The following post has been submitted by Aureon Addict.
Although unknowns remain, the upcoming product from Andrea Rossi’s Leonardo Corporation, the E-Cat SKLed, is not fundamentally a mysterious device. In fact, the basic principles by which the reactor core operates are not an enigma. Physics laboratories have been producing self organized plasmas with electrical double layers – either attached to electrodes or free floating – for well over a hundred years. Combining this well established knowledge from mainstream scientific literature with what has been gathered from the long history of plasma based exotic energy devices provides a solid framework of how these systems operate. Let’s begin!
First of all, the likely structure of the reactor core of the E-Cat SKLed is likely to be very similar to previous versions: a tube (likely quartz or something similar) for the reactor, a cathode (negative electrode) on one end, an anode (positive electrode) on the other end, a port of some kind to add gases at low pressure, a power supply, a control box, and the apparatus that extracts electrical energy to sustain the load (in this case the light emitting diodes).
To hurry up and get to the important part, I’ll only briefly mention that in the past he has likely used high manganese nickel electrodes that are used in high power devices such as thyratrons and they may have been coated in platinum. However, for the record, although nano-particles WILL be sputtered off the electrodes, the exact metal(s) they are composed of are likely not extremely important. Likewise, having a single sharp protrusion on the cathode/anode to concentrate the electric field is likely not important. Instead, having a decently sized surface area to emit electrons would be more important.
Most likely, there are an array of gas combinations that could be used. Likely, hydrogen is used rather than deuterium – the reasoning for this is in Andrea Rossi’s paper on Researchgate. The other two well known players (there are others that are less well known) in the exotic energy field producing self organized plasmas and the negative resistance regime also use hydrogen rather than deuterium. Hydrogen alone, however, would not be effective in producing the level of self organization that induces a variety of different energy production (LENR or other nuclear processes) and energy extraction (pumping energy out of the Zero Point Energy field or aether) reactions. What gaseous elements would be useful here? The best candidates are as follows.
1) Argon – Cheap, non-toxic, proven to produce double layers.
2) Chlorine – Cheap, some level of toxicity, perhaps synergistic with argon.
3) Nitrogen – Very cheap, super plentiful, perhaps optimal without Argon or Chlorine.
(Xenon might also work, but it’s expensive and not renewable. Fluorine could help in a similar manner as Chlorine, but can be extremely toxic. In the form of Sulfer Hexafluorine it could be safer and effective. However, at high temperatures (500C plus) it could degrade, release fluorine atoms, and create a significant safety concern.)
One reason to believe that a combination of Argon and Chlorine is used in the E-Cat SKLed is because there’s a reference to the combination in Andrea Rossi’s paper on Researchgate. Moreover, we know that at one point (for the E-Cat SK) he produced a cooling system that utilized argon. So it seems he has access to and experience with argon, making it a likely candidate. It should be remembered, though, that the addition of Chlorine to argon would be to aid in the production of negative ions and would narrow the Electron Energy Distribution Function of his plasma. A search of the literature indicates that Nitrogen already has the desired type of energy distribution (referred to as a Maxwellian distribution) without additives. So I expect that he has ran tests with nitrogen.
The advanced concepts above are not critical to understanding the very basics of the E-Cat SKLed. All you have to know are gases like argon and nitrogen (the SAFIRE Project has used both of these gases and typically utilizes nitrogen with various ratios of hydrogen) work well for producing self organized plasma structures.
The next step is understanding how to produce these structures in the reactor. To do so, you would need to apply electrical power. Unlike the SAFIRE reactor which utilizes the surface area difference of two large, circular electrodes and a much smaller spherical anode to allow for ignition of the plasma at lower voltages, Andrea Rossi probably utilizes an initial high voltage pulse to ionize the gas between his cathode and anode. Immediately, the voltage can be brought back down.
What we know from mainstream science is that if you have such a discharge tube and have ignited the plasma, you can slowly increase the voltage/current to move through the various plasma regimes. At first, you will see double layers start to form typically on the anode (but potentially on the cathode depending on the design of the circuit and the biasing applied). If there are sharp or rough spots (protrusions on either electrode), you will see small plasma balls form already, but they are not what we are trying to achieve. Instead, with fairly smooth electrodes (some surface roughening may be a good thing) that are clean and free of contaminants (such as oil or grease), the double layer on the anode will grow and start to move off the surface, at first attached by a tether of plasma. If you continue to adjust the input if all the other parameters are correct (such as pressure), the self organizing plasma ball will completely detach and float freely between the two electrodes. This is called the “ball of fire mode” in many documents and represents part of the negative resistance regime.
Once these reactions begin, the heat energy, UV light, and other forms of output can start to produce electrons from the environment which are the primary “food” of these structures. As long as enough electrons are provided, the electrical input could be reduced down to a very low level and the “ball of fire” could be virtually self sustaining. In some cases, the circuit between the cathode and anode may need to remain connected to allow for a continual flow of energy back and forth. But other times, the input could be cut off completely. This is not speculation but has been proven in scientific literature where a ball of fire has been created and sustained after the electrical input going to the circuit had been cut off. Instead, in this non-exotic test setup, a heat source was applied to the cathode producing thermionic emission of electrons which continually fed the “ball of fire.”
Please note that the existence of such a “ball of fire” is hard, scientific fact that’s completely undisputed. The idea that novel reactions – either producing energy via novel nuclear reactions or extracting energy from the vacuum – is what’s extremely controversial in mainstream circles. However, the evidence available strongly indicates that if you produce such a self organized plasma ball in an optimized gaseous fuel combination and maximize the self organization, a variety of forms of excess energy will be produced. How are they being produced? That’s for another essay! I’ll only say that I firmly believe the superconducting layer(s) of coherent matter (probably the electrons but also potentially hydrogen ions too) are involved. They are the best candidate for what allows these structures to produce a wide range of anomalies.
