Francesco Celani made a presentation at the ANV4 workshop on LENR & Earth, which was held in Assisi during September 10-12 titled: “The role of forced, active gas, flux for the generation of AHE in LENR
experiments: discussion on procedures to increase it.”
His presentation focused on comparing the effect of hydrogen flux induced by a temperature gradient versus hydrogen flux induced externally via electromagnetic pulse inputs. As a conclusion, hydrogen flux plays a key role in his group’s constantan wire fueled reactor setup.
The full presentation is available at this link:
Here is a summary from page 3 of the above document:
Path to get AHE [Anomalous Heat Effect], after 31 years of experiments. (according to general and our specific know-how)
1) At first, it is necessary to load proper materials (Pd, Ti, Ni, alloys) with active gas (H2, D2,..);
Commons experience, worldwide, in almost all LENR experiments;
2) Induce Non-equilibrium conditions of loaded materials by: thermal or concentration gradients, movement of charged species, phase transitions, voltage stimulation,…………..; Mostly our specific evidence/suggestion, since April 1989, later-on “common sense”;
3) Observed experimentally that the “interaction” of active gas with the gas-loaded material,
as strong and fast as possible, is main factor governing the AHE generation: the active gas FLUX seems to be the main parameter but it needs external energy to activate it; Almost clear proof only after in-deep analysis of >80 experiments (IJCMNS, July 2020);
4) Efforts to develop innovative procedures to minimize the (electrical) external energy needed to generate non-equilibrium of the, gas loaded, active material: both into the bulk (like electromigration phenomena) and at the surface (at sub-micrometric size). Current and next experiments at INFN-LNF.