The Solid Foundation: Don’t Skip Nickel-Hydrogen

The following post was submitted by a reader who wishes to remain anonymous

The requirement to carefully treat and process nickel to facilitate the adsorption and absorption of nickel into a metal lattice is by no means a new discovery. Sergio Focardi and Francesco Piantelli learned through trial and error testing during their testing of Ni-H systems in the 1990’s that contaminants, both on the interior and exterior of their fuel, could inhibit the production of excess heat. Moreover, their papers go into significant detail about their methods of washing, etching, annealing, thermal cycling, and degassing. If proper care was utilized in the treatment of their fuel, significant quantities (capable of being measured with ordinary instrumentation) of ordinary light hydrogen could be documented being taken up and emitted from their nickel.

They noted that a sudden change in temperature OR pressure could trigger the uptake or release of hydrogen, inducing an “excited state” in which excess heat was produced. During this period of research, they were capable of producing a COP of over two, utilizing only nickel rod, bar, wire, or plated materials.

Their work, long before Andrea Rossi came onto the scene, proved that a significant quantity of excess heat could be produced from a highly unoptimized setup. An increase in surface area, reverse spillover catalysts (palladium, platinum, copper, or even smaller nano-particles of nickel), methods of accelerating the splitting of molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen (high voltages, radio frequency generators, utilizing resonance, including metal hydrides that emit atomic hydrogen when heated such as LiAlH4 or lithium hydride), and other methods could be utilized to dramatically increase the excess heat. In reality, to produce very good results, there is no magic pixie dust or special element. Perhaps Rossi did start off using a spillover catalyst of some sort; however, the obvious conclusion is that he moved past such elements rapidly and utilized other methods of producing atomic hydrogen.

Beyond a doubt, however, the basis of any successful Ni-H system is properly treated, cleaned, and degassed fuel. To accomplish this requires tedious effort and extreme care. If someone is willing to perform the long, ongoing series of tests to gain the experience needed to remove surface coatings (oxides, grease, and other contaminants) and trapped gases (carbon monoxide, oxygen, and even water), positive results beyond any doubt can be obtained with only nickel and hydrogen. According to one replicator whose results have not been confirmed, once you learn how to treat your nickel so that it can “breathe” light hydrogen in and out, a COP of 2-3 is easily possible. Then if you can add a method of producing atomic hydrogen on demand, there is no limit to the COP you can achieve.

As asserted in the paper by Mizuno, the suggestion that excess heat cannot be produced with only nickel and some form of hydrogen without an additional element is blatantly incorrect: the feat has already been performed. The challenge that may add difficulty to achieving excess heat with nickel and hydrogen alone is related to the importance of proper treatment that allows splitting molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen. Nickel isn’t the most catalytic element around in terms of interacting with H2 or D2. Palladium, on the other hand, can split the molecule like a hot knife through butter. So if you’re not going to rely on another element, your cleaning may have to be spot on, you may have to produce smaller particles of the same element in your fuel processing, or you may have to intentionally create specific surface features that can improve the catalytic activity of nickel.

I have zero doubt whatsoever that with enough work Mizuno or any other research with adequate resources and focus can produce significant excess heat without utilizing palladium or other catalysts. The only barrier is their work ethic and determination to do so. Once this know how is accumulated, all additional improvements would happen more organically.

A final observation: the high voltage mentioned in Mizuno’s paper produces a plasma that engulfs the area in which the nickel mesh resides. The plasma is certainly creating some quantity (high or low) of atomic hydrogen directly. In a system in which nickel alone is treated adequately enough to produce excess heat, such a plasma could accelerate hydrogen adsorption and absorption.

The key to mastering the nickel-hydrogen reaction is going back to basics: the work of Focardi and Piantelli. From there, we can utilize the tidbits provided by Andrea Rossi and the suggestions of other researchers to improve our results. My hope is that researchers like Mizuno and others will narrow their focus on processing nickel alone in such a manner that it can absorb adequate quantities of hydrogen to produce copious excess heat. Such a foundation is needed by the LENR community: a simple set of instructions that allows two elements (Ni-H) to come together and produce a non-conventional safe nuclear reaction. From there a thousand improvements could be made. But using plausible shortcuts initially, such as introducing palladium or other additional elements before mastering the basic effect, is like building a house on sand for skeptics and cynics to wash away.

