Thanks to Jones Beene on Vortex-l for posting a link to a new paper written by Tadahiko Mizuno of Hydrogen Engineering Application & Development Company in Sapporo Japan, titled “Observation of excess heat by activated metal and deuterium gas” and posted on the LENR-CANR.org website here.
This is a detailed paper with much data, and many details to digest. I’m sure it will be studied in depth, but here are just a few key points:
“Reports of heat-generating cold fusion reactions in the nickel–hydrogen systemhave been increasing. The reactions mainly involve nickel with other additive elements. The authors of these reports emphasized the importance of an extremely clean system in the electrolytic tests in which excess heat was generated. Therefore, we attempted to detect excess heat after reducing impurities to a minimum by cleaning the electrode carefully and then fabricating nano particles in situ in our test system, without ever exposing them to air. As a result, energy far exceeding input was continuously obtained. In the best results obtained thus far, the output thermal energy is double the input electrical energy, amounting to several hundred watts. The generated thermal energy follows an exponential temperature function. When the reactor temperature is 300°C, the generated energy is 1 kW. An increase of the temperature is expected to greatly increase the output energy.”
The reactor used was a stainless steel cylinder in which were placed two pieces of nickel mesh which were cleaned first with detergent, then with water, alcohol and acetone. There are two electrodes inside the chamber, one of which is wound with palladium wire. There is an aluminum ceramic heater in the center of the reactor which is wound with palladium wire. There is also a heater wound around the outside of the reactor.
After evacuating the heater, deuterium gas is added to the reactor at “several hundred Pa.” The reactor is then heated and held constant for a number of hours. High voltage is then applied to the palladium wire around the ceramic heater inside the reactor, which forms a plasma. There is then a cycling of heating, degassing and re-gassing, while increasing temperature, and finally the system is let to drop to room temperature.
High voltage is then applied to the palladium electrode, which releases D2 gas, and causes plasma to form on the electrode. Eventually this causes palladium to be deposited on the nickel mesh, and this, according to Mizuno, causes the condition that generates excess heat.
“The excess power increases with the temperature rise of the reactor. For example, the excess power is 100 W at 100°C, 315 W at 200°C, and 480 W at 250°C. Excess power of 10 W and 20 W was generated even when the reactor was near room temperature.”[…]
“We speculate that the excess heat would reach the order of kilowatts at 1/Tr = 0.001, i.e., approximately 700°C. We confirmed that the excess heat increases exponentially with reactor temperature.”[…]
“Activation of the metal surface, that is, removal of the oxide, nitride, and carbide layers, is particularly important. Heating and discharge treatment in deuterium gas is an effective method of activating the metal surface. The use of highly pure gas and the thorough removal of released gas during the surface treatment are also important. “
Mizuno notes that since this experiment was carried out, that he has improved the conditions for excess heat production. Appendix A describes some of the changes, which includes not using detergents or other similar cleaners of the nickel mesh because they may introduce impurities. Rather, they polish the nickel with emery paper, clean with hot water, and rub palladium on the nickel. In this appendix he suggests that Hydrogen as well as Deuterium could work.