielding now and with his latest unshielded reactor, all the radiation when away.

    Nobody has asked Rossi why he does not use radiation shielding anymore.

    See for background:

    https://arxiv.org/ftp/nucl-ex/papers/0304/0304024.pdf​

    • Zephir

      Do you have some source – or is it just another informational noise from axil? Did I asked here to label all categorically sounding yet unsupported speculations with IMO phrase?
      Which short did ever produce the muon flux documented in literature? If none, why just Chernobyl short should did it?

    • LION

      I thank you for posting this link Axil, I am sure I would never of heard of it otherwise, Very important paper. THANK YOU.

      • Axil Axil

        Holmlid has defined all this theory in his experimental research, but it is not commonly understood and properly connected with Hole superconductivity. Holmlid mentions J.E. Hirsch only in a passing reference.

        Yes, I have gotten my take on his experiments through his associates, and to Holmlid’s credit, he has changed his tune on LENR. He not states that the causation of LENR power is NOT coming through fusion.

  • Eirik

    Axil Axil; Think that you have a good point regarding Mills and his “Hydrino” Reading about how metallic hydrogen was made, i have problems understanding how added heat (plasma) can reduce the electron orbit. Doesn’t heat make them more exited. Also I am surprised that Mills hasn’t collected a sample of the hydrino gas and analysed it. What do you think?
    As I do like your LENR thinking, could I suggest you collect them in a textbook?

  • hunfgerh

    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.0139v1.pdf

    I think the current distribution in FIG. 3

    !(Normal conductor – Superconductor – Normal conductor)!

    should be the same as in the arrangement

    !(Normal conductor – Normal conductor, coated with a thin layer of Superconductor – Normal conductor)!

    given in

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2016/11/20/e-capture-gerhard-hunf/

    • Axil Axil

      IMHO, the spin layer that is the electron layer that covers the Holes(protons) is converted to polaritons when these electrons become entangles with photons: for example from Holmlid’s laser. These polaritons are the energy storage mechanism that captures and stores the nuclear energy produced by the LENR reaction when magnetism disrupts the nucleus.

      • hunfgerh

        Do not make it so complicated! P @ F also did their experiments with simple means: one battery, two wires and one electrolyte solution.

        • Axil Axil

          You misunderstand my point. The laser is not even needed. All that mechanisms mentioned are all included and inherent inside the structure of the hydrogen cluster. Mother nature has put all that superconducting macherey inside the Ultra dense hydrogen. One might think of the UDH as a nano-ITER reactor built by quantum mechanics.

          • hunfgerh

            Ok

  • hunfgerh

    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.0139v1.pdf

    I think the current distribution in FIG. 3

    !(Normal conductor – Superconductor – Normal conductor)!

    should be the same as in the arrangement

    !(Normal conductor – Normal conductor, coated with a thin layer of Superconductor – Normal conductor)!

    given in

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2016/11/20/e-capture-gerhard-hunf/

    • Axil Axil

      IMHO, the spin layer that is the electron layer that covers the Holes(protons) is converted to polaritons when these electrons become entangles with photons: for example from Holmlid’s laser. These polaritons are the energy storage mechanism that captures and stores the nuclear energy produced by the LENR reaction when magnetism disrupts the nucleus.

      • hunfgerh

        Do not make it so complicated! P @ F also did their experiments with simple means: one battery, two wires and one electrolyte solution.

        • Axil Axil

          You misunderstand my point. The laser is not even needed. All that mechanisms mentioned are all included and inherent inside the structure of the hydrogen cluster. Mother nature has put all that superconducting macherey inside the Ultra dense hydrogen. One might think of the UDH as a nano-ITER reactor built by quantum mechanics.

          • hunfgerh

            Ok

  • atanguy

    Hey Axil , can you explain why the resistivity of nickel becomes lower when the nickel adsorbs ( or absorb?) hydrogen?

    • Axil Axil

      When Ultra dense hydogen and/or lithium forms on a rough and/or pitted metal service, the UDH will impart a falling electrical resistance to the surface of the metal proportional to the degree of concentration of UDH formation. This drop in resistance has be seen in hydrogen loaded palladium and constantan wire.

      • atanguy

        Thanks,but how come the resistance is lower when UDH is present? by which mechanism?

        • Axil Axil

          The UDH is a superconductor so the current moves along the surface from areas where there is a superconductor persent to normal surfaces where the conduction is normal. On the average, the conductance is reduced by the UDH that is in the path of the electric current.

          • atanguy

            This makes sens, I have more questions and some results to share,can we correspond directly to each other? I give my OK to Frank to share with you my email address if you agree send me a message.

          • Axil Axil

            Sure, its OK by me…

  • atanguy

    Hey Axil , can you explain why the resistivity of nickel becomes lower when the nickel adsorbs ( or absorb?) hydrogen?

    • Axil Axil

      When Ultra dense hydogen and/or lithium forms on a rough and/or pitted metal service, the UDH will impart a falling electrical resistance to the surface of the metal proportional to the degree of concentration of UDH formation. This drop in resistance has be seen in hydrogen loaded palladium and constantan wire.

      • atanguy

        Thanks,but how come the resistance is lower when UDH is present? by which mechanism?

        • Axil Axil

          The UDH is a superconductor so the current moves along the surface from areas where there is a superconductor persent to normal surfaces where the conduction is normal. On the average, the conductance is reduced by the UDH that is in the path of the electric current.

          • atanguy

            This makes sens, I have more questions and some results to share,can we correspond directly to each other? I give my OK to Frank to share with you my email address if you agree send me a message.

          • Axil Axil

            Sure, its OK by me…