  • Chapman

    I do not know who you are, mystery poster, but THONK YOU!!! From the bottom of my heart I say THANK YOU again and again!

    FINALLY!!! Somebody around here is actually thinking on track and getting back to the real issue.

    I was beginning to think this site was lost, and that it was totally dominated by Lunacy and Fairy Tales.

    I do not blame you for wishing to post your perfect logic anonymously. No doubt this thread will be overrun by a flood of flamers declaring you know nothing, and none of what you say can be proven, and most of what you claim never happened, and that you dress funny, and probably want to kill babies.

    Whoever you are, would you give a little thought to a comparison of the QX to a “Anode Ray Tube”? The free Protons acting as actual majority carriers, and being directionalized by the externally applied voltage, should cause differentiated internal ionization much as we see in semiconductors, and THAT should have an external effect on the rest of the connected circuit that identically resembles a second voltage source in proper series. This would account for the “Negative Resistance” phenomena, not only causing the QX resistance to collapse to near zero, but actually accounting for the link to SSM. Also, if the QX is acting as an ART then there would be a focusing effect of the proton beam to the tip of the cathode, and the result would be a highly concentrated point of secondary reaction and transmutation events. These are just a few thoughts that came from reading Rossi’s paper. While I do not buy the SNF variability hypothesis, I did find the analysis of the generated EM field in the gap to be enlightening. Specifically the effect it would have on the crossing electron and proton beams, and the results that arise FROM that effect.

    Anyway, I just want to let you know that it is a breath of fresh air to read a little common sense again being posted on these pages.

    While it lasts…

  • AdrianAshfield

    I agree in principle but the painstaking work of getting really pure materials and then finding out what effect other elements have requires a lot of time and money. The US government does not seem to be interested.

    I got the impression from what several experimenters have written that you only get a COP ~ 2 with just Ni % H2 and that Deuterium shuts it down.
    Fleischmann and Pons found it difficult to replicate the effect once they had used up the original batch o Palladium from J & M. Apparently the new stuff was purer and the original had some silver(?) in it.

    Rossi, who must have done more experiments than anyone else, seems to have concluded that the reliability and control of the old E-Cat systems were not completely solved and moved on to the plasma QX. I wouldn’t second guess him.

    • Anonymous Author

      I would not say a “lot” of time and money. If one person were to do the work to figure out how to clean a particular brand of nickel wire so that a COP of 2-3 was guaranteed, there would be some monetary outlay. Millions of dollars wouldn’t be needed, though. The most significant cost would be time if one person was performing all the experiments.

      My impression is also that with just bulk Ni and H2 the likely COP (which also depends on the quantity of insulation and other factors) would be around two or three. If someone was capable of learning how to carefully clean powder without sintering the particles together into one lump, I think the COP could go higher. With a higher surface area there will be more reaction sites and more excess heat. Additionally, with just nickel and hydrogen, adding smaller nickel particles that would rest on the surface of the larger particles could boost the COP. This would not work as well as palladium or platinum, but it could likely boost the excess heat without adding a rare element.

      From what I’ve read about the original palladium, it was able to absorb a larger quantity of hydrogen before cracking. Basically, it was palladium used for hydrogen filters. The newer palladium wasn’t as strong and cracked more easily, releasing hydrogen. But the truth is we don’t need to compare palladium and nickel: these are two different beasts. The purpose of palladium in a nickel hydrogen system is to split H2 into atomic hydrogen.

      After following the development of the E-Cat technology for a long time, everyone should see how the production of atomic hydrogen was the central theme of almost every evolution of the E-Cat. Carbonyl nickel with a higher surface area allowed for more surface area for atomic hydrogen to be generated, baking his fuel to produce smaller particles (as in fluid heater) created a spillover catalyst, the radio frequency generators helped split H2 into atomic hydrogen, the use of LiAlH4 allowed atomic hydrogen to be emitted directly until it recombined into H2, the use of resonance produced atomic hydrogen, etc.

      Finally, with the Quark, he is slamming hydrogen atoms onto treated nickel with a low oxygen content (the manganese mentioned in the paper is something we should not overlook because it can be used as an alloying agent to remove oxygen) to produce reactions which emit electrons both thermionically and nuclearly.

  • IIRC, Focardi said in an interview that the contribution Rossi brought to the table was to split the H2 gas into monatomic hydrogen and it made the reaction much more vigorous.

