The following post has been submitted by Hank Mills
What Andrea Rossi has achieved so far with the Quark seems phenomenally amazing. Moreover, I expect that the E-Cat QX has far more potential than mentioned in the presentation.
I think the E-Cat QX is connected with the phenomenon of EVOs (Exotic Vacuum Objects) intensely studied by Ken R. Shoulders, a holder of many patents, a man who was once named scientist of the year, and is known as the “Father of Micro-electrons” for his earlier work?
Paper on Ectons
The same phenomenon he studied is also referred to by other names such as high density charged clusters, ectons (by several Russian teams), micro-ball lightning, condensed plasmoids, and a few others. Basically, they represent a well documented phenomenon in which electrons can overcome their mutual repulsion and cluster together in close proximity. They exist throughout nature and are at the heart of many different phenomena. A simple explanation of one method by which they can be produced is by a discharge between electrodes. The ultra high electrical gradients that occur at surface irregularities and protrusions on a cathode produce very high fields and current densities. A series of events take place, over a precariously short time-frame, that leads to a sudden temperature rise and a micro-explosion of the region of high field density. This releases not only a spray of particles but also a high density of electrons in a small volume. A portion of these electrons can cluster together, overcoming their repulsion, and form an EVO or “charged cluster.”
These charged clusters can behave quite anomalously. For instance, they often pull in and encapsulate positive ions from the environment or particles from their creation. (see more here: http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChiceaDelectroncl.pdf) Ken R. Shoulders and others have been able to document that for no additional input kinetic energy beyond what would be required to accelerate the electron cluster, the “screened” or “shielded” interior heavy ion (such as a number of protons as one example) can be hurled onto a target anode at high speeds. Upon impacting the target, the transported heavy ion can possess millions of electron-volts: enough energy to produce nuclear events and transmutations. Ken Shoulders and other teams were able to document such transmutations. In addition, the passage of the EVO or charged cluster through metals can leave a path in which matter seems to be de-molecularized, as if the electron bonds holding the lattice together had been disrupted. SEM images of these boreholes and resulting slag are available on the net.
There are two additional mechanisms I’ve came across that could allow these charged clusters to produce nuclear reactions.
First, is that when these EVOs (which can assume different geometric configurations) orient themselves into torus shapes the electrical attract to pull exterior ions inwards can become intense, to the point that the pull can impart millions of electron volts to the tractored ions. Basically, these torus shaped EVOs could be considered atom grinders as new ions are smashed against those already present in the interior. The very nature of the EVO shields any hard radiation from escaping this electric “singularity” and the KE produced by the interior nuclear reactions is released upon impact on the anode.
Secondly, is that an EVO (perhaps with a proton at the core) could take the place of an electron in the orbit of a typical atom, reduce the barriers that inhibit nuclear reactions, and trigger LENR.
I expect that the Quark is producing EVOs via one of many mechanisms: including emission from the cathode during “ecton” explosions, in the plasma itself due to pumping with waveforms, or in the nickel cathode when a high loading of nickel results in the production of interior cracks/fissures in the lattice triggering fracto-emission. Moreover, the bombardment of the cathode by protons and other ions could not only produce the high loading ratios but also the physical impulses required to produce interior cracking. Basically, several of these mechanisms could work together, self re-inforcing each other, to produce the enormous COPs produced by the Quark.
Then, again, there could very well be other phenomenon at play: there could be more than one energy producing phenomena. But if EVOs are at play, it could explain some issues and yield even more possibilities. For example, the abnormal heating of your power supply (requiring active cooling). Also, if EVOs are being continuously created and destroyed, I expect a great deal of “longitudinal” — rather than traditional transverse — impulses to be emitted from your reactor. Instead of being idealy received by a traditionally oriented antenna, a long antenna positioned coaxially to the vector of propagation would optimally receive them. Or, with an antenna similar to what Nikola Tesla utilized, a circular metal sphere may intercept them. After reception, the power could be rectified in a number of ways and added to the output total.
My guess is that there’s more of this longitudinal impulse “power” being emitted (which travels through virtually all matter without producing a counter EMF via Lenz Law because of a lack of a magnetic component) than the heat you are able to produce. I expect these impulses may be most intense directly behind the electrodes where EVOs may be impacting, on either side of the QX reactor.
Again, if you’re not familiar with EVOs (charged clusters, ectons, charged plasmoids, etc) then please let me know and I can provide you with a multitude of links and papers.