Superconductivity in LENR (Axil Axil)

The following post has been submitted by Axil Axil

Hydrogen atoms confined in a cavity just doesn’t behave in the way Ed Storms predicts because of influence of Quantum Mechanics on them. When atoms are confined in a tight cavity, they gain energy because of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

Adding atoms into a confined system such as a cluster is like putting a tiger in a cage. A tiger in a big zoo with open fields will act more relaxed, because he has a lot of room to wander around. If you now confine him in smaller and smaller areas, he gets nervous and agitated. It’s a lot that way with any particle. If they’re free to move all around, they have low energy. Put them together and confine them in a small cavity, they get very excited and try to get out of the structure.

This energy from confinement can be removed by the medal lattice in which the hydrogen atoms are confined.

This heating based energy transfer process is similar to what happens in the refrigeration cycle.

In this refrigeration cycle, a circulating refrigerant such as Freon enters the compressor as a vapor. The vapor is compressed at constant entropy and exits the compressor superheated. The superheated vapor travels through the condenser which first cools and removes the superheat and then condenses the vapor into a liquid by removing additional heat at constant pressure and temperature. The liquid refrigerant goes through the expansion valve (also called a throttle valve) where its pressure abruptly decreases, causing flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of, typically, less than half of the liquid.

In like manor, the hydrogen is compressed inside the cavity and this compression produces heat. The heat is removed from the cavity by the lattice as the hydrogen transfers energy to the walls of the cavity through collision. In this way the energy of hydrogen compression is converted to lattice phonons. The lattice will dissipate the energy produced by hydrogen compression as more hydrogen enters into the cavities.

Over time, the hydrogen will shed all the energy of compression and the hydrogen enters a state of minimum kinetic energy,

According to J. E. Hirsch

The origin of the Meissner effect in new and old superconductors


“I propose that the Meissner effect can only be explained if: (i) superconductivity is driven by lowering of the kinetic energy of the charge carriers [6], and (ii) superconductors expel negative charge from the interior to the surface in the transition to superconductivity [7]. This physics results in a macroscopically inhomogeneous charge distribution [8] and in the existence of macroscopic zero-point motion which manifests itself in the form of a spin current [9] in the ground state of superconductors. Neither BCS theory nor London electrodynamic theory describes this physics. Nevertheless, parts of both BCS theory and London theory are undoubtedly correct. The points (i) and (ii) are intimately connected. Kinetic energy lowering means, e.g. via Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, expansion of the electronic wave function which in turn implies outward motion of negative charge. That outward motion of negative charge explains the generation of the Meissner current is immediately seen from the action of the Lorentz force[10]. That the Meissner effect is impossible in the absence of outward motion of charge is immediately seen from the equations of motion [11] and from the fact that there is no other source of electromotive force[12]. That kinetic energy lowering drives superconductivity follows from the fact that the Meissner effect cannot occur unless there is outward motion of negative charge; outward motion of negative charge implies charge separation, hence increase in potential energy, so the ‘emf’ driving it[12] has to be lowering of kinetic energy.”

The appearance of the Meissner effect produces the configuration that Holmlid has documented through his experiments: a cooper pair of protons surrounded with a spin wave of negative charge.

The origin 0f the “Signal”

In one of the MFMP experiments, a burst of x-rays were detected just before excess heat was observed to begin in the dog bone reactor.

That burst took the form of Bremsstrahlung but without the characteristic spikes of the x-rays producing the Bremsstrahlung resulting in a total smooth power curve.

This Bremsstrahlung was produced by the onset of the Meissner effect as it expelled electrons from the lithium positive core at a large fraction of the speed of light when Ultra Dense Lithium in the MDMP reactor became a superconductor.