The energy produced will be in many forms. I’ll list some here.
1) High kinetic energy ions and electrons. (This has been observed repeatedly in systems like Paulo Correa’s Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge (PAGD) device.
2) High energy UV or extreme UV light.
3) X-Rays and soft gamma.
4) Transverse electromagnetic radiation.
5) Longitudinal electromagnetic waves.
6) Perhaps most importantly, ION ACOUSTIC WAVES.
Depending on the extent of the shielding and the composition of the reactor walls, most of the above would be rapidly thermalized into heat energy. For example, the high energy UV light (which is produced by all the technologies of the big three companies in this field) would be emitted from the “ball of fire” (macro-EVO), hit the reactor wall, and be thermalized into heat. If there is an electrically conductive reactor wall around the quartz tube, any transverse radiation will likely produce eddy currents and be thermalized into heat. That’s why systems like The SAFIRE Reactor of Aureon Energy Ltd., Leonardo Corporation’s E-Cat SK, and Brilliant Light Power’s Suncell produce copious thermal power. However, we’re talking about the E-Cat SKLed today. So how does Andrea Rossi extract electrical power from the self organized, superconducting ball of plasma and coherent matter?
There are multiple possible answers. He could also be using more than one.
First, all self organized plasmas produce what are called ion acoustic waves of electrons and positively charged ions. These structures could be roughly analogous to very primitive lifeforms, continually absorbing and excreting food. This constant production of ions and electrons is the definition of electricity which is the movement of charged particles. These ion acoustic oscillations are scientific FACT and not speculation. No one denies they are produced by self organized plasmas. However, if they are being produced for very low energy input, then it makes sense that they could be harvested and collected. This could be done either by attaching a secondary circuit to the cathode and anode with a load between them (being careful not to drain too much power or disrupt the oscillations) or do the same with a second set of electrodes positioned near or within the plasma ball. The problem with the second idea is that these macro-EVOs destroy matter. Exposing materials to them for long periods of time can be a problem. Or in the case of Tungsten, even short term exposure can lead to powerful reactions. So I expect that it would be better to connect a secondary circuit to the original electrodes.
(Please note that one reason why Andrea Rossi is not including an outlet to connect any load to the device is that if the power was not conditioned, it would show the waveforms of the ion acoustic waves being produced in the reactor. This would give replicators an idea of what to look for when they attempt to replicate. Moreover, there is a practical consideration. If the power is coming directly from a secondary circuit without being buffered in a storage device (like a capacitor) then the wrong type or size of load could interfere with the plasma ball in the reactor. Possibly, it could make it collapse all together. There has to be a balance maintained so that you are not starving the pseudo-organism that you have created.)
Secondly, a pick up coil of some kind could potentially be wrapped around the reactor tube or placed near by to extract energy from alternating magnetic fields, electric fields, and electromagnetic radiation. These could be more like a transformer or an antenna. These would also allow you to determine what’s happening inside of the reactor core.
Thirdly, longitudinal waves with no or very little magnetic component would travel right through a conductive reactor wall without loss due to the lack of eddy currents being produced. These would be nearly impossible to harness with a traditional antenna designed for transverse waves. However, other types of antennas such as a round sphere could pick them up.
Fourth, there’s a tiny chance a solar panel could be incorporated to convert the visible light into electrical energy, but this would not be very efficient and would only add another layer of complication.
Fifth and finally, there’s a tiny chance that he could be creating and intentionally destroying the plasma ball to produce larger bursts of output power. These could be described as back spikes that have been seen in many similar devices including those of Alexander Chernetsky, Paulo Correa, and Nikola Tesla. The fact that for the E-Cat QX and SK he needed a sophisticated cooling device to keep the power supply cool might be a sign that these are being produced. However, I don’t expect this to be the optimum way to collect power from the reactor.
Of all the above, I expect that the ion acoustic waves (the first answer) are being harnessed, with or without a second pair of electrodes. In addition, I expect that at least one or more coils around the reactor are present and there could be one or more antennas in the device. These might be more for collecting diagnostic information for the control box than for power production.
The most important theme of this essay is that the E-Cat SKLed is fundamentally a simple device, utilizing common and safe fuel elements, and utilizes a straightforward method of collecting the output energy. This is not a super sophisticated device that would require a Manhattan Project style effort costing a fortune to reproduce. Instead, I believe that any team around the world of competent engineers and scientists with a modest laboratory (with all the required equipment) and adequate training could produce a very similar device in a reasonable period of time. Remember, the same phenomenon – the production of a self organized plasma in the negative resistance regime with an optimized gaseous mixture – is being utilized by ALL of the “big three” players. There’s no “secret sauce” that would take a decade to figure out. Instead, all the basic information to produce an energy generating system that could CHANGE THE WORLD FOREVER is already OUT THERE.
Yes, that’s right. Any country around the world that’s willing to spend a couple million (or probably much, much less) to build a working prototype of a device that could make them energy independent forever can do so RIGHT NOW. They don’t have to wait for any of the big three to launch a product. Instead, every country that’s depending on fossil fuels or traditional nuclear power can CEASE investing in “hot fusion” and other boondoggles and utilize their funds far more effectively for a technology that can yield results after only several weeks or months.
Solar, wind, hydrothermal, hydroelectric: these are expensive and literally antiquated compared to the potential of the self organized macro scale Exotic Vacuum Object.
So don’t just sit there: do something!