Thanks to ZephirAWT for sharing this link to a paper published this month (October 2022) on ResearchGate by Graham K. Hubler of the University of Missouri. He was one of the authors of the paper posted about here yesterday which reported consistent excess heat in a Pons and Fleischmann type electrochemical cell.
This paper is titled “A Possible Heuristic Explanation of Exotic Vacuum Objects (EVO’s, Charge Clusters)”
Here is the abstract:
In early 90’s, Ken Shoulders was granted 5 patents on Exotic Vacuum Objects (EVO) claiming that they were a new form of matter. He produced many monographs about them and suggested they were the physics that explained cold fusion. In Ken Shoulders words, EVO’s are, “Highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons, having soliton behavior, with electron populations density on the order of Avogadro’s number per cm 3 (A typical 2µm EVO has a population of 10 11 to 10 13 electrons). When interacted with solid material, these charge clusters perform a low-energy phase transformation type of atomic disruption that liquefies the lattice and propels the material to a high velocity without apparent signs of conventional heating. Using an ordinary thermal interpretation, a thermal gradient for bulk material greater than 26,000 degrees C per micrometer would be required to achieve these effects”. This paper presents lessons from thin film deposition methods like Vacuum Arc, Pulsed Electron beam, Pulsed Laser whose commonality with EVO generation is pulse energy impingement on a target. Rather than the hypothesis of a “new form of matter” as an explanation of EVO’s, it is hypothesized that generation of a micro shaped-charge, in analogy with explosively formed shaped-charge munitions, can explain the characteristics of surfaces that were struck by EVO’s. This hypothesis reproduces the effects that are underlined in the text above.