    I foresee a business opportunity for anyone who can buy pure Nickel, sputter it or sinterize it in a pure hydrogen (2 or 3 atmosphere) environment and sell the Celani-Type wire ALREADY enclosed in a monatomic hydrogen tube case like today’s modern fuses. Triggering the Anomalous Heat Event would be something like an applied voltage or waveform or microwave blast or heat or laser or whatever.

    Let’s say it turned out that the AHE was triggered by 220V AC and a 10kHz waveform, it generates a little bit of excess heat but definite gamma rays. By the time the one thousandth participant reported their own gamma ray finding, LENR would be taking off.

    • Anonymous Author

      Focardi worked closely with Andrea Rossi and knew that the key to the technology was splitting H2 into atomic hydrogen. What he may not have went into was the methods and techniques Rossi used to clean his fuel. Without cleaning the surface and interior of the fuel the atomic hydrogen has no where to go. Nickel could be considered a sponge with very small pores or cavities. Even if you can reduce the H2 (large molecule) into individual atoms (much smaller) so they could fit through the surface openings, if those cavities are filled with “junk” the hydrogen ain’t gonna go inside. However, if you have cleared out the lattice and have a supplementary method of producing atomic hydrogen, enormous output is possible.

      • I think it was Celani who brought a Geiger counter to a Rossi demo, and started seeing strong gamma ray presence immediately during startup but it went away.

        There is a possibility that the startup reaction for LENR is an ENDOTHERMIC reaction of H1 recombining into H2 gas generating a gamma ray. Once there are gamma rays in the system, there is nuclear exchange and the ball is rolling.

  • That makes sense to me, pushing atomic hydrogen onto the sponge with a bit more kinetic energy. My guess is that someone will improve this kludge approach by orders of magnitude once they know the LENR effect is real, most possibly with lasers which do more than 1 thing in the process of energizing particles and purifying plasmas. In fact, KP Sinha and Meulenberg generated LENR with laser COOLING, so the field is wide open.

  • John Littlemist

    Shouldn’t the first sentence be more like:
    “The requirement to carefully treat and process nickel to facilitate the adsorption and absorption of HYDROGEN into a metal lattice…”
    It says nickel twice…

  • Chapman

    A fantastic description of a straightforward concept.

    Well done! Keep it coming. Finally, SOMETHING worth reading!!!

  • Hi all

    This post is particularly directed to Frank for him to ask Dottore Rossi on behalf of the community the last question in the list.

    It follows on from this article as I think it leads inevitably to the answer.

    What was Dottore Rossi making with the energy from Demo plant?

    Nobody seems to have pursued this question. If it was a product for sale then is would enter the market. That would leave a money trail. Has anyone one looked for the money trail? Perhaps members of the community could pursue this.

    There is however one use that Rossi might pursue and cover the costs for with his own money. Rossi was only interested in the court case in getting his IP back. That means he sees it as more valuable than taking the money from IH, the other option his lawyers offered him.

    That then leads to the inevitable thought what would Dottore Rossi like to do with the energy more than any thing else? In the light of this recent anonymous post about processing Nickel with mon-atomic Hydrogen molecules.

    Also what secondary fuel ingredients could Dottore Rossi using the power of the demo plant to process? May also be a question for the community to consider.

    Those with knowledge of LENR engineering may want to consider: with such an industrial level of production what product would they use it to make? What might up to megawatt of heat transfer allow them to make?

    So replicators researcher and MFMP may want to consider those questions.

    So the question Frank could ask Dottore Rossi would be:
    Whether Dottore was using the Demo plants energy to create a massive supply of his fuel?

    Perhaps Frank can ask that question.

    Kind Regards Walker

    • Frank Acland

      Mats asked about this, but didn’t get a direct answer:

      “We produced substances with a very high added value. To do this we had to achieve an extremely high pressure inside small reactors that were introduced in larger tubes. The concept was to provoke contractions in certain materials, using heat exchange with the hot steam [from the E-Cat plant] and a pressure of a few bars but concentrating the force from the pressure on a larger surface, a few cm2, on much, much smaller surfaces, increasing the pressure proportionally. And this process consumed heat.“

      https://animpossibleinvention.com/2017/07/18/heres-the-settlement-getting-the-license-back-was-rossis-top-priority/